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Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report: Chris Horwood. Egypt : page 1

    Egypt Overview of data access & The government offer a central gateway of official statistics

    environment in Egypt ? on a wide range of social and economic data through their

    statistics agency: Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and

    Statistics CAPMAS. Apart from generating their own data

    and masterminding the census activities, CAMPAS acquires

    data from different government ministries.

    There is a wide variety of literature and studies on different

    aspects of social, political and economic life in Cairo. A wide

    selection of universities and research centres are active and

    productive with relatively low government censure or control.

    Less is available on other non-Cairo cities but the many

    urban centres outside of Cairo are featured in national data

    surveys etc.

    Additionally, various major donors, international agencies

    and the active civil society in Egypt produce different

    independent reports that are generally obtainable for

    research purposes. Finally the media(print and web) itself is

    active and productive offering a wide variety of opinions

    despite the governments efforts to control information and

    the propagation of state run newspapers, TV channels and

    radio programmes. Bureaucratic harassment of newspapers

    and channels promoting non-government sanctioned news is

    well established.

    Issues National indicators Summary themes: analysis with statistical notes &

    additional sources

    1. Population &


Country 78.8 million (July 2010 est.)(CIA, In a highly Cairo-centred hierarchy of urbanity, Alexandria is 1population overview: 2010) the second largest city with less than half Cairo‘s population. 2 84.4 milllion (DSA 2010) Other major cities are Aswan, Asyut, Port Said, Suez, 3 79.2 million (CAPMAS) Ismailia. Some list the number of cities and large towns in 11 . Egypt as 77 (including new cities still under construction)1213 Population growth (2010-2015): Others suggest over 140, and even 168.

    Demographic & urban Urban: 2.1% 4statistics: 1980-2010 & Rural: 1.3% The last demographic survey (population and housing) was

    2010-2030 forecasts. Urban population: conducted by CAPMAS in 2006 with the results made 14 19.5 million (1980) available in May 2008. 15National totals (urban ; 36.7 million (2010) ‗Egypt in Figures‘ is a valuable source run by CAPMAS 5& rural) ; 56.5 million (2030) (UN DESA). offering statistics on a wide variety of past and present

     Rural population: statistics including; agriculture, labour, economy, health, Urban growth rates 24.9 million (1980) ; 47.8 mil (2010) education, population, household conditions, water, the 6 ; 54.4 mil (2030) environment, industry and petroleum, tourism, justice, City sizes & population transport, communication, construction and social services distribution by country. % of the total population resident in etc.

     urban areas:

     43.9% (1980) The only urban agglomerations of population above 750,000

     ; 43.4% (2010) people are Cairo and Alexandria: Greater Cairo is growing 7; 50.9% (2030). fast in numbers but the historic core has been reducing in

    42.8% of total population (2009 population for some years (urban decay, poverty, families

     1 CIA, World Factbook, Egypt retrieved at 2 UN DSA 3 Government data: CAPMAS retrieved at 4 UN DESA. 5 United Nations, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision. 6 United Nations, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision. 7 United Nations, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision.

Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report: Chris Horwood. Egypt : page 2

    8World Bank) moving out, no expansion possibilities etc)

    Population of Greater Cairo: Population of Cairo 18.4 million according to the 2006 census

    18.4 million (CAPMAS 2009 based on and estimates. Depending on the boundaries chosen,

    2006 census) population figures for Greater Cairo range from 12.5 million

    Urban population of Cairo: to 18 million. The official CAPMAS census data provides the 1613.5 mil (CAPMAS 2006) The populations of the five governorates of Greater Cairo.

    11 mil (2010 according to DESA) and total urban population in the five governorates is 13.4 mil 9expected to be 13.5 by 2025 while those in rural areas of these governorates numbered

    Urban population of Alexandria: 4.9 mil. There is no rural population listed in the Cairo 174.4 million in 2010 rising to 5.6 million governorate itself. 10in 2025 (DESA)

     There is a debate concerning the government‘s

    categorisation of land between rural and urban which is said

    to distort figures because villages that have become urban

    centres remain categorised as rural entities the per centage

    of urban areas and urban population could be significantly 18higher.

Country urbanization

    trends. Population: expected to rise by 27 High level urbanisation ( especially urban informality)

     million to over 100 million in next 12 characterises Egypt accompanied by significant growth of Drivers of urbanization years (to 2023) new developments, urban corridors, infrastructure investment 22 and planning into the future.

