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Words and Expressions--- unit one

By Angela Bradley,2014-04-06 17:38
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Words and Expressions--- unit one

Words and Expressions

    1. lash vt. hit violently or suddenly

    e.g. The farmer lashed the mules with a stick.

     The waves lashed the shore.

    Collocation:

     lash out (at / against sb. / sth.) make a sudden violent attack with blows or words

    Synonym:

     whip, beat

    2. scoff vi. laugh (at)

    e.g. All the students scoffed at the poor boys clothes.

     The disabled people are often scoffed. Derivation:

     scoffer n.

    Synonym:

     jeer, mock

    3. sway vi. move or swing from side to side e.g. He swayed slightly, as if about to fall. 他身子一歪!像要倒下。

    Synonym:

     swing, wave

    Translation:

    1. 那棵苹果树在风中摇曳。

     (The apple tree sways in the wind.) 2. She swayed her hands gracefully as she gave lectures.

     ?她演讲时优雅地摆动着手。,

    4. illusion n. sth. that deceives a person by seeming to be real

    e.g. The mirrors all round the walls give an illusion of greater space.

     I have no illusions about my ability.

     我对自己的能力如何颇有自知之明。

    Derivation:

    illusive a.

    illusively ad.

    Collocation:

     be under the illusion that believe wrongly

     e.g. I was under the illusion that he was honest until he was caught stealing some money.

     他偷钱当场被人抓住!在此之前我一直误以为他是个老实人。

    Exercise: Fill in each blank with one of the following prepositions.

     under at out against to

    1. He lashed ____ ____ the oppositions policies. (out against) 2. Students are not allowed to scoff ___ others weaknesses. (at) 3. The dancer swayed ___ the music. (to) 4. People were _____ the illusion that the tomb was Caocaos. (under) Paragraphs 2-5

    5. devastating a. completely destructive

e.g. It is the most devastating flood in 100 years.

    Derivation:

     devastate vt.

     devastation n.

    Synonym:

    disastrous, destructive

    6. glance at look at sb. or sth. quickly, esp. by raising your eyes and then lowering them again e.g. The president glanced at the clock and announced that the meeting started. Comparison: gaze at, stare at, glare at, gape at

    gaze at look at sth. or sb. for a long time, for example, because they are beautiful or interesting,

    esp. without realizing that you are doing it

    e.g. The poet lay down and gazed at the bright moon, missing his hometown. stare at deliberately look at sb. or sth. for a long time without moving your eyes, for example,

    because you are angry, shocked, or very interested

    e.g. Dont stare at people; its very rude.

    glare at look angrily at sb. for a long time without moving your eyes e.g. The heroine stepped forward bravely and glared at the enemy.

    女英雄挺身而出!以仇恨的目光瞪着敌人。

    gape at look at sb. or sth. for a long time, esp. with your mouth open, because you are very

    surprised or shocked

    e.g. His father stood there gaping at him, too astonished to say anything. 7. purgatory n. a place or condition of great suffering

    e.g. The devastating earthquake changed peoples home into a purgatory.

    Synonym:

     torture, plague

    Derivation:

     purgatorial a.

    8. dilemma n. a situation in which it is very difficult to decide what to do, because all of the

    possible courses of action seem equally good or equally bad e.g. The only way out of this dilemma is to cooperate within the group.

    面对这样的两难境地!唯一的出路就是在团队内合作。

    Collocation:

     in a dilemma

    e.g. Mary was in a dilemma whether to marry or continue her study. Synonym:

     quandary, predicament

    Sentences

    1. Mayblum would be one of thousands cast into an extraordinary purgatory that morning. (Paragraph 3)

    Paraphrase: That morning, Mayblum would be one of thousands who were thrown into a terrible disaster.

    Translation: 那天早上!有数千人将被卷入一场惊心动魄的灾难!梅布鲁也是其中的一员。

    2. For some, it was a matter of geography … (Paragraph 4)

    Paraphrase: For some, whether they could survive depended on where they were

Paragraphs 6-9

    9. confusion n. a very disorganized situation usually with lots of noise, in which a lot of things are

    happening at the same time, so that it is difficult to understand or control

    e.g. The enemys unexpected attack threw them into total confusion.

    敌人的突然进攻使他们完全不知所措。

    Comparison: disorder, chaos

    disorder n. a situation in which things or people are not in the correct position, place, or order, so

    that they are unable to control or organize

    e.g. The Civil War came at the end of a long period of social disorder. chaos n. a situation that is full of disorder and is completely out of control e.g. The thieves left the house in chaos.

