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Egypt Overview of data access & The government offer a central gateway of official statistics
environment in Egypt ? on a wide range of social and economic data through their
statistics agency: Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and
Statistics – CAPMAS. Apart from generating their own data
and masterminding the census activities, CAMPAS acquires
data from different government ministries.
There is a wide variety of literature and studies on different
aspects of social, political and economic life in Cairo. A wide
selection of universities and research centres are active and
productive with relatively low government censure or control.
Less is available on other non-Cairo cities but the many
urban centres outside of Cairo are featured in national data
Additionally, various major donors, international agencies
and the active civil society in Egypt produce different
independent reports that are generally obtainable for
research purposes. Finally the media(print and web) itself is
active and productive offering a wide variety of opinions
despite the governments efforts to control information and
the propagation of state run newspapers, TV channels and
radio programmes. Bureaucratic harassment of newspapers
and channels promoting non-government sanctioned news is
Issues National indicators Summary themes: analysis with statistical notes &
1. Population &
Country 78.8 million (July 2010 est.)(CIA, In a highly Cairo-centred hierarchy of urbanity, Alexandria is 1population overview: 2010) the second largest city with less than half Cairo‘s population. 2 84.4 milllion (DSA 2010) Other major cities are Aswan, Asyut, Port Said, Suez, 3 79.2 million (CAPMAS) Ismailia. Some list the number of cities and large towns in 11 . Egypt as 77 (including new cities still under construction)1213 Population growth (2010-2015): Others suggest over 140, and even 168.
Demographic & urban Urban: 2.1% 4statistics: 1980-2010 & Rural: 1.3% The last demographic survey (population and housing) was
2010-2030 forecasts. Urban population: conducted by CAPMAS in 2006 with the results made 14 19.5 million (1980) available in May 2008. 15National totals (urban ; 36.7 million (2010) ‗Egypt in Figures‘ is a valuable source run by CAPMAS 5& rural) ; 56.5 million (2030) (UN DESA). offering statistics on a wide variety of past and present
Rural population: statistics including; agriculture, labour, economy, health, Urban growth rates 24.9 million (1980) ; 47.8 mil (2010) education, population, household conditions, water, the 6 ; 54.4 mil (2030) environment, industry and petroleum, tourism, justice, City sizes & population transport, communication, construction and social services distribution by country. % of the total population resident in etc.
43.9% (1980) The only urban agglomerations of population above 750,000
; 43.4% (2010) people are Cairo and Alexandria: Greater Cairo is growing 7; 50.9% (2030). fast in numbers but the historic core has been reducing in
42.8% of total population (2009 population for some years (urban decay, poverty, families
1 CIA, World Factbook, Egypt retrieved at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/eg.html 2 UN DSA http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/p2k0data.asp 3 Government data: CAPMAS retrieved at http://www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg/pls/fdl/tst12e?action=1&lname= 4 UN DESA. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/hum-sets.htm 5 United Nations, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/hum-sets.htm 6 United Nations, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/hum-sets.htm 7 United Nations, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision. http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/index_panel3.html
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report: Chris Horwood. Egypt : page 2
8World Bank) moving out, no expansion possibilities etc)
Population of Greater Cairo: Population of Cairo 18.4 million according to the 2006 census
18.4 million (CAPMAS 2009 based on and estimates. Depending on the boundaries chosen,
2006 census) population figures for Greater Cairo range from 12.5 million
Urban population of Cairo: to 18 million. The official CAPMAS census data provides the 1613.5 mil (CAPMAS 2006) The populations of the five governorates of Greater Cairo.
11 mil (2010 according to DESA) and total urban population in the five governorates is 13.4 mil 9expected to be 13.5 by 2025 while those in rural areas of these governorates numbered
Urban population of Alexandria: 4.9 mil. There is no rural population listed in the Cairo 174.4 million in 2010 rising to 5.6 million governorate itself. 10in 2025 (DESA)
There is a debate concerning the government‘s
categorisation of land between rural and urban which is said
to distort figures – because villages that have become urban
centres remain categorised as rural entities the per centage
of urban areas and urban population could be significantly 18higher.
trends. Population: expected to rise by 27 High level urbanisation ( especially urban informality)
million to over 100 million in next 12 characterises Egypt accompanied by significant growth of Drivers of urbanization years (to 2023) new developments, urban corridors, infrastructure investment 22 and planning into the future.
