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STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF THE E

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STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF THE E

    REMOTE SENSING OF RADIATIVE FLUXES AND HEATING RATES FROM SATELLITE INSTRUMENT MEASUREMENTS

    Thesis By

    Daniel Robert Feldman

    In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the

    Degree of

    Doctor of Philosophy

    CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

    Pasadena, California

    2008

    (Defense on April 25, 2008)

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    ? 2008

    Daniel Robert Feldman

    All Rights Reserved.

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    Acknowledgements.

    The author would like to thank a multitude of individuals and institutions for helping to make this thesis possible. Generous financial support was provided by the NASA Earth Systems Science Fellowship (grant number NNG05GP90H), the AIRS Science Team, and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory mission. As my primary advisor, Yuk Yung helped me understand many aspects of environmental science and guided me throughout my graduate career. Kuo-Nan Liou, as my co-advisor, was the inspiration for this research and his advice and support were absolutely invaluable. Members of the Yuk Yung Radiation Group including Jack Margolis, Xianglei Huang, Vijay Natraj, Xin Guo, Kuai Le, King-Fai Li, Xi Zhang, and Mao-Chang Liang also provided support for this work. Various scientists at other institutions also provided advice and feedback that were both inspirational and insightful. George Aumann, Duane Waliser, Hui Su, and Jonathan Jiang of JPL, Marty Mlynczak and Dave Johnson of the NASA Langley Research Center, Tristan L’Ecuyer of Colorado State University, Zhiming Kuang of Harvard, and Yi

    Huang of Princeton all deserve credit. Finally, the data support services teams for several NASA missions including AIRS, CERES, MLS, CloudSat, and CALIPSO have provided much-needed technical support. Several researchers at AER, Inc. including Tony Clough, Mark Shepard, Mark Iacono, and Jennifer Delamere provided radiative transfer model support. Gail Anderson of NOAA and Lex Berk of Spectral Sciences, Inc. helped immensely with the implementation of the MODTRAN code.

    My parents, George and Virginia, and my sisters, Sarah and Kiera were always gracious in providing help and support throughout the last 6 years. James the cat and Pele the dog also provided comfort and inspiration. Finally, my significant other, Neena Kadaba, was always there for the ups and the downs. I owe you all more than you know.

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    Abstract.

    Weather and climate models are required to calculate radiative fluxes and shortwave heating and longwave cooling rate profiles on a large scale. Heating and cooling rates describe the effect that different configurations of temperature, radiatively active gases, and clouds have on the rates of interlayer energy exchange and they affect circulation patterns. Meanwhile, a suite of satellite-based instruments from the NASA Earth Observing System’s A-Train provide an

    unprecedented set of measurements that can be used to produce quantities that can also yield radiative fluxes and heating and cooling rates. This work explores the extent to which passive-infrared hyperspectral measurements such as those made by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder impart information towards infrared cooling rates. Several novel methods are explored for interpreting and retrieving cooling rates using spectral measurements.

    For scenes with optically thick clouds, however, passive visible and infrared measurements will have limited power in describing heating and cooling rates. Vertical cloud information can be obtained from several A-Train instruments: the Microwave Limb Sounder Ice Water Content product provides data on the profiles of ice clouds in the upper troposphere and this work explores how this data can be used to describe the cloud radiative effect. Recently, active-sounding measurements from CloudSat have offered an unrivalled description of cloud profiles which can be used to compute fluxes and heating rates. Preliminary CloudSat products are evaluated and a case study of heating rate analysis is presented in which CloudSat products are used to determine Tropical Tropopause Layer radiation balance.

    The radiative processes that affect the far-infrared (wavelengths of 15-100 μm) are

    described in a limited fashion by the current suite of A-Train measurements and yet these spectral regions have a large impact on cooling rates in the troposphere. The extra information gained by

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    the introduction of a set of spectrally-resolved far-infrared measurements is discussed for clear- and cloudy-scenes.

    Finally, this work discusses future directions for analyzing heating rates derived from remote sensing measurements and challenges and opportunities for future research.

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    Table of Contents.