    Where is the future 16 million people ( approx 13% of total

    heading? population and 43% of the urban For the last 4 decades a defining trend of urbanisation in

    population) live in informal and Egypt has been the growth of informal settlements,

    squatter settlements. threatening to overwhelm urban planners and the ability of

     the state to provide services. Informal settlement are extra-

     11 12 13 14 Census 2006 tables as of 2008 (May) 15 CAPMAS Egypt in Figures gateway: 8 World Bank data retrieved at 9United Nations, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision 10 United Nations, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision 1616 Table: Population of governorates included (at least partially) in Greater Cairo in the 2006 census (Quoted in IIED 2009 next footnote and based on CAMPAS figures. Governorate urban rural total

    Cairo 6,758,581 0 6,758,581

    Giza 2,891,275 252,211 3,143,486

    Qalyoubia 1,899,354 2,352,318 4,251,672

    Helwan 1,202,395 510,833 1,713,278

    Sixth October 745,875 1,835,184 2,581,059

    Total: 13,497,480 4,950,546 18,448,076

     17 IIED (2009) by Sarah Sabry Poverty Lines in Greater Cairo: Underestimating and Misrepresenting poverty. Working Paper 21 of IIED International Institute for Environment and Development Poverty Reduction and Urban Areas Series 18 World Bank. (2008) Arab republic of Egypt. Urban sector Update. Sustainable Development Department Middle East & North Africa Region

    Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report: Chris Horwood. Egypt : page 3

    In Cairo an estimate 65% live in legal and mainly built on private agricultural plots or state informal areas. i.e. between 8 and 10 desert land in and around cities.

    million Cairenes, in over 140 Km2 of

    city land The characteristics and typology of informal housing and

     charts the fast growth of informal settlements. It finds that in Between 1986 and 1996, 45 % of new 2000, informal settlements were estimated to cover 105.5 housing units constructed were private square kilometres and represent 81.6 per cent of all informal and informal, while 28 per cent were 23 The growth of residential areas in Greater Cairo.state-built and 27 per cent were private ashwai’yyat (random or informal areas) is outpacing the 19and formal.

    growth of formal areas of Cairo. A recent study established

    300,000-400,000 housing units on that in 2006, informal settlements were growing at an average required annually for 2008- average of 2.57 per cent per year, while formal Cairo was 2023 period according to USAID i24growing at 0.4 per cent per year. Far from being a marginal report. or peripheral phenomenon, the 65 per cent of Cairenes who live in informal areas could be said to be the real city. Major (11) new ‗mega-projects‘ are

    being developed for Cairo as part of a 25Full discussion of informality by GTZ 2009 publication. Cairo Vision 2050. If completed they would transform the city and potentially Population growth in Greater Cairo is now predominantly due require removal of large areas of to natural growth instead of rural-urban migration which was residential and business centres high in previous decades. Housing demand and the housing gap is high in most cities The establishment of the New Urban (also a cause for the rapid growth of unregulated informal 20Communities Authority (NUCA) in construction). In Cairo the low to middle income housing 1979 overseeing the building of 23 deficit is high in the formal market due to lack of affordability. current new cities and a proposed 38 Major ‗Housing Study For All Urban Egypt’ by USAID in in the future. 262008 offers comprehensive data and analysis. Full discussion of desert developments 21in World Bank report. The government has made a major commitment to building

    new cities in the desert in response to the congestion, pollution and lack of space in existing cities in particular in

    Cairo. 8 major new cities surround Cairo (under staggered 1. construction) designed to meet current and future demands

    (socioeconomic). To date these developments have met

    some criticism and the residency uptake has been slow,

    especially by low income groups.

    Future urban visions for Cairo and Egypt are discussed by

    the government think tank IDSC Information and 27Decision Support Centre. A full presentation of Vision

    Cairo 2050 can be found at :


     22 Details in UN HABITAT - State of the African Cities 2008 (Chapter 6 p.64/5) at 19 Estimation made by World Bank (2008) using MHUUD, Housing and Utilities Sector data. 20 NUCA‘s official website at 21 World Bank. (2008) Arab republic of Egypt. Urban sector Update. Sustainable Development Department Middle East & North Africa Region 23 David Sims.(2000) Residential Informality in Greater Cairo. Egyptian Real estate Formalization Study.Egyptian Centre For Economic Studies 24 (Séjourné and Sims cited in World Bank (2008a) Arab republic of Egypt. Urban sector Update. 25 26 USAID Housing report at: 27IDSC official site with various sources:

    Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report: Chris Horwood. Egypt : page 4

    The World Bank. (2008) Arab republic of Egypt. Urban sector 28Update offers a comprehensive source of recent data and analysis of national trends and drivers, including details of

    urban expansion, service delivery, institutional and regulatory conditions and an assessment of Egypt‘s urban and spatial policies.