Where is the future 16 million people ( approx 13% of total
heading? population and 43% of the urban For the last 4 decades a defining trend of urbanisation in
population) live in informal and Egypt has been the growth of informal settlements,
squatter settlements. threatening to overwhelm urban planners and the ability of
the state to provide services. Informal settlement are extra-
11 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_in_Egypt 12 http://www.mongabay.com/igapo/2005_world_city_populations/Egypt.html 13 http://www.epictrip.com/Cities-in-Egypt-places-l232.html 14 Census 2006 tables as of 2008 (May) http://www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg/pls/fdl/ab2?lang=0&lname= 15 CAPMAS Egypt in Figures gateway: http://www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg/pls/educ/egpt_all?LANG=0&lname=free 8 World Bank data retrieved at http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL.IN.ZS 9United Nations, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/p2k0data.asp 10 United Nations, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/p2k0data.asp 1616 Table: Population of governorates included (at least partially) in Greater Cairo in the 2006 census (Quoted in IIED 2009 next footnote and based on CAMPAS figures. Governorate urban rural total
Cairo 6,758,581 0 6,758,581
Giza 2,891,275 252,211 3,143,486
Qalyoubia 1,899,354 2,352,318 4,251,672
Helwan 1,202,395 510,833 1,713,278
Sixth October 745,875 1,835,184 2,581,059
Total: 13,497,480 4,950,546 18,448,076
17 IIED (2009) by Sarah Sabry Poverty Lines in Greater Cairo: Underestimating and Misrepresenting poverty. Working Paper 21 of IIED – International Institute for Environment and Development – Poverty Reduction and Urban Areas Series http://www.iied.org/pubs/pdfs/10572IIED.pdf 18 World Bank. (2008) Arab republic of Egypt. Urban sector Update. Sustainable Development Department Middle East & North Africa Region http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2008/07/03/000333038_20080703040953/Rendered/PDF/411780v10REVIS1Box0327393B01PUBLIC1.pdf
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In Cairo an estimate 65% live in legal and mainly built on private agricultural plots or state informal areas. i.e. between 8 and 10 desert land in and around cities.
million Cairenes, in over 140 Km2 of
city land The characteristics and typology of informal housing and
charts the fast growth of informal settlements. It finds that in Between 1986 and 1996, 45 % of new 2000, informal settlements were estimated to cover 105.5 housing units constructed were private square kilometres and represent 81.6 per cent of all informal and informal, while 28 per cent were 23 The growth of residential areas in Greater Cairo.state-built and 27 per cent were private ashwai’yyat (random or informal areas) is outpacing the 19and formal.
growth of formal areas of Cairo. A recent study established
300,000-400,000 housing units on that in 2006, informal settlements were growing at an average required annually for 2008- average of 2.57 per cent per year, while formal Cairo was 2023 period according to USAID i24growing at 0.4 per cent per year. Far from being a marginal report. or peripheral phenomenon, the 65 per cent of Cairenes who live in informal areas could be said to be the real city. Major (11) new ‗mega-projects‘ are
being developed for Cairo as part of a 25Full discussion of informality by GTZ 2009 publication. Cairo Vision 2050. If completed they would transform the city and potentially Population growth in Greater Cairo is now predominantly due require removal of large areas of to natural growth instead of rural-urban migration which was residential and business centres high in previous decades. Housing demand and the housing gap is high in most cities The establishment of the New Urban (also a cause for the rapid growth of unregulated informal 20Communities Authority (NUCA) in construction). In Cairo the low to middle income housing 1979 overseeing the building of 23 deficit is high in the formal market due to lack of affordability. current new cities and a proposed 38 Major ‗Housing Study For All Urban Egypt’ by USAID in in the future. 262008 offers comprehensive data and analysis. Full discussion of desert developments 21in World Bank report. The government has made a major commitment to building
new cities in the desert in response to the congestion, pollution and lack of space in existing cities – in particular in
Cairo. 8 major new cities surround Cairo (under staggered 1. construction) designed to meet current and future demands
(socioeconomic). To date these developments have met
some criticism and the residency uptake has been slow,
especially by low income groups.
