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    Monday 16 Friday 20 May 2011

    P R O V I S I O N A L P R O G R A M M E

    This is a very intensive course covering the latest developments in incylinder and exhaust aftertreatment Diesel particulates and NOx control. The period of lectures each day is long and delegates are free to attend just those lectures that are of most interest to them. Our aim is to give as complete and up to date coverage of the control of diesel particulates and NOx emissions as possible. This course is updated each year and includes reviews of most of the latest published diesel emissions reduction technology that is considered to be significant.

    Unless otherwise stated, the lectures will be given by Professor Gordon E. Andrews, Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds.

MONDAY 16 MAY 2011


    08.00 Registration and coffee

    08.30 Diesel emissions introduction to the environmental problems and legislation

    Overview of environmental concerns from diesel emissions: NOx and ozone, particulates, greenhouse

    gases. Review and comparison of HDD and passenger car emissions legislation and test cycles. 10.00 Coffee

    10.15 Diesel engine thermodynamic conditions and turbocharging

    11.00 Ignition delay

     Ignition delay and its influence on peak pressure and NOx

    11.30 The Nissan MK concept with long ignition delays to achieve premixed combustion 12.00 CO emissions and control in diesel engines

    12.30 Lunch

    13.15 NOx formation and control in diesel engines

    A review of diesel engine NOx formation and reduction techniques. Diffusion combustion and the two

    zone model of NOx formation in near stoichiometric zones in a thin region around the fuel jet.

    Discussion of the link between reducing NOx and increasing particulates. The influence of fuel

    injection parameters on air/fuel mixing and NOx.

    14.45 Tea

    15.00 Use of EGR for NOx control

    Reduction in peak flame temperature and NOx using EGR, reduced influence of EGR for lower

    powers and better mixed fuel and air. Problems of achieving EGR in diesels, short and long rout. Long

    route EGR with particle trap. Increase in soot emissions with EGR. Influence of EGR on wear and lube

    oil contamination. Use of on-line oil cleaning (centrifugal or fine bypass filtration) to control these

    adverse oil effects.

    16.00 Engine exhaust particles in the atmosphere

     Professor David Kittelson, Dept of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, USA

    A description of measurements of the character of engine exhaust particles as we actually breathe

    them, on and near roadways. Past measurements will be reviewed and a new programme recently

    completed, the CRC E-43 program will be described.

    17.30 End of day one

    17.45 Welcome reception in hotel bar



    08.15 Registration and coffee

    08.30 Diesel engine processes that influence particulate formation

     The nature of diesel particulates: carbon, unburnt fuel, unburnt lube oil, ash, sulphates plus water. The

     particulate composition variation with engine power and emissions test cycle. Combustion processes

     and engine design factors that influence particulate carbon emissions: lower overall equivalence ratios

     and hence lower carbon for the same power with TCIC engines. Fuel injector operational parameters

     that influence mixing and carbon.

    09.30 Instruments for particle size measurements

     Professor David Kittelson, Dept of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, USA

    An overview of the operating principles and performance of instruments used for particle sizing with

    emphasis on instruments suitable for engine exhaust particle sizing; new instruments for transient

    particle size analysis.

    10.45 Coffee

TUESDAY 17 MAY 2011 (continued)

    11.00 Factors influencing carbon formation in diesel engines

     Fuel effects using radio-tracers. The importance of equivalence ratio. Cold start and exhaust pipe

    particulate deposition influences on particle storage and blow out from catalysts and exhaust systems.

    The influence of temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio on soot pyrolysis and oxidation, global

    modelling equations for soot formation and oxidation. The route to no soot engine using mixing and

    temperature control. The Toyota high EGR rich burn low temperature low soot process. 12.00 UHC, particulate fuel fraction and PAH emissions

    Sources of UHC and PAH emissions in diesel engines. The importance of unburnt fuel PAH in the

    particulate composition. Reduction of nozzle sac volume for reduced UHC, SOF and PAH. The impact

    of nozzle sac volume on spray quality and penetration. Lubrication oil layers as fuel absorption

    locations that releases HC late in the combustion process. Combustion chamber carbonaceous

    deposits as sources of unburnt fuel and PAH storage.

