Words and Expressions
1. lash vt. hit violently or suddenly
e.g. The farmer lashed the mules with a stick.
The waves lashed the shore.
lash out (at / against sb. / sth.) make a sudden violent attack with blows or words
2. scoff vi. laugh (at)
e.g. All the students scoffed at the poor boy’s clothes.
The disabled people are often scoffed. Derivation:
3. sway vi. move or swing from side to side e.g. He swayed slightly, as if about to fall. 他身子一歪！像要倒下。
(The apple tree sways in the wind.) 2. She swayed her hands gracefully as she gave lectures.
4. illusion n. sth. that deceives a person by seeming to be real
e.g. The mirrors all round the walls give an illusion of greater space.
I have no illusions about my ability.
be under the illusion that believe wrongly
e.g. I was under the illusion that he was honest until he was caught stealing some money.
Exercise: Fill in each blank with one of the following prepositions.
under at out against to
1. He lashed ____ ____ the opposition’s policies. (out against) 2. Students are not allowed to scoff ___ others’ weaknesses. (at) 3. The dancer swayed ___ the music. (to) 4. People were _____ the illusion that the tomb was Caocao’s. (under) Paragraphs 2-5
5. devastating a. completely destructive
e.g. It is the most devastating flood in 100 years.
6. glance at look at sb. or sth. quickly, esp. by raising your eyes and then lowering them again e.g. The president glanced at the clock and announced that the meeting started. Comparison: gaze at, stare at, glare at, gape at
gaze at look at sth. or sb. for a long time, for example, because they are beautiful or interesting,
esp. without realizing that you are doing it
e.g. The poet lay down and gazed at the bright moon, missing his hometown. stare at deliberately look at sb. or sth. for a long time without moving your eyes, for example,
because you are angry, shocked, or very interested
e.g. Don’t stare at people; it’s very rude.
glare at look angrily at sb. for a long time without moving your eyes e.g. The heroine stepped forward bravely and glared at the enemy.
gape at look at sb. or sth. for a long time, esp. with your mouth open, because you are very
surprised or shocked
e.g. His father stood there gaping at him, too astonished to say anything. 7. purgatory n. a place or condition of great suffering
e.g. The devastating earthquake changed people’s home into a purgatory.
8. dilemma n. a situation in which it is very difficult to decide what to do, because all of the
possible courses of action seem equally good or equally bad e.g. The only way out of this dilemma is to cooperate within the group.
in a dilemma
e.g. Mary was in a dilemma whether to marry or continue her study. Synonym:
1. Mayblum would be one of thousands cast into an extraordinary purgatory that morning. (Paragraph 3)
Paraphrase: That morning, Mayblum would be one of thousands who were thrown into a terrible disaster.
2. For some, it was a matter of geography … (Paragraph 4)
Paraphrase: For some, whether they could survive depended on where they were …
9. confusion n. a very disorganized situation usually with lots of noise, in which a lot of things are
happening at the same time, so that it is difficult to understand or control
e.g. The enemy’s unexpected attack threw them into total confusion.
Comparison: disorder, chaos
disorder n. a situation in which things or people are not in the correct position, place, or order, so
that they are unable to control or organize
e.g. The Civil War came at the end of a long period of social disorder. chaos n. a situation that is full of disorder and is completely out of control e.g. The thieves left the house in chaos.
n. a change from one place to another
e.g. The headmaster arranged for his transfer to another school.
vt. move sth. / sb. from one place to another
e.g. The head office has been transferred from London to New York.
remove, hand over
11. reassuring a. making sb. feel less worried or frightened
e.g. Before commencing the performance, she gave me a reassuring smile.
The President gave a reassuring speech about the future of the country. Derivation:
vt. be suddenly frightened by sth.
e.g. The firecrackers panicked the chicks.
The shot panicked all the customers in the restaurant. n. a sudden strong feeling of fear or nervousness
panic sb. into doing sth. make sb. do sth. unwise or hasty because of panic
e.g. The banks were panicked into selling sterling.
dread, terror, fear
Activity: Write out the noun form and the adjective form of each given word.
v. n. a.
1. confuse _____________(confusion) ____________(confused / confusing) 2. transfer _____________(transfer) ____________(transferable) 3. reassure _____________(reassurance) ___________(reassuring / reassured)
4. panic _____________(panic) ___________ (panicky) 5. devastate _____________(devastation) ___________ (devastating) 14. descent n. the act or process of going down
e.g. The wild goose began its descent into the West Lake.
15. stoop vi. bend down
e.g. The policeman stooped to pick up a lost gun in the room. Collocation:
stoop (down) to pick sth. up
stoop so low (as to do sth.): lower one’s moral standards so far (as to do sth.)
e.g. He tried to make me accept a bribe — I hope I would never stoop so low.
Words and Expressions
16. collapse vi. (break into pieces and) fall down suddenly because of a weakness in the structure,
or because of a sudden violent force
e.g. The heavy storm caused the hovel to collapse.
break down, crumble
Many buildings collapsed in the earthquake.
Grain seedlings collapsed under the weight of the big rain. 17. sap vt. weaken slowly
e.g. They were traveling very slowly, and the heavy load they were carrying sapped their strength.
e.g. The constant tension was sapping my energy.
weaken, exhaust, drain
sap up on sb. beat up sb.
18. persuade vt. convince sb.
e.g. King Lear was completely persuaded by his elder daughters’ honeyed words.
She persuaded her father to change his mind. Derivation:
persuade sb. of sth. convince sb.
e.g. We are persuaded of the justice of her case.
19. meet up with come across
e.g. Mary met up with her student on the street of a foreign country.
meet the case 适当！令人满意
meet sb. half-way 与某人妥协
meet one’s Waterloo ？在比赛中，惨败
In a conference, the professor met up with her benefactor who helped her 10 years ago.
During discussion with the Democratic Party, the Republican Party met its Waterloo.
Section Four Consolidation Activities I . Vocabulary Analysis
1. Phrase practice
1. in flames burning 着火！失火
e.g. That factory was in flames. 那家工厂失火了。
The opera house was soon enveloped in flames. 歌剧院很快就被一片火海所包围。
2. a matter of sth. a situation or circumstance relating to sth. 事关……的问题
e.g. For me, it was just a matter of money. 对我来说那只是一个钱的问题。
3. off and on in an intermittent manner 不时地！断断续续地
e.g. It has rained off and on for two months. 雨断断续续地下了两个月。
He just received junior education off and on when he was a child. 他只是小时候断断续续
4. give sb. a hand help sb. 帮助
e.g. I would be glad to give you a hand with this box if you like. 如果你愿意！我很高兴为你拿