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Profile-Analysis)

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Profile-Analysis)

    SETTING UP A BASIC SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT NETWORK

     CENTRE IN MPUMALANGA (SOUTH AFRICA)

Evaluation and Promotion of the Themba Trust Projects, Dirkiesdorp

    Dr. Klaus Hoffmann, M.Ed.

    Hirschgasse 5

    D-69120 Heidelberg

    e-mail: drkdphoffmann@yahoo.de

    January 2003

    CONTENTS

1. PREFACE..............................................................................................…. 5

2. TERMS OF REFERENCE.....................................................................…. 7

     2.1 Basic Conditions and Target Areas in the Systemic Context ............. 7

     2.2 The Project’s Significance and Special Effectiveness

     Issues of the Model-Type ...............................................................… 8

     2.3 Fundamentals of the Network-Project Study .................................... 8

3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:

     METHODOLOGY AND PROJECT STRATEGIES.................................. 10

4. THE ROLE OF OPEN BASIC EDUCATION FOR ALL

     IN THE NETWORK CENTRE MODEL ................................................... 12

     4.1 Preconditions and Structure ............................................................…. 12

     4.2 The Innovative Role of Open (Workshop) Learning ........................... 12

     4.3 Compensatory Overall Core Programmes ......................................…. 13

5. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE THEMBA TRUST............... 14

     5.1 Themba’s Vision ..............................................................................… 14

     5.2 The Themba-Project Centre’s Background ......................................... 14

     (in the Systemic Context of Mission, Vision and Profile-Analysis)

     5.3 The Themba Trust on the Crossroad

     (from Financial Crisis to Change Resource Analysis)............................ 16

6. SHORTCOMINGS AND UPCURRENTS

     (The Case of the Rehabilitation Centre)....................................................... 18

7. DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE IN THE

     CONTEXT OF GENERAL EVALUATION ISSUES ............................... 20

     7.1 Process-Oriented Change in Attitudes and

     in a more Systemic Outcomes-Based Way .......................................... 20

     7.2 The Major Reasons for Project Failure and Project Inefficiencies ........ 20

8. THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS

     FRAMEWORK (NQF) AND AIMING FOR NEW OUTCOMES

     (in the Evaluative Context of an Innovative School-Based Network) ............ 22

     8.1 Fundamentals ...................................................................................... 22

     8.2 The Transition to a New GET and FET Curriculum

     in the Evaluative Framework............................................................... 23

     8.2.1 Special Preconditions ................................................................ 23

     8.2.2 Implementing and Assessing the FET Programmes

     in the Classroom Context ........................................................... 23

     8.2.3 Implementing Crucial Integrated Teaching-Learning Concepts

     in the Context of SAQA’s Critical Learning Outcomes-Based

     System (in the Context of School Work)..................................... 24

     8.2.4 The Language of Innovation and Evaluative Network

     Requirements (Stock-Taking Exercise)........................................ 25

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9. THE SKILLS DEVELOPMENT AND ABET POLICY

     FRAMEWORK IN THEIR RELEVANCE FOR THE RENEWED

     CULTURE OF HIGH QUALITY LIFE-LONG LEARNING

     AT THE THEMBA NETWORK CENTRE.................................................. 28

10.THE THEMBA HIGH SCHOOL SYSTEM -ANALYSIS,

     TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES AND REQUIREMENTS

     FOR AN INNOVATIVE OVERALL FRAMEWORK ................................ 30

     10.1 Preconditions and the Actuals (from Profile to Participation) ................. 30

     10.1.1 The Themba Trust Structure and Profile Relevances ................... 30

     10.1.2 General Target Analysis and Secondary Education Availability .. 30

     10.2 Improving the Quality of Teacher and Learner Development ................ 32

     10.2.1 Participatory Staff Development Related to Holistic Challenges 32

     10.2.2 Teaching Skills and Classroom-Practice ..................................... 33

     10.3 Implementing Alternative Modules and Key-Principles ........................ 34

     10.3.1 Boys High School (Sinethemba) ............................................... 34

     10.3.2 Girls High School (Siyathemba) ................................................ 36

     10.3.3 Distinctive Special Recommendations for the Two Schools

     (incl. Related to Questionnaire-Utilization) ............................... 38

11.EDNAT - THE ELEMENTARY DEVELOPMENT

     NETWORK ALTERNATIVE TRAINING CENTRE ...............................… 40

     11.1 Preconditions and Strengths of the Existing Programmes ..................... 40

     11.2 Special Recommendations to Continue

     the Reformatory Integrative Network Impetus ...................................... 41