Future urban visions for Cairo and Egypt are discussed by
the government think tank IDSC – Information and 27Decision Support Centre. A full presentation of Vision
Cairo 2050 can be found at :
22 Details in UN HABITAT - State of the African Cities 2008 (Chapter 6 p.64/5) at http://www.unhabitat.org/pmss/listItemDetails.aspx?publicationID=2574 19 Estimation made by World Bank (2008) http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2008/07/03/000333038_20080703040953/Rendered/PDF/411780v10REVIS1Box0327393B01PUBLIC1.pdf using MHUUD, Housing and Utilities Sector data. 20 NUCA‘s official website at http://www.urban-comm.gov.eg/english/index.asp 21 World Bank. (2008) Arab republic of Egypt. Urban sector Update. Sustainable Development Department Middle East & North Africa Region http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2008/07/03/000333038_20080703040953/Rendered/PDF/411780v10REVIS1Box0327393B01PUBLIC1.pdf 23 David Sims.(2000) Residential Informality in Greater Cairo. Egyptian Real estate Formalization Study.Egyptian Centre For Economic Studies 24 (Séjourné and Sims cited in World Bank (2008a) Arab republic of Egypt. Urban sector Update. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2008/07/03/000333038_20080703040953/Rendered/PDF/411780v10REVIS1Box0327393B01PUBLIC1.pdf 25 http://www2.gtz.de/dokumente/bib/gtz2009-0424en-cairo-informal-areas.pdf 26 USAID Housing report at: http://www.mf.gov.eg/NR/rdonlyres/FF6BEC5A-6263-4A8A-AFDF-55D713C4B954/811/HOUSINGSTUDYFORURBANEGYPT.pdf 27IDSC official site with various sources: http://www.idsc.gov.eg/ResearchArea/ResearchAreaDetails.aspx?id=19&l2id=33
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The World Bank. (2008) Arab republic of Egypt. Urban sector 28Update offers a comprehensive source of recent data and analysis of national trends and drivers, including details of
urban expansion, service delivery, institutional and regulatory conditions and an assessment of Egypt‘s urban and spatial policies.
In summary the following trends can be noted:
Formal urban development is characterised by interventions
(public and private) in a changing policy environment that include the following:
1) The development of service infrastructure to meet the needs of a rapidly growing population .Major developments and improvements have included public health facilities, including hospitals and clinics; schools, training establishments and extending the education reach of the state; and water, sanitation, solid waste management and energy infrastructure expansion throughout the city.
2) The development of transport infrastructure and services
inside and around the city. Projects include the metro; public buses; bus lanes, flyovers and bridges; the ring road and major inter-city connecting arteries; and urban corridors.
3) The development of residential housing programmes and
schemes to meet needs of low- and middle-income
households; the visionary development of new cities and settlements (serviced) outside the city to create alternative nodes of metropolitan life.
4) The ambitious and visionary, strategic interventions of
multiple desert ‗reclamation‘ projects through the ever-
expanding designation of new cities and settlements under the authority of NUCA
5) The development of dramatic new plans for the future captured in the ‗Cairo 2050‘ aspirations; and the targeted elimination of unsafe (slum) settlements through the new work of the ISDF.
Informal urban development can be characterised by the burgeoning of squatter settlements and the transformation of private agricultural land in the city into thriving informal settlements that have created residential and economic centres for 7 to 9 million poor, low- and middle-income
1) Wide-scale, independent but illegal construction of multi-
level, durable housing by informal developers.
28 World Bank. (2008) Arab republic of Egypt. Urban sector Update. Sustainable Development Department Middle East & North Africa Region http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2008/07/03/000333038_20080703040953/Rendered/PDF/411780v10REVIS1Box0327393B01PUBLIC1.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report: Chris Horwood. Egypt : page 5
2) Private investment in informal housing and infrastructure
on private and public land in multiple city locations
3) Despite strict laws and regulations the growing informal
settlements gain strong footholds throughout Greater Cairo.