     小偷走后房屋中一片凌乱。

    Derivation:

     confused a.

     confuse vt.

    10. transfer

    n. a change from one place to another

    e.g. The headmaster arranged for his transfer to another school.

     校长安排他转到另一个学校。

    vt. move sth. / sb. from one place to another

    e.g. The head office has been transferred from London to New York.

    总部已由伦敦迁至纽约。

    Synonym:

     remove, hand over

    Derivation:

     transferable a.

    11. reassuring a. making sb. feel less worried or frightened

    e.g. Before commencing the performance, she gave me a reassuring smile.

     The President gave a reassuring speech about the future of the country. Derivation:

    reassurance n.

    reassure vt.

    reassuringly ad.

    Antonym:

     threatening, discouraging

12. panic

    vt. be suddenly frightened by sth.

    e.g. The firecrackers panicked the chicks.

     The shot panicked all the customers in the restaurant. n. a sudden strong feeling of fear or nervousness

    Collocation:

     panic sb. into doing sth. make sb. do sth. unwise or hasty because of panic

     e.g. The banks were panicked into selling sterling.

     银行因恐慌而抛售英国货币。

    Synonym:

     dread, terror, fear

    Activity: Write out the noun form and the adjective form of each given word.

     v. n. a.

    1. confuse _____________(confusion) ____________(confused / confusing) 2. transfer _____________(transfer) ____________(transferable) 3. reassure _____________(reassurance) ___________(reassuring / reassured)

    4. panic _____________(panic) ___________ (panicky) 5. devastate _____________(devastation) ___________ (devastating) 14. descent n. the act or process of going down

    e.g. The wild goose began its descent into the West Lake.

    Synonym:

     decline, subsidence

    Antonym:

     ascent

    15. stoop vi. bend down

    e.g. The policeman stooped to pick up a lost gun in the room. Collocation:

     stoop (down) to pick sth. up

     stoop so low (as to do sth.): lower ones moral standards so far (as to do sth.)

     e.g. He tried to make me accept a bribe I hope I would never stoop so low.

     他想让我接受贿赂——希望我决不至于做出这种低级的事。

    Words and Expressions

    16. collapse vi. (break into pieces and) fall down suddenly because of a weakness in the structure,

    or because of a sudden violent force

    e.g. The heavy storm caused the hovel to collapse.

    Synonym:

     break down, crumble

    Translation:

     地震之后许多房屋都倒塌了。

     Many buildings collapsed in the earthquake.

     大雨把禾苗都压塌了。

     Grain seedlings collapsed under the weight of the big rain. 17. sap vt. weaken slowly

    e.g. They were traveling very slowly, and the heavy load they were carrying sapped their strength.

    e.g. The constant tension was sapping my energy.

    Synonym:

     weaken, exhaust, drain

    Collocation:

    sap up on sb. beat up sb.

    18. persuade vt. convince sb.

    e.g. King Lear was completely persuaded by his elder daughters honeyed words.

     She persuaded her father to change his mind. Derivation:

     persuasion n.

     persuasive a.

    Collocation:

     persuade sb. of sth. convince sb.

     e.g. We are persuaded of the justice of her case.

     我们确信对她案件的审理是公正的。

    19. meet up with come across

    e.g. Mary met up with her student on the street of a foreign country.

    Comparison:

     meet the case 适当!令人满意

    meet sb. half-way 与某人妥协

     meet one’s Waterloo ?在比赛中,惨败

    Translation:

    1. 在一次会议上!那位教授偶遇了十年前帮助过她的恩人。

    In a conference, the professor met up with her benefactor who helped her 10 years ago.

    2. 在与民主党的辩论中!共和党遭到了惨败。

    During discussion with the Democratic Party, the Republican Party met its Waterloo.

    Section Four Consolidation Activities I . Vocabulary Analysis

    1. Phrase practice

    1. in flames burning 着火!失火

    e.g. That factory was in flames. 那家工厂失火了。

     The opera house was soon enveloped in flames. 歌剧院很快就被一片火海所包围。

2. a matter of sth. a situation or circumstance relating to sth. 事关……的问题

    e.g. For me, it was just a matter of money. 对我来说那只是一个钱的问题。

3. off and on in an intermittent manner 不时地!断断续续地

    e.g. It has rained off and on for two months. 雨断断续续地下了两个月。

     He just received junior education off and on when he was a child. 他只是小时候断断续续

    地读过小学。

4. give sb. a hand help sb. 帮助

    e.g. I would be glad to give you a hand with this box if you like. 如果你愿意!我很高兴为你拿

    这个箱子。

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