12. THE PILOT PRIMARY SCHOOL PROGRAMMES.................................. 43

     12.1 General Preconditions and Problem Areas ............................................ 43

     12.2 Special Problem Positions and Needs Analyses ..................................... 43

     12.3 Special Recommendations and Innovative Strategies

     for the Core Problems .......................................................................... 44

13. FROM A PLACE OF HOPE TO AN ACTION NETWORK CENTRE.

     THE KEY POSITION OF THE INNOVATIVE BASIC SOCIAL

     DEVELOPMENT NETWORK CENTRE (BSDNC) .................................. 46

     13.1 General Preconditions and Analytical Positions .................................... 46

     13.2 Special Starting Positions (in the Managerial Context)......................... 47

     13.3 Special Recommendations. Operational Benchmarks at the Outset

     (Positives in the Course of Evaluative Coaching Exercises) ..................48

14. THE INTEGRATIVE NETWORK POSITION OF THE

     YOUTH CENTRE (THEMBA LETHU YOUTH CAMP)............................ 50

     14.1 Framework Conditions, Status and Significance .................................. 50

     14.2 Special Recommendations to Continue the Innovative Sectoral

     and Transsectoral Youth Centre Projects - Network Agency ................ 51

15. THE FARMING MODEL TYPE - THE LAST MILESTONE ON THE

     WAY TO THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE COMMUNITY

     DEVELOPMENT NETWORK SERVICES OF THEMBA TRUST-

     INTEGRATIVE (RURAL) TRAINING CENTRE ...................................... 53

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     15.1 Starting Points and Initial Questions ...................................................... 53

     15.2 Special Recommendations to Strengthen the Community

     Farming Communication and (Deep) Rural Training Centre ..........53

16. SUMMARIZED AND GUIDELING OVERALL RECOMMENDATIONS..55

    SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY........................................................................... 57

    ANNEX: Tables 1 - 10 ........................................................................................

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1. PREFACE

     1The German Themba promotion agency (esp. for those in need in South Africa) has

    requested the Protestant Development Service (EED) to conduct an evaluation study on the further development and reorientation of the social and educational projects of the Themba Trust in Dirkiesdorp, Mpumalanga (South Africa).

    On the basis of these preconditions (related to a Consultancy Contract) it is primarily the purpose and assignment of this multi-dimensional built-in and development-orientated project preparatory study to focus the actual situation-analysis and the elaboration of innovative programmes on the setting up of a Network Centre (Basic Social Development Network - BSDN) in special conjunction with Christian-based community principles (Lutheran Church).

    The evaluation actions and ensuing project-progress operations took place from October 30th up to December 12th, 2002.

    Regarding the point of departure and indicated objective of mission geared to the 7 relevant ongoing resp. process-developing projects, the fact-finding evaluation process was interfered from the onset with the closing of the Health Centre and with substantial concrete coordination and discrepancy problems (Welfare Centre, Vocational Centre and Adult Education 2Project?)(Comp. Table 10, brochure-listings). Although these unexpected (esp.

    methodological) significances and unstructured shortfalls made work process all but smoothly the existent and ongoing project-types could be thoroughly evaluated, critically analysed and reoriented to future resp. innovative community based policies and promotion programmes in the special context of the setting up of a Christian-based Network Centre. Focusing on this networking key position the present (project-preparatory) evaluation study is additionally paving the way for the renewed integration of primary school pilot programmes. With reference to the comprehensive multifaceted evaluation exercises, it shall be particularly pointed out that the untiring, motivating assistance of the Acting Director and Rector, and the all-embracing supports of the Financial Secretary, have been making a substantial contribution in order to implement and conclude all the evaluative commitments adequately and successfully. In this respect it is characteristic and meaningful enough that this tandem 3(used to working together) signified the staying power of the deficient Themba Centre.

    Consequently and in consistency with the (progress report) assessment outcomes - however mostly not in tune with essential managerial Themba Trust key members - the Operational Proposals shall take due account of the involvements, idealistic willingness and particular (network) creativeness of these integrative leadership qualities.

    When working with and within the network it is not the organisations as such that matter but the involvements and initiatives of the individuals who represent these organisations. Related to this context and in accordance with the evaluator’s major target options, self-evaluation

    assumed a great deal of importance as the needs-oriented discussions and process-oriented explorations (resp. self-explorations) proceeded. Inasmuch as self-evaluation and serious (self)-reflections about certain project failures gained ground the impact monitoring and assessment exercises took on an essential different character.