    Acknowledgements. ............................................................................................................... iii Abstract. ................................................................................................................................... iv List of Figures and Tables. .................................................................................................. viii Abbreviations. ....................................................................................................................... xii Summary. ................................................................................................................................ xv Chapter One. Introduction. ............................................................... 错误;未定义书签。1 1.1 Overview ............................................................................. 错误;未定义书签。1 1.2 Climate Model Discrepancies ............................................ 错误;未定义书签。2 1.3 Current and Future State of NASA Observing Systems .. 错误;未定义书签。4 1.4 Importance of Fluxes and Heating Rates........................... 错误;未定义书签。6 Chapter Two. Radiative Transfer. ................................................... 错误;未定义书签。19 2.1 Abstract .............................................................................. 错误;未定义书签。19 2.2 Introduction ....................................................................... 错误;未定义书签。19 2.3 LW Radiative Transfer Basics ......................................... 错误;未定义书签。25 2.4 SW Radiative Transfer Basics ......................................... 错误;未定义书签。28 2.5 Microwave Radiative Transfer Basics ............................. 错误;未定义书签。28 2.6 Flux and Heating Rate Calculations ................................ 错误;未定义书签。29 2.7 Description of Inverse Theory ......................................... 错误;未定义书签。34 Chapter Three. Cooling Rate Retrievals: A Case Study. .............. 错误;未定义书签。44 3.1 Abstract .............................................................................. 错误;未定义书签。44 3.2 Introduction ....................................................................... 错误;未定义书签。44 3.3 Theoretical Basis ............................................................... 错误;未定义书签。46 3.4 Methodology ..................................................................... 错误;未定义书签。49 3.5 Cross-Comparison............................................................. 错误;未定义书签。50 3.6 Discussion.......................................................................... 错误;未定义书签。52 Chapter Four. Heating Rate Error Analysis: Clear-Sky. .............. 错误;未定义书签。54 4.1 Abstract .............................................................................. 错误;未定义书签。54 4.2 Introduction ....................................................................... 错误;未定义书签。55 4.3 Sample Case and Sources of Uncertainty ........................ 错误;未定义书签。58 4.4 Error Propagation and Covariance Matrices ................... 错误;未定义书签。61 4.5 Spectrometer Information Content Comparison ............. 错误;未定义书签。73 4.6 Discussion.......................................................................... 错误;未定义书签。79 Chapter Five. Retrieval of Heating and Cooling Rates. ............... 错误;未定义书签。82 5.1 Abstract .............................................................................. 错误;未定义书签。82 5.2 Introduction ....................................................................... 错误;未定义书签。82 5.3 Heating and Cooling Rate Estimation from Measurements错误;未定义书签。85

    5.4 Treatment of Clear Spectra............................................... 错误;未定义书签。91 5.5 Treatment of Cloudy Spectra ........................................... 错误;未定义书签。99 5.6 Computational Cost Considerations ............................. 错误;未定义书签。104

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    5.7 Discussion....................................................................... 错误;未定义书签。105 Chapter Six. Cloud Radiative Effect from MLS Products. ....... 错误;未定义书签。107 6.1 Abstract ........................................................................... 错误;未定义书签。107 6.2 Introduction .................................................................... 错误;未定义书签。107 6.3 MLS Data Overview ...................................................... 错误;未定义书签。112 6.4 CERES Data Overview ................................................. 错误;未定义书签。117 6.5 UTC Radiative Effect .................................................... 错误;未定义书签。119 6.6 Discussion....................................................................... 错误;未定义书签。127 Chapter Seven. Heating and Cooling Rates from CloudSat. ..... 错误;未定义书签。129 7.1 Abstract ........................................................................... 错误;未定义书签。129 7.2 Introduction .................................................................... 错误;未定义书签。130 7.3 CloudSat Heating Rates ................................................. 错误;未定义书签。133 7.4 Determination of Zero Net Heating .............................. 错误;未定义书签。140 7.5 Use of Passive Sounders ................................................ 错误;未定义书签。147 7.6 Orbital Simulations ........................................................ 错误;未定义书签。148 7.7 CloudSat Zero Net Heating Distribution ...................... 错误;未定义书签。150 7.8 Conclusion ...................................................................... 错误;未定义书签。154 Chapter Eight. Far-Infrared Measurements. ............................... 错误;未定义书签。156 8.1 Abstract ........................................................................... 错误;未定义书签。156 8.2 Introduction .................................................................... 错误;未定义书签。157 8.3 FIRST Instrument Description ...................................... 错误;未定义书签。161 8.4 Clear-Sky Retrieval Comparison .................................. 错误;未定义书签。162 8.5 Mid- and Far-Infrared Cloud Analysis ......................... 错误;未定义书签。169 8.6 Test Flight Results ......................................................... 错误;未定义书签。179 8.7 Discussion....................................................................... 错误;未定义书签。183 Chapter Nine. Implications and Challenges. .............................. 错误;未定义书签。185 9.1 Introduction .................................................................... 错误;未定义书签。185 9.2 Frontier of Remote Sensing of Heating and Cooling Rates 错误;未定义书签。185

    9.3 Problems Amenable to Heating Rate Analysis ............ 错误;未定义书签。187 9.4 Comparison of Heating Rates in Models and Measurements ..... 错误;未定义书签。188

    9.5 Challenges for Future Analysis and Observing Systems ... 错误;未定义书签。194

    Appendix A. Cooling Rate Retrieval Derivation. ..................................................................2 References. ...............................................................................................................................7 Index....................................................................................................................................... 33 About the Author. .................................................................................................................. 35

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    List of Figures and Tables.