4) The subsequent government‘s involvement in the
development and upgrading of ‗mature‘ and populous
informal settlements, including a degree of formalisation of
some informal areas.
5) Local initiatives to provide services through charitable
NGOs as well as extended government welfare programmes 29to assist informal residents etc.
Existing & desirable Historically, urban management in Urban development in Cairo and other urban centres has urbanization policies. Egypt has remained in the hand of historically been haphazard and piecemeal with a history of
centralised municipalities and planning laws not being in-place, not being implemented or
National urban policy governorates. Cairo (and to a lesser otherwise circumvented, resulting in the chaotic, congested development. degree Alexandria) illustrate and increasingly shabby megapolis that is Cairo. Overpasses
successive development s over the and other modern infrastructure weave through a high Governance centuries emanating form historic density city of extreme area contrasts between ancient adaptations for urban cores that have for centuries barely mosques and residential blocks near belle Époque and Art & regional spatial been touched. In Cairo even Nouveau architecture and modern high rise office and hotel planning for the future. mausoleum cemeteries cover accommodation.
significant areas of land and also
informally house thousands of families. After the 1952 revolution in Egypt a period of Arab socialism
characterised land and housing policy from the 50s to the
Egyptian development has occurred 80s. The major disincentive for housing construction by the
on just 5-6% of available land – the private sector was absence of credit, byzantine and venal
potential for expansion and desert bureaucracies around sale and purchase of land and
reclamation is massive. buildings, as well as a rent freeze that lasted for decades and
effectively took millions of properties and apartments out of
National urban policy development is the market. This law was only changed in 1996. Currently the
linked closely to new development in Old rent regime co-exists with the New rent regime.
desert lands and NUCA and the Hernando de Soto made an influential analysis of ‗Dead
Ministry of Housing‘s coordination of Capital and the Poor in Cairo‘ in the 1990s, quantifying the
multiple new cities throughout Egypt loss to the economy of dysfunctional urban housing markets 31but concentrating around Cairo. and real estate policies.
The General Organization for Physical An important aspect of state policy has been the
Planning (GOPP) is the national development of service infrastructure to meet the needs of a
Egyptian authority responsible for the rapidly growing population and to meet international
planning process. GOPP was standards and expectations concerning health, education
established in 1973 to be responsible and the like. Major developments and improvements have
for all planning activities in the country. included public health facilities, including hospitals and
Currently the GOPP is involved in clinics; schools, training establishments and extending the
organizing the planning process on all education reach of the state; and water, sanitation, solid
levels (regional, urban, and detailed) waste management and energy infrastructure expansion
and preparing planning guidelines, throughout Cairo and other cities to a lesser extent.
urban development programs and Additionally, the development of transport infrastructure and
coordination of the planning processes services inside and around the city to meet the increased 30all over Egypt. GOPP‘s Arabic population pressures and economic activity of Cairo, which
website is: http://www.gopp.gov.eg/ remains the highly centralized hub of the country. Projects
include the metro; public buses; bus lanes, flyovers and
The new Construction Law (Unified bridges; the ring road and major inter-city connecting
Building Code) No. 119 of 2008, also arteries; and urban corridors.
29 Analysis by Chris Horwood in UN-HABITAT report on Cairo as part of Cities and Citizens Series. In press. 30 http://itep-edu.org/Partners/Magazine/GOPP/PDF/GOPP.pdf 31Generally : http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/sais_review/v021/21.1de_soto.html and specifically for Cairo: http://www.eces.org.eg/Publications/View_Pub.asp?p_id=5&p_detail_id=184
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required all governorates and
municipalities (for the first time in law) The massive sale (often subsidized) of state land around
to prepare urban strategic to Cairo in the last decade or more has fuelled a real estate 32enumerate projects and development boom and speculation fever. Critics suggest that the
plans for the medium term and long wealthy and well-connected were the main benefactors of
term. this phenomenon. Even low-income government housing
schemes are criticised for ending up in the hands of
Increased rhetoric of participatory speculators and middle or upper middle owners who sub-let
planning and policy formation is or re-sell.
evident in relation to urban policy
development. Critics question the The rising trend of (auto-dependent) exclusive residential and
value to current efforts to enhance office construction and gated communities offer the elite and
participation in the urban process. wealthy an escape from the increasingly congested cities –
often now taken over by wide-spread informality and poor or
Informality in Cairo and other urban centres is on-going but
efforts are being made to regularise and legalise informal
settlements. After years of ‗turning a blind eye‘ to the wide-
spread growth of informal and squatter settlements the
government is now committed to a programme of urbanising
many informal areas in an effort to include them in the city‘s
plans, provide better living standards to inhabitants , enhance
state security and control of the areas and, as some see it,
accept that informal areas are ‗here to stay‘.