In summary the following trends can be noted:

    Formal urban development is characterised by interventions

    (public and private) in a changing policy environment that include the following:

    1) The development of service infrastructure to meet the needs of a rapidly growing population .Major developments and improvements have included public health facilities, including hospitals and clinics; schools, training establishments and extending the education reach of the state; and water, sanitation, solid waste management and energy infrastructure expansion throughout the city.

2) The development of transport infrastructure and services

    inside and around the city. Projects include the metro; public buses; bus lanes, flyovers and bridges; the ring road and major inter-city connecting arteries; and urban corridors.

3) The development of residential housing programmes and

    schemes to meet needs of low- and middle-income

    households; the visionary development of new cities and settlements (serviced) outside the city to create alternative nodes of metropolitan life.

4) The ambitious and visionary, strategic interventions of

    multiple desert ‗reclamation‘ projects through the ever-

    expanding designation of new cities and settlements under the authority of NUCA

    5) The development of dramatic new plans for the future captured in the ‗Cairo 2050‘ aspirations; and the targeted elimination of unsafe (slum) settlements through the new work of the ISDF.

    Informal urban development can be characterised by the burgeoning of squatter settlements and the transformation of private agricultural land in the city into thriving informal settlements that have created residential and economic centres for 7 to 9 million poor, low- and middle-income


    1) Wide-scale, independent but illegal construction of multi-

    level, durable housing by informal developers.

     28 World Bank. (2008) Arab republic of Egypt. Urban sector Update. Sustainable Development Department Middle East & North Africa Region

Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report: Chris Horwood. Egypt : page 5

    2) Private investment in informal housing and infrastructure

    on private and public land in multiple city locations

    3) Despite strict laws and regulations the growing informal

    settlements gain strong footholds throughout Greater Cairo.

    4) The subsequent government‘s involvement in the

    development and upgrading of ‗mature‘ and populous

    informal settlements, including a degree of formalisation of

    some informal areas.

    5) Local initiatives to provide services through charitable

    NGOs as well as extended government welfare programmes 29to assist informal residents etc.

    Existing & desirable Historically, urban management in Urban development in Cairo and other urban centres has urbanization policies. Egypt has remained in the hand of historically been haphazard and piecemeal with a history of

     centralised municipalities and planning laws not being in-place, not being implemented or

    National urban policy governorates. Cairo (and to a lesser otherwise circumvented, resulting in the chaotic, congested development. degree Alexandria) illustrate and increasingly shabby megapolis that is Cairo. Overpasses

     successive development s over the and other modern infrastructure weave through a high Governance centuries emanating form historic density city of extreme area contrasts between ancient adaptations for urban cores that have for centuries barely mosques and residential blocks near belle Époque and Art & regional spatial been touched. In Cairo even Nouveau architecture and modern high rise office and hotel planning for the future. mausoleum cemeteries cover accommodation.

     significant areas of land and also

    informally house thousands of families. After the 1952 revolution in Egypt a period of Arab socialism

     characterised land and housing policy from the 50s to the

    Egyptian development has occurred 80s. The major disincentive for housing construction by the

    on just 5-6% of available land the private sector was absence of credit, byzantine and venal

    potential for expansion and desert bureaucracies around sale and purchase of land and

    reclamation is massive. buildings, as well as a rent freeze that lasted for decades and

     effectively took millions of properties and apartments out of

    National urban policy development is the market. This law was only changed in 1996. Currently the

    linked closely to new development in Old rent regime co-exists with the New rent regime.

    desert lands and NUCA and the Hernando de Soto made an influential analysis of ‗Dead

    Ministry of Housing‘s coordination of Capital and the Poor in Cairo‘ in the 1990s, quantifying the

    multiple new cities throughout Egypt loss to the economy of dysfunctional urban housing markets 31but concentrating around Cairo. and real estate policies.