    Chapter 1

    Figure 1.1 AR4 prediction of global average surface temperature rise for CO emissions. 2 2

    Figure 1.2 Artist’s rendition of the Earth Observing System A-Train flotilla. 4

    Figure 1.3 Cartoon of Earth’s radiative solar and thermal energy balance distribution. 6

    Figure 1.4 Box diagram of atmospheric circulation model implementation. 9 Figure 1.5 Spectral cooling rate profile color contour plot, linear in pressure coordinates. 10 Figure 1.6 Spectral cooling rate profile color contour plot, log in pressure coordinates. 11 Figure 1.7 Spectrally-integrated heating/cooling rate profiles. 12

    Figure 1.8 Influence of several cloud types on cooling rate profiles. 13 Figure 1.9 Initial change in cooling rates resulting from an RTM upgrade to CCM3. 14 Figure 1.10 Change in cooling rates from an RTM upgrade to CCM3 after 5 years. 15 Figure 1.11 Change in temperature profiles from an RTM upgrade to CCM3 after 5 years. 15 Figure 1.12 Change in water vapor profiles from an RTM upgrade to CCM3 after 5 years. 16 Figure 1.13 Comparison of weather model forecast errors from an RTM modification. 17

Chapter 2

    Figure 2.1 Normalized Planck and molecular transmission spectra at several altitudes. 21 Figure 2.2 Diagram of scattering regimes as a function of wavelength and scatterer size. 24 Figure 2.3 High-resolution radiance and brightness temperature mid- and far-IR spectra. 25 Figure 2.4 Heating/cooling rate profile calculation schematic. 33

    Figure 2.5 Example temperature retrieval weighting function profiles. 35 Figure 2.6 Example temperature retrieval averaging kernel profiles. 39

    Figure 2.7 Flow-chart of synthetic retrieval sensitivity test. 40

    Figure 2.8 Diagram comparing heating/cooling rate profile covariance determination. 43

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Chapter 3

    Figure 3.1 Spectral cumulative cooling rate contribution function color contour plot. 47 Figure 3.2 Normalized cooling rate weighting function color contour plot. 50 Figure 3.3 Cooling rate retrieval results from AVE and MPACE missions. 51

Chapter 4

    Figure 4.1 Total and band-averaged IR cooling rate profiles. 59

    Figure 4.2 ECMWF clear-sky total IR cooling rate profile zonal mean and variability. 60 Figure 4.3 Response of total IR cooling rate profile to T, HO, and O perturbations. 62 23

    Figure 4.4 Cooling rate profile error estimation with various methods. 67 Figure 4.5 Estimated a priori and a posteriori cooling rate profile covariance matrices. 68

    Figure 4.6 Linearity of cooling rate Jacobian matrix for T, HO, and O perturbations. 70 23

    Figure 4.7 PDF of T, HO, O, and cooling rate profiles from ECMWF ERA-40. 72 23

    Figure 4.8 Different estimations of ECMWF cooling rate covariance matrices. 72 Table 4.1 Spectrometer comparison of cooling rate profile information content. 78

Chapter 5

    Figure 5.1 Diagram describing the Gibbs Sampler in two dimensions. 90 Figure 5.2 Synthetic T, HO, and O results for clear-sky conditions with AIRS. 93 23

    Figure 5.3 Spectral residual associated with the synthetic AIRS retrieval. 94 Figure 5.4 Heating and cooling rate profile results from the synthetic clear-sky retrieval. 94 Figure 5.5 A posteriori T, HO, and O covariance matrices for a synthetic AIRS retrieval. 95 23

    Figure 5.6 A posteriori heating /cooling rate covariance matrices using AIRS data. 96 Figure 5.7 Comparison of different retrieval methods with respect the cooling rate profile. 97 Figure 5.8 Spectral residual associated with retrieval containing cooling rate constraints. 97 Figure 5.9 Cooling rate uncertainty comparison for different retrieval techniques. 98

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