The establishment of the Informal Areas Development
Facility ISDF) – mandated to eliminate slums in the next
decade) reflects a new policy of addressing the slum problem
in Egypt (as separate from the ‗urban informal‘ problem in
Egypt) Some frame the work of the ISDF as disaster risk 33reduction, but others fear the ISDF mandate may be used
to force evictions or encourage real estate interests to lobby 34to influence ISDF policy.
Details of & impact of Estimated number of international Officially there are no IDPs in Egypt .
migrants, refugees & migrants at mid-year (2010):
IDPs on urbanization. 244,714 Of the immigrants in Egypt 46.7% are female.
Estimated number of refugees at 39Policy implications. mid-year (2010): 92,000 , Iraq and Somalia. The bulk of the refugees are from Sudan
(For Magreb, Mashreq International migrants as a The bulk of asylum seekers are from Sudan with a small
& LDCs only) percentage of the population (2010): amount from Eritrea and Ethiopia.
Refugees as a percentage of Egypt is a signatory to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its international migrants 1967 Protocol, as well as to the Organization of African 35(2010):37.9%
Unity's 1969 Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of
No. of refugees (2010): 94,406 Refugee Problems in Africa. However, it has no domestic 36(UNHCR), 172,000 (USCRI)
32 World Bank. (2008) Arab republic of Egypt. Urban sector Update. Sustainable Development Department Middle East & North Africa Region http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2008/07/03/000333038_20080703040953/Rendered/PDF/411780v10REVIS1Box0327393B01PUBLIC1.pdf 33 See a campaign article mentioning ISDF in this regard, http://www.preventionweb.net/files/section/230_CairoCityProfile.pdf 34 Article expressing such concerns from Amnesty International http://www.amnesty.org.au/news/comments/23811/
35 UN DESA, International migrant stock: the 2008 revision. Retrieved at: http://esa.un.org/migration/index.asp?panel=2
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No. of asylum seekers (2010): procedures and institutions for asylum. All aspects of 13,443 (UNHCR) registration, documentation and refugee status determination 37No. of stateless persons (2010): 64
(RSD) are carried out by UNHCR under the terms of a
Remittance inflows (2007): $7,656 Memorandum of Understanding with the Government. million USD representing $101 USD UNHCR works with various NGOs and in particular with the per capita and 6% of Egyptian GDP. Refugee Affairs Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
Remittance outflows (2007): and the Ministry of Interior, in particular the Immigration 38$180 million Department and state security authorities. Egypt hosts refugees and asylum-seekers from 38 countries,
mostly in urban settings.
Egypt is a refugee-receiving as well as a transit country, with irregular movements of people fleeing their countries due to
40economic reasons or serious violations of human rights.
However Egypt has also been severely criticised for its
41treatment of refugees.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs retracted earlier threats to expel Sudanese whom authorities had detained after violently suppressing demonstrations at the end of 2005 that 42gained world-wide press attention, in which Sudanese
unsuccessfully demanded refugee status
Refugees and asylum-seekers in Egypt face difficult lives
marked by poverty and a sensitive political and security environment. The problems are aggravated by restrictions on employment and access to public schools and the lack of
affordable health care. A sharp increase in commodity prices 43has added to refugees' woes.
Egypt had no refugee camps but report are common of
harassment, arbitrary identity checks, and violence by police and civilians, which inhibited refugee movement and choice of residence.