    The General Organization for Physical An important aspect of state policy has been the

    Planning (GOPP) is the national development of service infrastructure to meet the needs of a

    Egyptian authority responsible for the rapidly growing population and to meet international

    planning process. GOPP was standards and expectations concerning health, education

    established in 1973 to be responsible and the like. Major developments and improvements have

    for all planning activities in the country. included public health facilities, including hospitals and

    Currently the GOPP is involved in clinics; schools, training establishments and extending the

    organizing the planning process on all education reach of the state; and water, sanitation, solid

    levels (regional, urban, and detailed) waste management and energy infrastructure expansion

    and preparing planning guidelines, throughout Cairo and other cities to a lesser extent.

    urban development programs and Additionally, the development of transport infrastructure and

    coordination of the planning processes services inside and around the city to meet the increased 30all over Egypt. GOPP‘s Arabic population pressures and economic activity of Cairo, which

    website is: remains the highly centralized hub of the country. Projects

     include the metro; public buses; bus lanes, flyovers and

    The new Construction Law (Unified bridges; the ring road and major inter-city connecting

    Building Code) No. 119 of 2008, also arteries; and urban corridors.

     29 Analysis by Chris Horwood in UN-HABITAT report on Cairo as part of Cities and Citizens Series. In press. 30 31Generally : and specifically for Cairo:

Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report: Chris Horwood. Egypt : page 6

    required all governorates and

    municipalities (for the first time in law) The massive sale (often subsidized) of state land around

    to prepare urban strategic to Cairo in the last decade or more has fuelled a real estate 32enumerate projects and development boom and speculation fever. Critics suggest that the

    plans for the medium term and long wealthy and well-connected were the main benefactors of

    term. this phenomenon. Even low-income government housing

     schemes are criticised for ending up in the hands of

    Increased rhetoric of participatory speculators and middle or upper middle owners who sub-let

    planning and policy formation is or re-sell.

    evident in relation to urban policy

    development. Critics question the The rising trend of (auto-dependent) exclusive residential and

    value to current efforts to enhance office construction and gated communities offer the elite and

    participation in the urban process. wealthy an escape from the increasingly congested cities

     often now taken over by wide-spread informality and poor or

    haphazard planning.

    Informality in Cairo and other urban centres is on-going but

    efforts are being made to regularise and legalise informal

    settlements. After years of ‗turning a blind eye‘ to the wide-

    spread growth of informal and squatter settlements the

    government is now committed to a programme of urbanising

    many informal areas in an effort to include them in the city‘s

    plans, provide better living standards to inhabitants , enhance

    state security and control of the areas and, as some see it,

    accept that informal areas are ‗here to stay‘.

    The establishment of the Informal Areas Development

    Facility ISDF) mandated to eliminate slums in the next

    decade) reflects a new policy of addressing the slum problem

    in Egypt (as separate from the ‗urban informal‘ problem in

    Egypt) Some frame the work of the ISDF as disaster risk 33reduction, but others fear the ISDF mandate may be used

    to force evictions or encourage real estate interests to lobby 34to influence ISDF policy.

Details of & impact of Estimated number of international Officially there are no IDPs in Egypt .

    migrants, refugees & migrants at mid-year (2010):

    IDPs on urbanization. 244,714 Of the immigrants in Egypt 46.7% are female.

     Estimated number of refugees at 39Policy implications. mid-year (2010): 92,000 , Iraq and Somalia. The bulk of the refugees are from Sudan

    (For Magreb, Mashreq International migrants as a The bulk of asylum seekers are from Sudan with a small

    & LDCs only) percentage of the population (2010): amount from Eritrea and Ethiopia.


    Refugees as a percentage of Egypt is a signatory to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its international migrants 1967 Protocol, as well as to the Organization of African 35(2010):37.9%

    Unity's 1969 Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of

    No. of refugees (2010): 94,406 Refugee Problems in Africa. However, it has no domestic 36(UNHCR), 172,000 (USCRI)

     32 World Bank. (2008) Arab republic of Egypt. Urban sector Update. Sustainable Development Department Middle East & North Africa Region 33 See a campaign article mentioning ISDF in this regard, 34 Article expressing such concerns from Amnesty International

35 UN DESA, International migrant stock: the 2008 revision. Retrieved at:

    Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report: Chris Horwood. Egypt : page 7

    No. of asylum seekers (2010): procedures and institutions for asylum. All aspects of 13,443 (UNHCR) registration, documentation and refugee status determination 37No. of stateless persons (2010): 64

    (RSD) are carried out by UNHCR under the terms of a

    Remittance inflows (2007): $7,656 Memorandum of Understanding with the Government. million USD representing $101 USD UNHCR works with various NGOs and in particular with the per capita and 6% of Egyptian GDP. Refugee Affairs Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs,

    Remittance outflows (2007): and the Ministry of Interior, in particular the Immigration 38$180 million Department and state security authorities. Egypt hosts refugees and asylum-seekers from 38 countries,

    mostly in urban settings.

