By Bradley Berry,2014-12-25 01:46
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     Chapter 4 Postmodification

     The main content:1. .ving participial clauses

     2.ed participial clause verb

     4. nonfinite clause

     5. post-appositive modifier

     6.appositive relation with of phrases

     7.restrictive or non-restrictive prepositional


     8. adj+prepositional complement

     9. adj + -to as a complement

     10.comparative degree of adjectives+ comparative

    clause 11.

    as + adj+ as clause

     12. so + adj +that clause or to clause:

     13 too+adj+ to clause


    1.ving participial clauses, -ed participial phrases and infinite clause,-ing clause and

    relative clause,these are all limited to the relative clause with the relative prouns as



    The person who will write/will be writing/writes/is writing/wrote/was writing

    reports is my colleague.= The person writing reports is my colleague.

    The dog barking next door sounded like a terrier.

    You should look for a man carrying a large umbrella.

    (2)static verbs

    This is a liquid with a taste resembling that of soapy water.

     It was a mixture consisting of oil and vinegar.


    Reports that my colleague is writing will be discussed tomorrow.

    Reports being written by my collegue will be discussed tomorrow.

    (4)no perfect aspect

    The man who has won the race is my brother.(X ? The man having won the race is

    my brother.

    2.ed participial clause

    (1)A report written by my colleague appeared last week.[‘that was/has been


    Any coins found on this site must be handed to the police.[‘that are found …’]

    (2) no passive form for the intransitive verbs

     The train which has arrived at platform 1 is from York.

     ?* The train arrived at platform 1 is from Rork.

    (3)exceptions with adverbs before ed participles

     The train which has arrived at platform 1 is from York.

     A man just gone to India/come from the meting told me about it.

     The food which was/has been eaten/is being eaten was meant for tomorrow.

     The food eaten/being eaten was meant for tomorrow.

    (4)no perfect aspects

     The food which has been eaten was meant for tomorrow.(?* The food having been eaten was meant for tomorrow.) verb

    There’s corresponding relation between infinite clause and relative clause. In relative

    clause,the rlative prouns can not only be subjects ,but also objects or adverbials, as

    well as complements in certain categories.

    (1)Subject:The man to help you is Mr Johnson.[‘Who can help you’]

    (2)Object: The man (for you) to see is Mr Johnson.[‘who(m) you should see’]

    (3)Complement:The thing (for you ) to be these days is a systems analyst.[‘the thing

    that people will try to be these days is a systems analyst]

    (4)Adverbial: The place (for you ) to stay is the university guest house.[‘where you

    should stay’]

    She is not a person on whom to reply./(for one ) to rely on.

    This is a good instrument with which to measure/they measure vibration./(for

    them) to measure vibration with.

    (5).(p1753) less limitation to the aspects of the infinitive verbs,passive or active

    voice,in certain circumstances the semantic is similar

    He is the best man to choose.

    He is the best man to do the choosing/to make the choice./that we (etc) can

    choose./for us (etc) to choose./to be chosen (by us,etc).

    The time to arrive is …[‘at which you should arrive’]

     The man to meet /to be meeting/to have met is Wilson.

     He is the best man to choose /to be chosen.

    The case to be investigated tomorrow…[‘that will,or is to ,be investigated]

    The best thing to do/to be done is as follows…..

    (6) if the antecedent is equivalent to the object of the infinite ,then it contains the modal meaning.if the antecedent ,subject,then, a clause. (P1755)

    The thing to do is…[The thing we should do is…’, or The thing we are going to do


    They were the last guests to arrive .[They were the last guests who arrived.]

4.nonfinite clause as postmodification: .( p1757)

    The apple tree,swaying gently in the breeze, was a reminder of old times.[‘which

    was swaying gently in the breeze…]

    The substance ,discovered almost by accident,has revolutionized medicine.[which

    was discovered almost by accident…]

    This scholar, to be found daily in the British Museum,has devoted his life to the

    history of science.[who can be found daily in the British Museum…]

     The man,wearing such dark glasses,obviously could not see clearly.= The man,

    who was wearing …/because he was wearing …./whenever he wore…

    5.infinite clause and ing clause as post-appositive modifier:

    The appeal to give blood received strong support.

    I’m looking for a job driving cars.

    6.appositive relation with of phrases (P1774)

    the city of Rome

    7.restrictive or non-restrictive prepositional postmodification. (p1777)

    The passage,from a famous speech by Churchill ,has become proverbial.

    The textbook,by a colleague of mine,will be out shortly.

    His resignation,on account of a bribery scandal,was deeply regretted.(p1862) 8. adj+prepositional complement: facilities comparable/comparable facilities + to ours 9. adj + -to as a complement:a plan difficult/ a difficult plan+ to carry out 10. comparative degree of adjectives+ comparative clause as a complement:a person more

    qualified/ a more qualified person + than anybody else

    a plan better/ a better plan + than the previous one

    in a time shorter/ in a shorter time+than five microseconds. 11. as + adj+ as clause:a fact as strange as / as strange a fact as+ anything you’ve ever heard of

    12. so + adj +that clause or to clause:an idea so odd/ so odd an idea +that you won’t believe

    it/as to be unbelievable

    13. too+adj+ to clause….an accusation too serious/too serious an accusation +to be left


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