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post-examination

By Willie Ward,2014-12-25 01:43
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post-examination

    TRAINER GUIDE ACTIVITY SHEET

    Activity 5-1: ScenarioPCR Sample Handling

    Purpose To encourage participants to think about potential problems with sample

    management in the laboratory and suggest solutions to prevent problems.

    Suggested 10 minutes

    Time

    Instructional Problem solving: use as an individual or group activity, or as a class discussion.

    Method

    Instructions Give the participants a copy of the following scenario and/or show it as a slide

    (Presentation 5, slide 3). Allow 2 minutes for them to read.

    Your laboratory has performed PCR for influenza virus on patient samples

    from „Clinic A‟. Most of these results are negative. The medical staff from

    „Clinic A‟ tells you that their patients present all the clinical signs of

    influenza.”

    Ask the questions:

    ; How would you approach this problem?

    ; What role might sample management play in this scenario?

Expected Possible answers:

    Results ; Consider what could be happening in the pre-examination, examination, and

    post-examination processes.

    ; Pre-examination process that might be improperly handled could include

    collection of the sample; problems with transport to the laboratory, allowing for

    deterioration of the sample; improper storage in the laboratory. Any step in the

    pre-examination process that would result in loss of the viral material is a likely

    cause of the problem in the scenario.

    ; The examination procedure should also be carefully examined to look for

    sources of error, using the quality control information that is available.

    Sample Management ? Module 5 ? Trainer Activity Sheet 1

TRAINER GUIDE ACTIVITY SHEET

    Activity 5-2: Errors in Sample Management

    Purpose To generate a list of potential sources of error in sample management and describe

    how each could affect patient care.

    Suggested 15 minutes

    Time

    Instructional Brainstorming (entire group)

    Method

    Instructions Give the following task to the participants by projecting it on a slide or by giving it

    to all participants as a handout.

    Ask participants:

    ; Generate a list of possible errors in sample management.

    ; How sample management errors could affect patient care?

Expected Use a flip chart or blackboard to record the answers that are given by the

    Results participants.

    Possible answers:

    Examples of potential errors: patient not properly prepared, sample collected from

    wrong patient, wrong collection medium used, too little sample collected, sample

    hemolyzed, allowed to sit too long in the clinic or ward, allowed to get too hot

    while being transported. There are many other possible answers so the group

    should be able to generate a list of 15 or 20 in a short time. Refer to Annexes 5-B

    and 5-C.

    Any errors that occur in the pre-examination phase of testing can give erroneous

    laboratory results. As a result of erroneous test reporting, the patient may

    receive the wrong treatment or no treatment; appropriate treatment can be

    delayed; costly additional tests or treatment may be undertaken; the patient’s

    condition may worsen considerably while waiting for the right result; and

    sometimes, inadequate treatment or delay in treatment as a result of a laboratory

    error can lead to patient death.

Sample Management ? Module 5 ? Trainer Activity Sheet 2

    TRAINER GUIDE ACTIVITY SHEET

    Activity 5-3: Hit-or-Myth Game

    Purpose Test participant’s knowledge about sample management.

    Suggested Time 10 minutes

    Instructional Method Individual or group assignments.

    Instructions Give participants a copy without answers (next page) of 10 statements related to

    the topic of Sample Management.

    Listed below are 10 statements related to the topic of Sample

    Management. Read each one and decide if you believe it is true a hit

     or false - a myth.

    Ask participants to check off their choices on the worksheet. Discuss the

    answers when everyone has finished.

     Answer Sheet Hit Myth

    Statement 1 The laboratory has little influence on how samples are collected by X

    others and submitted to the laboratory for testing.

    2 Requesting clinical information to be submitted with a sample is a X

    breech of patient confidentiality.

    3 The use of transport medium is an unnecessary cost, particularly if X

    collected samples are submitted to the laboratory within the week it

    was collected.

    4 Only samples contained in containers labeled with a biohazard label X

    should be treated as if it is infectious.

    5 Good, old fashion common sense is a natural friend of laboratory X

    science. It is a sure guide for making sound decisions to accept or

    reject a sample for testing.

    6 The only requirement of a laboratory receiving samples for X

    confirmation testing is strict adherence to sample rejection criteria.

    7 Samples transported via air must meet IATA regulations. X 8 The laboratory can safely assume that if two samples are submitted X

    simultaneously with the same first and last name or birth date, that

    the 2nd sample is a duplicate and should be discarded.

    9 Most tests require samples to be collected in sterile containers. X 10 All samples for testing must be accompanied by a test requisition. X

    Sample Management ? Module 5 ? Trainer Activity Sheet 3

    TRAINER GUIDE ACTIVITY SHEET

     Hit Myth

    Statement

    1 The laboratory has little influence on how samples are collected by

    others and submitted to the laboratory for testing.

    2 Requesting clinical information to be submitted with a sample is a

    breech of patient confidentiality.

    3 The use of transport medium is an unnecessary cost, particularly if

    collected samples are submitted to the laboratory within the week it was

    collected.

    4 Only samples contained in containers labeled with a biohazard label

    should be treated as if it is infectious.

    5 Good, old fashion common sense is a natural friend of laboratory

    science. It is a sure guide for making sound decisions to accept or reject

    a sample for testing.

    6 The only requirement of a laboratory receiving samples for confirmation

    testing is strict adherence to sample rejection criteria.

    7 Samples transported via air must meet IATA regulations. 8 The laboratory can safely assume that if two samples are submitted

    simultaneously with the same first and last name or birth date, that the

    second sample is a duplicate and should be discarded.

    9 Most tests require samples to be collected in sterile containers. 10 All samples for testing must be accompanied by a test requisition.

    Sample Management ? Module 5 ? Trainer Activity Sheet 4

TRAINER GUIDE ACTIVITY SHEET

Sample Management ? Module 5 ? Trainer Activity Sheet 5

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