    Egypt is a refugee-receiving as well as a transit country, with irregular movements of people fleeing their countries due to

    40economic reasons or serious violations of human rights.

    However Egypt has also been severely criticised for its

    41treatment of refugees.

    The Ministry of Foreign Affairs retracted earlier threats to expel Sudanese whom authorities had detained after violently suppressing demonstrations at the end of 2005 that 42gained world-wide press attention, in which Sudanese

    unsuccessfully demanded refugee status

Refugees and asylum-seekers in Egypt face difficult lives

    marked by poverty and a sensitive political and security environment. The problems are aggravated by restrictions on employment and access to public schools and the lack of

    affordable health care. A sharp increase in commodity prices 43has added to refugees' woes.

Egypt had no refugee camps but report are common of

    harassment, arbitrary identity checks, and violence by police and civilians, which inhibited refugee movement and choice of residence.

Legal work for asylum seekers is impossible and, for officially

    recognized refugees, very nearly so, relegating both groups to the informal sector where wages did not cover basic needs. The 2003 Labor Law requires all foreigners to have a

    permit in order to work and did not exempt refugees, nor did the decree of the Ministry of Manpower and Emigration later that year (2003 decree) on the employment of

    foreigners. The requirements for work permits were

    severe, including legal status, employer sponsorship, non-

    competition with nationals, "the country's economic need," and the hiring and training of Egyptian assistants to any foreign experts or technicians. In addition, in December

    2006, the Ministry of Manpower and Immigration issued a

     36 Retrieved at the website of the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants 39 Wipipedia has an article dedicated to Sudanese refugees in Egypt; 37 UNHCR. Retrieved at: 38 UNDP, 2009 Human Development Report, p.159. 40 UNHCR Egypt country profile retrieved at 41 Human Rights Watch faults Egypt's 'shoot-to-stop' policy. Christian Science Monitor 2008: retrieved at 42 USCRI site. Retrieved at 43 UNHCR Egypt country profile retrieved at

Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report: Chris Horwood. Egypt : page 8

    decree requiring employers to submit "a certificate proving

    that the foreigner is not carrying the immunodeficiency

    syndrome (AIDS)" when applying for the permit and after 44each time the foreigner leaves the country.

    Due to poverty, discrimination and lack of opportunity some

    refugees and asylum seekers are being smuggled / trafficked 45into Israel.

2. The Growing

    Economic Role of


    The economic role of GDP (2009 $US): 188,334 million Cairo is also in every respect the centre of Egypt, as it has 46urban networks & (WTO) been since its establishment in AD 969 or earlier. With a systems of cities. GNI per capita (Atlas method, US$): population of an estimated 18 million, Greater Cairo is home 47 $2,070 (2009) to almost 25 per cent of all Egyptians. The majority of the Country‘s cities‘ role in nation's commerce is generated there, or passes through the global markets, the Merchandise trade exports (2008): city. The great majority of publishing houses and media rise of global & Fuel and mining products: 43.8%

    outlets and nearly all film studios are based in the city, as are regional cities. Manufactures 43.1% 48 Agriculture 12.2% half of the nation's hospital beds and universities. Cairo is the

    Changing role of economic center of Egypt, with two-thirds of the country's countries cities under Rank in world trade (2008): gross national product generated in the greater metropolitan economic Merchandise (exports): 62 area. Industrialization, which began in the nineteenth century, globalization. Merchandise (imports): 47 grew rapidly following the 1952 revolution and revolved Commercial services (exports): 35 49primarily around textiles (based on Egypt's traditional Commercial services (imports): 45City marketing, related

    economic mainstay, long-staple cotton) and food processing. fiscal policy, export-A new emerging service is information