    This change of critical quality assurance at Themba Trust virtually aroused the discernibility that all concerned key members should first of all with all their strengths organize Strategic and Operational follow-up workshops (on behalf of all concerned cooperating bodies) before implementing any of the scheduled recommendations.

     1 Direktor des Themba Fördervereins Albert Rappen (Gesellschaft zur Förderung Bedürftiger) 2 Comp. an additional leaflet (e.g. Erwachsenenbildungsprojekt) 3 Acting Director Mr. Danie Bosman and the Financial Secretary Mrs. A.N. Niebuhr

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    For the very time being it is not so much the over-documentation of the appointment of a new Themba Trust Director or the overratings of fundraising needs as such that matter, but even more to strengthen working group- (dynamics) and „persons in relation“ workshop-planning

    actions in order to immediately utilize these self-directed outcomes of (self)evaluation activities to tackle reform-oriented Restructuring Network Programmes.

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2. TERMS OF REFERENCE

    Evaluation based upon the coordination, the further development and the Networking of the social and educational projects at the Themba Trust Centre (Basic Social Development 4Network - BSDN).

2.1 Basic Conditions and Target Areas in the Systemic Context

    The major purpose of the present sector-specific evaluation study on all relevant project programmes is to explore and to provide substantial information, documentation contents and problem-solving pools related to multisectoral (Christian) community-based activities. The studies primarily involve the major task of examining all the social and educational programmes in a Networking Context.

    The overall fact-finding evaluation process - additionally based upon self-evaluation - and the elaboration of ensuing promotion programmes shall equally be identified as recommendations for aiding the concerned management system in future planning, programming and decision-making. The thus established concept development tries to focus mainly on the innovative setting-up of an integrated and Christian-based, Church-oriented Networking Centre of social, basic, education and all concerning training pilot-project-measures (BSDN). By taking modern development approaches, poverty-reducing target areas and certain differentiated effects of development policies (e.g. gender and basic education) into an analytical special account, another aim of this investigation is to discuss and assess the efficiency of the whole Themba projects (ongoing and future concepts) in the special context of national and international development processes.

    The study therefore tries to base its findings and conclusions on a newly created social-integrative Network Model Project that shall be in line with the future development and governmental policies of South Africa.

    Related to the specific issues of sustainability one of the central aspects is to scrutinize the role of BSDN as initiator and catalysator for future Network pilot programmes in South Africa. Furthermore, the evaluative target strategies shall focus special attention on the following 5questions:

    - Which specific role do the Themba educational institutions take up related to the Innovative

     Educational laws, regulations (e.g. National Qualifications Framework, Curriculum 2005)? - How and on which range is the cooperation carried out with the concerning state agencies? - How are the Themba institutions best be integrated into the plannings of the educational

     departments?

    - What kind of training or learning support programmes can be identified in the context of

     ongoing projects with special relation e.g. to the Labour Market Skills Development? - Related to managing educational innovations what training promotion programmes for

     learners, participants etc. are rated necessary?

    - Are there any basic educational programmes that are more in tune with other institutions?

    The evaluation exercises need to contribute to multidimensional synergy effects, not only in concordance with innovative African initiatives (e.g. UNECA, NEPAD) or in view of the change of hindering project mechanisms. Furthermore, the project studies shall make available

     4 This chapter is the translation of TOR (EED, related to consultancy contract) 5 These 6 commissioned questions were equally set by the EED-representative

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    a reliable substantial documenation basis especially with regard to the participation of relevant target groups.

2.2 The Project’s Significance and Special Effectiveness Issues of the Model-Type

    In order to focus the rural development programmes on target-oriented social-integrative activities in the Mpumalanga District (Dirkiesdorp/Piet Retief), the Themba Trust has managed (up to the present) to set about and to develop in initial stages the following project model types:

    - qualified Adult Education (Study Centre), secondary and vocational education (esp.

     agricultural-technical, home science and office management)

    - multisectoral rehabilitation- and health-programmes as well as social integration programmes

     for unemployed and disadvantaged women

    - pilot project programmes for drug- and AIDS-prevention.

    However, one of the major concerns about the expansion and sustainability of health- and social programmes is to scrutinize and assess the relevant innovative project approaches (e.g. further development of a Welfare- and Health Centre) on the basis of an overall coordinative evaluation context primarily interrelated with a sector-specific multidimensional networking (e.g. among numerous regional target groups and aid agencies).