Legal work for asylum seekers is impossible and, for officially
recognized refugees, very nearly so, relegating both groups to the informal sector where wages did not cover basic needs. The 2003 Labor Law requires all foreigners to have a
permit in order to work and did not exempt refugees, nor did the decree of the Ministry of Manpower and Emigration later that year (2003 decree) on the employment of
foreigners. The requirements for work permits were
severe, including legal status, employer sponsorship, non-
competition with nationals, "the country's economic need," and the hiring and training of Egyptian assistants to any foreign experts or technicians. In addition, in December
2006, the Ministry of Manpower and Immigration issued a
36 Retrieved at the website of the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants http://www.refugees.org/countryreports.aspx?id=1994 39 Wipipedia has an article dedicated to Sudanese refugees in Egypt; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudanese_refugees_in_Egypt 37 UNHCR. Retrieved at: http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/page?page=49e486356 38 UNDP, 2009 Human Development Report, p.159. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf 40 UNHCR Egypt country profile retrieved at http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/page?page=49e486356 41 Human Rights Watch faults Egypt's 'shoot-to-stop' policy. Christian Science Monitor 2008: retrieved at http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2008/1113/p06s03-wome.html 42 USCRI site. Retrieved at http://www.refugees.org/countryreports.aspx?id=1994 43 UNHCR Egypt country profile retrieved at http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/page?page=49e486356
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report: Chris Horwood. Egypt : page 8
decree requiring employers to submit "a certificate proving
that the foreigner is not carrying the immunodeficiency
syndrome (AIDS)" when applying for the permit and after 44each time the foreigner leaves the country.
Due to poverty, discrimination and lack of opportunity some
refugees and asylum seekers are being smuggled / trafficked 45into Israel.
2. The Growing
Economic Role of
The economic role of GDP (2009 $US): 188,334 million Cairo is also in every respect the centre of Egypt, as it has 46urban networks & (WTO) been since its establishment in AD 969 or earlier. With a systems of cities. GNI per capita (Atlas method, US$): population of an estimated 18 million, Greater Cairo is home 47 $2,070 (2009) to almost 25 per cent of all Egyptians. The majority of the Country‘s cities‘ role in nation's commerce is generated there, or passes through the global markets, the Merchandise trade exports (2008): city. The great majority of publishing houses and media rise of global & Fuel and mining products: 43.8%
outlets and nearly all film studios are based in the city, as are regional cities. Manufactures 43.1% 48 Agriculture 12.2% half of the nation's hospital beds and universities. Cairo is the
Changing role of economic center of Egypt, with two-thirds of the country's countries cities under Rank in world trade (2008): gross national product generated in the greater metropolitan economic Merchandise (exports): 62 area. Industrialization, which began in the nineteenth century, globalization. Merchandise (imports): 47 grew rapidly following the 1952 revolution and revolved Commercial services (exports): 35 49primarily around textiles (based on Egypt's traditional Commercial services (imports): 45City marketing, related
economic mainstay, long-staple cotton) and food processing. fiscal policy, export-A new emerging service is information
oriented industrial and communication technology (ICT): Other industries include iron and steel production and cities. in 2009, Cairo broke into the top 10 of consumer goods. Today the majority of Cairo's work force is world's emerging outsourcing cities for employed in service sector jobs, especially in government, 50What are the most the first time. financial services, and commerce. The tourism industry is a dynamic urban major source of revenue for the country, along with weapons sectors? sales, petroleum, and Suez Canal tariffs (following
nationalization of the canal on July 26, 1956). Foreign aid
51 from other countries is also an important source of income. In addition to the production of iron, steel and consumer goods, Egypt's main exports consist of natural gas and non- petroleum products such as ready-made clothes, cotton textiles, medical and petrochemical products, citrus fruits,
rice and dried onion. Egypt‘s main imports consist of
pharmaceuticals and non-petroleum products such as wheat,
maize, cars and car spare parts. In the Arab world, Egypt has the largest non-oil GDP as of 2005.
One of the most dynamic economic sectors in Cairo and other growing cities in Egypt is construction and real estate where massive building projects as well as high value land speculation have fuelled a fast growing urban and capital economy.