    13.15 Lunch

    14.00 The role of lubricating oil in diesel particulate emissions

    A review of the recent literature. Carbon from lube oil, unburnt lube oil, use of gas engine to determine

    the overall impact of lube oil on particulate emissions; lube oil consumption, methods to reduce lube

    oil consumption, required lube oil consumption in low emission vehicles, lube oil emissions during hot

    motoring, soot accumulation in used oil and impact on emissions.

    15.30 Tea

    15.45 The lubricant contribution to future low emission engine design

     Professor Gordon Andrews on behalf of Peter Brett, Castrol International

    Key areas addressed are fuel economy, exhaust gas recirculation, piston cleanliness and soot, in

    conjunction with the requirement to extend oil drain intervals and use exhaust aftertreatment devices. 16.45 Ultrafine and nanoparticle formation by engines

     Professor David Kittelson, Dept of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, USA

     A description of current concerns about tiny particles generated by engines, sampling problems, and

    representative measurements.

    18.00 End of day two

    19.00 Course dinner



    08.15 Registration and coffee

    08.30 Sources of variability in exhaust particle emission measurements

     Professor David Kittelson, Dept of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, USA

    The reduction of HDD particulate emissions legislation by a factor of 10 in 2011 and equivalent

    reductions in passenger car particulate emissions makes the issue to their mass measurement using

    conventional dilution tunnel system very difficult. Measurements of particle emissions from engines are

    subject to many errors, many associated with particle sampling dynamics that are not predicted by

    traditional methods of error analysis. Many of these errors are much more severe for the very clean

    engines required for USA 2011 particulate legislation and the lecture will include comments on the

    EPA recommended measurement procedures.

    10.00 Coffee

    10.15 Fuel property influences on diesel emissions

    A review of engine test data on fuel effects on particulate, SOF, UHC and NOx emissions. Diesel fuel

    sulphur and the sulphate emissions issue. Other reasons for ultra low sulphur fuels. The importance of

    the physical fuel properties of density, viscosity and volatility on spray formation, mixing and emissions.

    The European EPEFE fuel program and the emission predictors that result from this. Reformulated

    diesels fuels with extreme fuel properties can have significant emissions reductions. GTL fuels and


    11.45 Diesel fuel quality and manufacturing challenges

     Professor Gordon Andrews on behalf of Professor Frank Palmer, University of Leeds, IFQC,

    Automotive Fuels, Emissions, Refinery and Regulatory Affairs

    Environmental pressures and changes in vehicle technology are increasing demands on cleaner

    diesel fuel quality. Diesel fuel is a complex mix of hydrocarbons whose chemical and physical

    characteristics are intrinsically inter-linked and inter-correlated. Changes in one fuel parameter to

    improve emissions can adversely affect others. Bio components are also being used adding further

    complexity to fuel formulations.

    Refiners are facing increasing challenges in the production and blending of diesel cleaner fuel

    components with considerable variations quality levels worldwide.

    12.45 Lunch

WEDNESDAY 18 MAY 2011 (continued)

    13.30 Fuel borne catalysts for DPF regeneration

     Dr Paul Richards, Innospec Limited

    The effect of a DPF on regulated and unregulated emissions (PAH and NPAH). Dioxin production and

    metal emissions, additive performance criteria, light-off temperature, regeneration rate, exotherm

    produced and additive treat rate.

    14.30 Oxygenated fuels and biodiesels

     The use of 5-20% levels of oxygenates (e.g. DME, diglyme etc.) in diesel fuels. Biodiesels using

     diesel/vegetable oil blends are also oxygenated fuels as the vegetable oils contain oxygen carrying

     compounds. Ethanol is also an bio-diesel fuel as this can be manufactured from farm crops. The bio

     fuels are being encouraged as they are considered to be greenhouse gas neutral. The main impact of

     oxygenates is a strong reduction in soot emissions, with little influence on NOx. Their use generally

     depends on the taxation status of the diesel and the oxygenates as most oxygenates cost more to

     produce that diesel. However, they have strong fiscal incentives for their use in many USA states and

     in various countries around the world.