    Moreover it is recommended to integrate the multisectoral project activities (in the different preparatory stages) into coherent national and international/German development aid programmes (e.g. GTZ , USAID, EED).

    However, especially in the multidimensional network model context at issue, the difficulties in the cooperative set up of health-, family planning - or basic education programmes and the deficiencies accruing from management-, organisation- and specialist-qualifications should be more clearly identified and adequately discussed in their relevant complexity. With reference to these interfering development patterns, it is equally important to analyze the factors that prevent isolated local, rural resources from transposing into Rural Development Community Service Network Programmes. There is urgent need to gear e.g. basic health or literacy projects much more to the relevant social integration programmes (comp. e.g. insufficient networking with cultural heritage practices).

2.3 Fundamentals of the Network-Project Study

    Setting up a Network-Project-Model means promoting a key position for development-oriented, efficient alternative and social preparatory measures for basis-oriented self-help-programmes and basic education support programmes.

    The thus recommended network programmes shall motivate the different projects (e.g. drug prevention, reproductive health) to apply consequently participatory methods in the planning and implementation of pilot projects. The fact-finding analyses and conclusive strategies to be implemented should emphasize that the mobilization of self-help-potentials of the concerned marginalized deep rural communities will make much more progress, whenever simultaneous interventions are coordinated with several sector areas, and network programmes are linked with many instruments.

    Concerning the setting up of an alternative network model of integrative and sustainable rural development programmes, the innovative and restructuring programmes shall include rural community work and welfare, lobby and advocacy work, Church district/regional development programmes, integration programmes for neglegted population groups (e.g. young and old

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people’s welfare), holistic informing and education programmes related to local empowerment,

shaping of political ideas and allround participation.

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3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: METHODOLOGY AND PROJECT STRATEGIES

    The major purpose of the present sector-specific evaluation study on all Themba Trust development programme projects is to explore and provide substantial problem-solving pools, concepts for improving training and educational activities and for aiding the concerned management system in future decision-making.

    In order to evaluate the sustainability of the project’s community management strategy appropriately (person-oriented, structured or participatory management style?) or to propose model types to meet the prevalent challenges of National Standard Bodies (e.g.SAQA) the methodological process- and solution-oriented concept development is based upon the framework of determining systematically, multidimensionally and objectively new initiatives and optional outcomes in a broader and open integrated context.

    By examining some hypotheses related to the evolution of human resource development and recent structural, socio-economic changes (in the connection of multidimensional guidelines) the arising difficulties of a project-failure or need-oriented Basic Skills Training Centre programmes can be more appropriately discussed in their functional complexity. 6The thus established fact-finding analyses and process monitoring methodology concepts are

    primarily in line with the context input-process product model and especially with the discrepancy model. The discrepancies identified serve as feedback for either improving the Youth Centre (e.g. life skills) programmes, for planning ABET facilitator’s intervention measures or proposing other desirable policy decisions (non-governmental position!). In order to develop the reactivated projects in the design and enhancement of basic network organisation (and modelling), the evaluation concepts are additionally related to the following substantial target strategies:

    - to lead to concrete participatory actions so that ongoing and future measures will be based

     upon an intensified mutual exchange of in-depth experiences, holistic community based

     communications and upon target-group oriented open consensus building (shift away from

     control towards communication)

    - with reference to Participatory Bottom-Up development to especially counteract misdirected

     dialogues, biased coordination (!) and ensuing malfunction

    - to pave the way for more efficient up-to-date counselling, advisory services and check lists

     to be used for managerial process monitoring, for backstopping of ongoing projects, for

     assistance in identification of resource persons and for (internal) participatory evaluation

     exercises

    - to establish and maintain the participation of all Themba Trust key members in the process of

     self-evaluation (the ability of staff to take responsibility for self- reflection, introspection etc.

     requires a certain level of collective, holistic self directed maturity) 7- to organise workshops/seminars/follow-ups on a regular basis.

    The fact that participatory self-evaluation cannot be explained but must be experienced motivated the evaluator to involve pre-field simulations (of the implementation experience), to take over role plays (to identify indicators of self-appraisal, self determination etc.) and to initiate group dynamics processes with the help of different hypno-coaching intervention strategies.

    If necessary, start-up workshops with project teams and representatives of the implementing organizations were started or introduced (in the contextual procedure of workshop meeting specially focussed on targetted beneficiaries).

     6 Process monitoring as an approach to quality-assurance (in a cascade) 7 Here special attempts should be made to focus on disadvantaged youths and female target groups

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