44 USCRI site. Retrieved at http://www.refugees.org/countryreports.aspx?id=1994 45 Al Ahram news article of August 2007 retrieved at http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2007/856/eg9.htm 46 World Trade Organisation http://stat.wto.org/CountryProfile/WSDBCountryPFView.aspx?Language=E&Country=EG 47 World Bank http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD 48 World Trade Organisation, http://stat.wto.org/CountryProfile/WSDBCountryPFView.aspx?Language=E&Country=EG 49 World Trade Organisation, http://stat.wto.org/CountryProfile/WSDBCountryPFView.aspx?Language=E&Country=EG 50 Afronews service. 2009 Oct. Cairo among top ten emerging global outsourcing cities. http://www.afrol.com/articles/31179
51 Cities of the World Data http://www.city-data.com/world-cities/Cairo-Economy.html
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report: Chris Horwood. Egypt : page 9
Alexandria and its environs account for roughly two-fifths of Egypt’s industrial production. Most industrial development has taken place in the western approaches to the city, around the more modern Western Harbour and along its southern flank; industry is the city‘s chief employment sector.
More than half of Egypt’s foreign trade passes through the city‘s two main commercial harbours, Alexandria and nearby Al-Dukhaylah. Much of the country‘s oil, gas, and cotton are exported through these ports, as are traditional items such as fruits, vegetables, perfumes, and a variety of finished goods. By far the largest import is grain. Improvements have been implemented to relieve congestion, which can be severe. Egypt‘s dependence on Alexandria‘s ports has diminished somewhat with the opening of new container-handling facilities at Damietta (Dumyāṭ) and the development of ports along the coast of the Red Sea
Services & Air transport, registered carrier Transport in Cairo comprises an extensive road network, infrastructure departures worldwide (# rail system, subway system and maritime services for the 15 (supporting global or domestic/international flights abroad to 18 million inhabitants and daily commuters in the city. A international by carriers registered in Egypt): new Cairo Monorail has been proposed on the east side of 52functions.) 44,730 (2005) ; 57,510 (2008) the city, while plans are underway to continually expand the Policy implications. metro rail network. An extensive road network connects Communication Stats:
Cairo with other Egyptian cities and villages. Cairo is the hub Cities, mobility & Telephones - main lines in use:
transportation 10.808 million (2006) of almost the entire Egyptian transport network, and in infrastructures (facts & Telephones - mobile cellular: 30.047 particular major urban corridors to Alexandria, Port Said, trends). million (2007) and expanding rapidly: Suez and industrial and new urban developments south of As of 2007 there were three mobile-60 Cairo‘s traffic continues to have a reputation of the city.cellular networks: principal centers at being highly congested and noisy Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah,
Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are In response to the rapid rise in population, recent decades connected by coaxial cable and have seen continuous development of major road microwave radio relay
infrastructure projects in and around Greater Cairo including
Radio broadcast stations: AM 42 bridges over the Nile, urban motorway viaducts, underground
(plus 15 repeaters), FM 14, shortwave carriageways and underpasses, ring roads and radial 3 (1999) motorways. The past three decades have witnessed some Television Broadcast Stations: 98 major changes in the way Cairenes move around the region. (1995) Apart from the huge increase in car ownership (both in Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
proportion and in absolute terms – see stats), increased 220 (2008)
Internet Hosts: 5,363 (2007) mobility, together with the sharp population increase, has
People connected to the internet: resulted in a ‗spectacular increase‘ in the number of trips 5312,568,900(As of June 2009) 61according to the World Bank.
Urban Transport The Cairo Metro in Egypt is Africa's only functioning network In recent years, the market share of metro system, with 53 stations along 65 kilometres of track. It motorised transport modes has became operational in 1987 but was conceived of in the changed dramatically. For example, 1950s. The trains are most used in the metro corridor, which while cars and taxis absorbed 13 per is directly available to 30 per cent of the population in Greater
52 World Bank indicators. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.AIR.DPRT 53 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communications_in_Egypt 60 UN HABITAT (2008) The State of African Cities 2008.. Chapter 6: Emerging Urban Corridors. P.64 61 World Bank (2000) World Bank Urban Transport Strategy Review The Case Of Cairo EGYPT Ref: 3018/SYS-PLT/CAI/709-00 Edition 3 – Nov. 2000. p.5 of Executive Summary
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report: Chris Horwood. Egypt : page 10
cent of the market share of motor Cairo located within 1 kilometre on either side of the line. The
transport uses in 1971, by 1998 it had metro is the most democratic mode of transport in Cairo risen to 26 per cent. The Metro, which since it is used by all social classes, with the exception of the didn‘t exist in the 1970s, absorbed 20 wealthiest 2 per cent of the population, who opt for private per cent of people‘s motorized cars. On average 17 per cent of the travelling population transport mobility in 2000. With a used the metro in 1998.