    15.45 Tea

    16.00 Fuel injector deposits control

     Dr Paul Richards, Innospec Limited

     In 1892 Rudolf Diesel patented a means of producing work from the combustion of fuel which involved

     the controlled metering of fuel into the combustion chamber; fuel injection. Ever tightening legislation

     to reduce unwanted emissions and improve fuel economy has made the precision of this injection

     equipment increasingly important. This presentation reviews aspects of fuel injection equipment, how

     its performance is affected by deposit formation and what measures can be taken to minimise deposit


    16.45 Emulsified fuels and water injection for NOx and particulate reduction

    Diesel/water emulsions for NOx and carbon emissions reductions. In practice water levels are too low

    to get major NOx reductions and the main effect is on particulate emission through the mixing

    influence in the spray as the water vaporises first. Commercial applications and the recent Texas

    programme in the use of diesel emulsions in all state vehicles. Steam and water injection into the inlet

    port for NOx reduction. Direct in-cylinder water injection for 90% NOx reduction. Use of pulsed

    fuel/water/fuel injection system (MHI and D-C) and impinging water/fuel dual hole injectors (Wartsila).

    A proven non-catalytic technique for NOx reduction but not currently being developed for transport

    applications. In view of the problems with all other aftertreatment catalytic systems this technique

    deserves further development.

     End of day three 17.30



    08.15 Registration and coffee

    08.30 An introduction to diesel exhaust after-treatment technology with special reference to the

    control of particulates

     David Lemon, Consultant, formerly of Energy Saving Trust, Ricardo and Delphi Diesel Systems

     Diesel aftertreatment technology overview, with special reference to the control of particulates. The

    experience gained in the UK and London programmes of incentivisation of the fitting of aftertreatment

    oxidation catalyst and diesel particle traps and other emission reduction devices. 09.30 Oxidation Catalysts - Roles in diesel emissions control

    Dr Martyn Twigg, Johnson Matthey

    Diesel exhaust gas composition trends; Lean oxidation catalyst formulations; Control of hydrocarbons

    and carbon monoxide emissions; Sulphate particulate formation and control; Nitric oxide oxidation in

    NOx-trapping; Nitric oxide oxidation in particulate control; Nitric oxide oxidation in SCR NOX control;

    Heater catalyst duties/formulations; Palladium containing formulations; Deactivation modes of

    oxidation catalysts; Countering deactivation processes; Zeolite containing formulations; Modern

    catalyst formulations and Future oxidation catalyst requirements.

    10.45 Coffee

    11.00 Diesel particle traps overview

     Dr Marty Murtagh, Corning Inc

    Volume storage fibre type and wall flow filter type traps. Substrate materials, surface filtration,

    influence on particle size, overheating and thermal shock problems, limiting storage capacity in g/litre

    to avoid thermal problems during regeneration. Back pressure influences. Ash deposition and trap

    designs to minimise this problem.

THURSDAY 19 MAY 2011 (continued)

    12.30 Diesel Particulate Filter Systems

    Dr Martyn Twigg, Johnson Matthey

    Effectiveness of oxidation catalysts; Heavy and light duty requirements compared; Passive

    regeneration the CRT? system; Fuel sulphur effects on passive regeneration; Partial filter systems

    “open filters”; Heavy duty retrofit successes; Active regeneration strategies light duty needs; Light

    duty filter chronology technologies implemented; Ash accumulation effects countermeasures;

    Other problems including oil dilution and future filtration requirements wider than just diesel.

    13.15 Lunch

    14.00 Diesel NOx Control Systems I Basics and NOx-Trapping

    Dr Martyn Twigg, Johnson Matthey

    Need for NOx-control engine measures EGR, multiple HP injections etc; Basic problems of lean-

    NOx control; Hydrocarbon lean-NOx systems, pros and cons; NOx-trapping systems - chemistry and

    applications; Oxidative absorption, reductive release periodic regeneration; Kinetic and

    thermodynamic considerations operational windows; NOx-trap catalyst deactivation sintering,

    sulphation disulphateion; Economics aspects of NOx-trapping fuel use, PGM costs; Other

    considerations - oil dilution etc and future of NOx-trapping technologies.