    oriented industrial and communication technology (ICT): Other industries include iron and steel production and cities. in 2009, Cairo broke into the top 10 of consumer goods. Today the majority of Cairo's work force is world's emerging outsourcing cities for employed in service sector jobs, especially in government, 50What are the most the first time. financial services, and commerce. The tourism industry is a dynamic urban major source of revenue for the country, along with weapons sectors? sales, petroleum, and Suez Canal tariffs (following

     nationalization of the canal on July 26, 1956). Foreign aid

    51 from other countries is also an important source of income. In addition to the production of iron, steel and consumer goods, Egypt's main exports consist of natural gas and non- petroleum products such as ready-made clothes, cotton textiles, medical and petrochemical products, citrus fruits,

    rice and dried onion. Egypt‘s main imports consist of

     pharmaceuticals and non-petroleum products such as wheat,

     maize, cars and car spare parts. In the Arab world, Egypt has the largest non-oil GDP as of 2005.

     One of the most dynamic economic sectors in Cairo and other growing cities in Egypt is construction and real estate where massive building projects as well as high value land speculation have fuelled a fast growing urban and capital economy.

     44 USCRI site. Retrieved at 45 Al Ahram news article of August 2007 retrieved at 46 World Trade Organisation 47 World Bank 48 World Trade Organisation, 49 World Trade Organisation, 50 Afronews service. 2009 Oct. Cairo among top ten emerging global outsourcing cities.

    51 Cities of the World Data

Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report: Chris Horwood. Egypt : page 9

     Alexandria and its environs account for roughly two-fifths of Egypt’s industrial production. Most industrial development has taken place in the western approaches to the city, around the more modern Western Harbour and along its southern flank; industry is the city‘s chief employment sector.

     More than half of Egypt’s foreign trade passes through the city‘s two main commercial harbours, Alexandria and nearby Al-Dukhaylah. Much of the country‘s oil, gas, and cotton are exported through these ports, as are traditional items such as fruits, vegetables, perfumes, and a variety of finished goods. By far the largest import is grain. Improvements have been implemented to relieve congestion, which can be severe. Egypt‘s dependence on Alexandria‘s ports has diminished somewhat with the opening of new container-handling facilities at Damietta (Dumyā) and the development of ports along the coast of the Red Sea

    Services & Air transport, registered carrier Transport in Cairo comprises an extensive road network, infrastructure departures worldwide (# rail system, subway system and maritime services for the 15 (supporting global or domestic/international flights abroad to 18 million inhabitants and daily commuters in the city. A international by carriers registered in Egypt): new Cairo Monorail has been proposed on the east side of 52functions.) 44,730 (2005) ; 57,510 (2008) the city, while plans are underway to continually expand the Policy implications. metro rail network. An extensive road network connects Communication Stats:

    Cairo with other Egyptian cities and villages. Cairo is the hub Cities, mobility & Telephones - main lines in use:

    transportation 10.808 million (2006) of almost the entire Egyptian transport network, and in infrastructures (facts & Telephones - mobile cellular: 30.047 particular major urban corridors to Alexandria, Port Said, trends). million (2007) and expanding rapidly: Suez and industrial and new urban developments south of As of 2007 there were three mobile-60 Cairo‘s traffic continues to have a reputation of the city.cellular networks: principal centers at being highly congested and noisy Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah,

    Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are In response to the rapid rise in population, recent decades connected by coaxial cable and have seen continuous development of major road microwave radio relay

    infrastructure projects in and around Greater Cairo including

    Radio broadcast stations: AM 42 bridges over the Nile, urban motorway viaducts, underground

    (plus 15 repeaters), FM 14, shortwave carriageways and underpasses, ring roads and radial 3 (1999) motorways. The past three decades have witnessed some Television Broadcast Stations: 98 major changes in the way Cairenes move around the region. (1995) Apart from the huge increase in car ownership (both in Internet Service Providers (ISPs):

    proportion and in absolute terms see stats), increased 220 (2008)

    Internet Hosts: 5,363 (2007) mobility, together with the sharp population increase, has

    People connected to the internet: resulted in a ‗spectacular increase‘ in the number of trips 5312,568,900(As of June 2009) 61according to the World Bank.