liberalization of government policy
allowing privately operated
microbuses, by 1998 this mode Affordability and availability are the two critical factors that absorbed as much as 26 per cent of supersede preference as the drivers of transport use in 54the market share. Cairo. The poor are overwhelmingly dependent on public and private transport for everyday survival. The expense of
transport as a proportion of household budget and how it In 1983, more than 530,000 vehicles influences strategic decisions on how family members live were on Cairo roads, but by 1997, the varies considerably between the poor and the non-poor. 55total had surpassed one million. A Some argue that the poor are held captive by public transport comprehensive transport survey while the wealthy are free to escape the chaos of the city by carried out in 1987 found variations in retreating to new urban desert enclaves, although the car ownership and income by zone. wealthy are equally trapped in traffic with their private cars Average car ownership at that time when they navigate the city. was about 0.053 per head (about one
car per 20 people), or 0.017 per There has been a dramatic increase in private car ownership household (about one car per five in Cairo in the last quarter century. 56households). Some claim the ratio is
57114 cars per 1,000 people, which A World Bank study in 2000 cited statistics showing that 7 suggests that as many as 1.8 or 2.0 per cent of very poor households (earning less than 300 EGP million cars are at large on Cairo‘s per month, or about US $55) used private cars, while 57 per roads. It is not clear what the exact cent of those who were classified as wealthy (earning more statistics in 2010 are, but almost than 2,000 EGP per month, or about US $364) and 39 per 18,000 car units were purchased in cent of those ranked as affluent (earning between 1000 EGP Cairo in January 2010 alone. Strong and 2000 EGP per month) used private cars for their urban sales are expected to continue in the travel.
coming years. A recent report by
Factors around transport, not to mention the paucity of Business Monitor International predicts
services and facilities in many areas and the relative isolation that total automotive sales will
of new communities, have often been cited as critical increase from US $9.48 billion in 2009
reasons why Cairo‘s overcrowded low-income population has to US $23.54 billion in 2014, an
58resisted the government‘s incentives and persuasions to increase of 148 per cent. If January
move to new desert settlements. 2010 was a typical month for the year,
it suggests a possible 200,000 new
cars in 2010 alone will be added to Alexandria is linked to other Egyptian cities by railway, road,
and air service. It also is connected by canal with the Nile. Egypt‘s army of private cars, many of
Transport within the city is provided by tram service, as well which will end up on Cairo‘s roads. as a system of taxis and buses. The main rail link to Cairo
has been upgraded several times, and Alexandria is also the Cairo Transportation Authority (CTA) is terminus for the rail line that runs to Al-Sallūm on the Libyan the operator of mass transit within border. The Alexandria-Cairo desert highway is one of Cairo, and the largest operator in Egypt‘s best roads; it has relieved pressure on the Egypt. The government controls its agricultural route through the delta region as well as passenger prices to increase low-encouraging desert development. Air transport services income affordability. CTA operates
54 Data from the World Bank (2000) World Bank Urban Transport Strategy Review The Case Of Cairo EGYPT Ref: 3018/SYS-PLT/CAI/709-00 Edition 3 – Nov. 2000 55 (Séjourné and Sims cited in World Bank (2008a) Arab republic of Egypt. Urban sector Updatehttp://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2008/07/03/000333038_20080703040953/Rendered/PDF/411780v10REVIS1Box0327393B01PUBLIC1.pdf 56 IMPACTS OF THE CAIRO METRO (2000) Egyptian National Institute of Transport (ENIT), Cairo.p.6 57 www.touregypt.net/cairo/cairostatistics.htm 58 Emerging Markets Information Service. (March 2010) from Tegara Net Business News.