    15.00 SNCR and NH mixing and control for SCR 3

    16.00 Tea

    16.15 Diesel NOx Control Systems II Ammonia SCR Systems

    Dr Martyn Twigg, Johnson Matthey

    Fundament chemistries selectivity origins; Previous chemical plant applications; Similarities with

    heavy duty diesel applications; Fast SCR importance of oxidation reactions, configurations; Modern

    engine NOx speciation NO reduction; Vanadium-based catalysts concerns, activity and volatility; 2

    Activities of other metal-based catalysts Pt, Fe, Cu, Ce etc; Practical problems temperature

    constraints, sulphation etc; Modern low temperature zeolite SCR catalysts; Low temperature light duty

    applications problems; Recent advances catalysts, ammonia storage etc; Controlling ammonia

    emissions clean-up catalysts and future developments and trends.

    17.30 End of day four

FRIDAY 20 MAY 2011


    08.15 Registration and coffee

    08.30 Heavy duty engine strategies for Euro 6 and beyond

     Meinrad Signer, Fiat Powertrain Technologies

     European engine strategies for Euro 6 and beyond.

    09.30 Unit injection and common rail fuel injection systems

     Mark Smith, Delphi Diesel Systems

    Different Fuel Injection Systems as currently in use will be presented: high pressure rotary pumps, unit

    injectors and pump-line-nozzle systems. Their advantages and drawbacks will be discussed with

    regard to future requirements within their specific applications.

    Different Common Rail Fuel Injections Systems will be explained and their specific advantages to

    conventional systems highlighted. The usage of control strategies to enhance the performance of the

    fuel injection equipment will be discussed. Future requirements for common rail systems will be

    presented and compared to next generation common rail system specifications. 11.00 Coffee

    11.15 Modern turbocharger systems

     Owen Ryder, Cummins Turbo Technologies Ltd

     A review of current turbocharger technology and the interaction of the turbocharger with heavy duty

    diesel engine emissions reducing strategies.

    12.15 Integrated Emissions Control Systems I Three-way Systems

    Dr Martyn Twigg, Johnson Matthey

    Car space requirements, cost and efficiency of multi-component systems; Review diesel filter

    developments possibilities for integration; Combining oxidation of hydrocarbons and carbon

    monoxide with filtration; Consequences of periodic regeneration catalyst nature and locations;

    Opportunity of substitution of some platinum by palladium; Combating ash accumulation ashless oils,

    use of asymmetric filters; Commercial cleaning filters heavy duty cost effective procedures; Further

    developments enhancing catalyst light-off PGM reduction and future developments always need

    oxidation catalyst.

    13.15 Lunch

FRIDAY 20 MAY 2011 (continued)

    14.00 Integrated Emissions Control Systems II Four-way Systems

    Dr Martyn Twigg, Johnson Matthey

    Review drivers for integrated systems efficiencies and cost; Combining NOx-trapping with oxidation

    and filtration thermal conflicts; Combining ammonia SCR with oxidation and filtration; Need advanced

    SCR catalyst formulations activity, thermal durability; Chemical conflicts solutions and production

    systems; Combining ammonia from NOx-trapping with SCR advantages; Integrated ammonia

    emissions control; Future integrated directions technical challenges; Overview/summary of catalytic

    diesel emissions control strategies and historical gasoline comparisons future predictions.

    15.00 Homogeneous charge and partially premixed diesel engines for low NOx and low soot


    Premixed combustion can give zero soot and NOx from diesels, demonstration that this can only occur

    across the power range if maximum power is obtained with a turbocharger strategy that limits the

    equivalence ratio at maximum power to around 0.5 (30/1 A/F). Otherwise HCCI is as low power

    emissions control option and a different strategy needs to be used at high power outputs. This can be

    achieved using common-rail fuel injection systems. Port fuel injected diesels with main fuel injection,

    100% port injection, early in-cylinder injection with main injection, 100% early injection. Problems of

    fuel economy, hydrocarbon and CO emissions. Problems of control of start of combustion if

    conventional main injection is not used, use of EGR and water injection to retard the auto ignition


    16.30 Tea and end of course

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