Chapter 12: Situational influences
CASE IN POINT 12.1 Want to make your brand successful? (p. 355)
1. Cues may include:
; posters and signage
; shelf tags
; trolley advertising
2. The article discusses the issue of past experience as a factor that affects
consumer perceptions of situational influences. If consumers have had
positive past experiences, they are more likely to react favourably (or
perceive a ‘positive’ experience will be gained from behaviour) in the future.
3. Students could collect examples of these. Some examples to look out for
; foods and cooking ingredients (often shown in usage situations)
; beverages (e.g. beer)
; sauces (e.g. BBQ situation)
; household cleaners
CASE IN POINT 12.2 Use promotions to create connections (p. 360)
1. Consumers may be influenced by music, sounds, sales people, displays or
other factors that grab their attention.
2. A ‘brand experience’ is the combination of emotional and functional
benefits that a consumer gets from using a particular brand. Marketers
must ensure that the brand experience actually delivers the brand promise.
3. Point of sale material is everywhere–including on trolleys and on the floor
in supermarkets. In other retail outlets, consumers also find brochures and
other sales material. Sometimes this material could influence the purchase
decision. For example, when purchasing a television, a consumer may go
into a store with a few brands in mind. A carefully worded display tag and
an attractive display could sway a customer to buy one brand over another.
CASE IN POINT 12.3 Cascade’s winter beer (p. 364)
1. There is no most correct answer to this question, but the instructor could
raise the issue of the increased marketing costs associated with this type
of seasonal line.
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2. This is clearly a premium, special occasion product.
3. The most obvious change would be the product range itself. Promotion
might also vary according to the seasons; however, distribution and pricing
are likely to remain constant.
CASE IN POINT 12.4 ‘Dollars and scents’ How men view,
choose and use their fragrances (p. 367)
1. This type of research may be primarily used to assist the development of
appropriate and well targeted marketing communications.
2. This is an interesting discussion topic. It depends somewhat on the types
of products being used and their reasons for use.
3. In-store cues might influence purchase. Special packaging might appeal to
some consumers at certain times, such as Father’s Day and Christmas.
REVIEW QUESTIONS (p. 374)
1. Refer to page 354.
2. Refer to page 373.
3. The different types of situations are:
; message situation (p. 354)
; purchase situation (p. 358)
; consumption/usage situation (p. 361)
4. Situational factors include:
a. atmosphere, pricing, location
b. time, convenience, location
c. product characteristics, promotions
e. packaging, quality, range available, where to buy
5. Refer to page 365.
TOPICS FOR FURTHER DISCUSSION (p. 375)
1. Case in point 12.3 (p. 364) is a good example to refer to here. Other
examples might include food–segmenting according to usage situations.
Another example is snack foods such as chips–segmented according to
reason for use. Possible segments include things such as family market
(large packs and multipacks for snacking and lunch boxes), premium (deli-
style for treats), special occasion (large packs for parties), flavours
(chicken, salt & vinegar–same reasons as for family).
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2. This could be used as a ‘homework’ activity.
3. It is useful to get students to do this as an at-home activity. Get them to
look at the sites listed and compare this with regular supermarket
4. Time available, money available and promotions being offered may all
have an impact.
5. This can be done as an out-of-class activity. In the case of small classes,
particularly with full-time students, it could be done as a small ‘excursion’.
CASE STUDY: Capturing the customer (p. 376)
1. Situational influences are all of those factors (things in the environment)
that act to influence our buying behaviour. Examples could be:
(a) Physical surroundings
; In a David Jones store, the atmosphere is a lot quieter and
calmer than in, say, a K mart store.
; A takeaway Pizza store may have bright lights to attract
customers, whereas an Italian restaurant may have dimmer
lighting and a pleasant ambience.
; At Christmas time, consumers are often in a good mood with the
cheerful Christmas music and displays all around them.
(b) Antecedent state
; The McDonalds breakfast menu often tempts early morning
travellers at the airport–even when they don’t normally buy
McDonalds for breakfast.
; At Christmas time, people may be more inclined to spend money
on luxury foods for Christmas dinner (e.g. expensive chocolates
and sauces), although they wouldn’t normally buy that kind of
; A supermarket taste test could encourage a person to buy
something they usually don’t even think about (e.g. cranberry
juice). The person may never buy it again, but because of the in-
store taste test they buy it!
2. Additional items to add to lists could be:
; PS: well lit, comfortable, well laid out
; SS: welcoming, friendly, inviting
; TM: varied range, similar services together (e.g. banks)
; PC: welcoming, family-friendly, something for everyone
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