    Urban Transport The Cairo Metro in Egypt is Africa's only functioning network In recent years, the market share of metro system, with 53 stations along 65 kilometres of track. It motorised transport modes has became operational in 1987 but was conceived of in the changed dramatically. For example, 1950s. The trains are most used in the metro corridor, which while cars and taxis absorbed 13 per is directly available to 30 per cent of the population in Greater

     52 World Bank indicators. 53 60 UN HABITAT (2008) The State of African Cities 2008.. Chapter 6: Emerging Urban Corridors. P.64 61 World Bank (2000) World Bank Urban Transport Strategy Review The Case Of Cairo EGYPT Ref: 3018/SYS-PLT/CAI/709-00 Edition 3 Nov. 2000. p.5 of Executive Summary

    Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report: Chris Horwood. Egypt : page 10

    cent of the market share of motor Cairo located within 1 kilometre on either side of the line. The

    transport uses in 1971, by 1998 it had metro is the most democratic mode of transport in Cairo risen to 26 per cent. The Metro, which since it is used by all social classes, with the exception of the didn‘t exist in the 1970s, absorbed 20 wealthiest 2 per cent of the population, who opt for private per cent of people‘s motorized cars. On average 17 per cent of the travelling population transport mobility in 2000. With a used the metro in 1998.

    liberalization of government policy

    allowing privately operated

    microbuses, by 1998 this mode Affordability and availability are the two critical factors that absorbed as much as 26 per cent of supersede preference as the drivers of transport use in 54the market share. Cairo. The poor are overwhelmingly dependent on public and private transport for everyday survival. The expense of

    transport as a proportion of household budget and how it In 1983, more than 530,000 vehicles influences strategic decisions on how family members live were on Cairo roads, but by 1997, the varies considerably between the poor and the non-poor. 55total had surpassed one million. A Some argue that the poor are held captive by public transport comprehensive transport survey while the wealthy are free to escape the chaos of the city by carried out in 1987 found variations in retreating to new urban desert enclaves, although the car ownership and income by zone. wealthy are equally trapped in traffic with their private cars Average car ownership at that time when they navigate the city. was about 0.053 per head (about one

    car per 20 people), or 0.017 per There has been a dramatic increase in private car ownership household (about one car per five in Cairo in the last quarter century. 56households). Some claim the ratio is

    57114 cars per 1,000 people, which A World Bank study in 2000 cited statistics showing that 7 suggests that as many as 1.8 or 2.0 per cent of very poor households (earning less than 300 EGP million cars are at large on Cairo‘s per month, or about US $55) used private cars, while 57 per roads. It is not clear what the exact cent of those who were classified as wealthy (earning more statistics in 2010 are, but almost than 2,000 EGP per month, or about US $364) and 39 per 18,000 car units were purchased in cent of those ranked as affluent (earning between 1000 EGP Cairo in January 2010 alone. Strong and 2000 EGP per month) used private cars for their urban sales are expected to continue in the travel.

    coming years. A recent report by

    Factors around transport, not to mention the paucity of Business Monitor International predicts

    services and facilities in many areas and the relative isolation that total automotive sales will

    of new communities, have often been cited as critical increase from US $9.48 billion in 2009

    reasons why Cairo‘s overcrowded low-income population has to US $23.54 billion in 2014, an

    58resisted the government‘s incentives and persuasions to increase of 148 per cent. If January

    move to new desert settlements. 2010 was a typical month for the year,

    it suggests a possible 200,000 new

    cars in 2010 alone will be added to Alexandria is linked to other Egyptian cities by railway, road,

    and air service. It also is connected by canal with the Nile. Egypt‘s army of private cars, many of

    Transport within the city is provided by tram service, as well which will end up on Cairo‘s roads. as a system of taxis and buses. The main rail link to Cairo

    has been upgraded several times, and Alexandria is also the Cairo Transportation Authority (CTA) is terminus for the rail line that runs to Al-Sallūm on the Libyan the operator of mass transit within border. The Alexandria-Cairo desert highway is one of Cairo, and the largest operator in Egypt‘s best roads; it has relieved pressure on the Egypt. The government controls its agricultural route through the delta region as well as passenger prices to increase low-encouraging desert development. Air transport services income affordability. CTA operates

     54 Data from the World Bank (2000) World Bank Urban Transport Strategy Review The Case Of Cairo EGYPT Ref: 3018/SYS-PLT/CAI/709-00 Edition 3 Nov. 2000 55 (Séjourné and Sims cited in World Bank (2008a) Arab republic of Egypt. Urban sector Update 56 IMPACTS OF THE CAIRO METRO (2000) Egyptian National Institute of Transport (ENIT), Cairo.p.6 57 58 Emerging Markets Information Service. (March 2010) from Tegara Net Business News.

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