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5th-6thperiod

Unit eight

    Section A Birth of Bright Ideas Objects

    Students will be able to:

    ? understand the main idea and structure of Section A;

    ? learn to develop paragraphs by using exemplification as illustrated in Section A;

    ? master the key language points and grammatical structures in the text;

    ? conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the

    theme of the unit; use new words and phrases to talk about some text-related topics.

    ? Get to know how the unconscious mind helps to give birth to brilliant ideas.

    ? Learn to benefit from the ways of increasing creativity.

    Focus:

    ?Understanding and using the key words, phrases & expressions, patterns of Section A;

    ?Understanding the main idea and structure of the text;

    ?Mastering the device for developing an article by exemplification; using comparison

    and contrast to develop a paragraph.

    ?Understanding some reading skills---reading for the key ideas in sentences.

Difficulties:

    ? Understanding the structure of the text and the way to develop it;

    ? Mastering the device for developing a paragraph by exemplification.

Time allotment:

    st?1 period: Leading-in & reading activities

    ndth?2 -4period: Text analysis ( the key language points & structure )

    th?5th-6period: Writing tasks

    th?7 period: Checking on students‟ learning tasks

    (Exercises in Section A & reading activities of Section B & C )

Teaching procedure:

    Step 1 Leading-in

    Warming-up activity

    1;Discussion

    1). Where do good ideas come from?

     a. When we consider the question seriously, we will finally work out the solution.

     b. When we always have something in mind, it seems that the solution will never come

    into mind, but when we are not thinking about it, it suddenly arrives like a gift from

    the gods.

    2). Have you ever experienced a mental blank?

     Yes/Always/Seldom.

    3). What do you usually do in such situations?

     Capture the fleeting

     Daydream

     Seek challenge

     Expand our world

    Keep a normal life, but unconsciously we are still having something we have been thinking about at present on mind.

     2. The teacher sums up, “Imagination is more important than knowledge,” said Enistein. Yet education has for too many years ignored this fact. Now, much research work has proved it is just the case. And in this unit, you will meet many examples of imaginative thinking which show that famous people do not succeed without this essential quality. In Section A of this unit it will tell us some stories about how inspirations come from the unconscious.

Step 2 Reading activities

    ?Reading for general idea

    Questions for thinking about

    1) What is the story mainly about?

    Inspirations come from the unconscious.

    2. How does he make clear his story?

    By giving examples, Exemplification (举例法„Main idea‟ supported by „examples‟)

    ?Reading for some details

    Questions for discussing

    1. Where do good ideas come from according to the author? What does “the

    unconscious”mean to psychologists?

    Good ideas come from the unconscious. Psychologists use the term to describe mental

    processes which are unknown to the individual.

    2. Is it just the great creative personalities who have experienced the sudden arrival of a

    new idea?

    No. All of us have experienced the sudden arrival of a new idea, but it is easiest to

    examine it in the great creative personalities.

    3. What state was Richard Wagner in when he arrived at the hotel?

    He was sick and could not sleep for noise without and fever within. 4. Did Wagner have an easy time with composing the opening to “Rhinegold”?

    No. He had been occupied with the idea of the “Ring” for several years, and for many

    months had been struggling to make a start with the actual composing. 5. What did he recognize in his mind when he fell into a sleeplike condition?

    The rush and roar of water had become music and the orchestral opening to the

    “Rhinegold” had at last taken its shape within him.

    6. What does the Wagner story tell us?

    The unconscious mind at the moment of creation knew nothing of the actual process

    by which the solution was found. A niw concept may suddenly explode into

    consciousness.

    7. In what way is the example of Henri Poincare different from that of Richard Wagner?

    In the example of HENRI Poincare, we see the conscious mind actually watching the

    unconscious at work.

8. What point do you see in the example of Descartes?

    Dream plays an important role. Descartes was able to make the discovery with the

    help of his dream.

Background Information:

    1. Richard Wagner (1813--1883)(the greatest composer of German opera, made a major

    addition to nature of opera through his writings about and the creation of music drama. Music drama combines singing, orchestra, verse, story, drams and spectacle. Wagner‟s works include “The Ring of Nibelung”, a set of four operas based on historical German stories.

    2. The Rhinegold, the first of the four operas in the “Ring” cycle, exemplifies Wagner‟s theory of music drama in its purest form.

    3. Spezia: is an industrial port and Italy‟s chief naval station in northeast Italy. Wagner visited here in 1853 when he left his exile in Switzerland to which he had escaped during World War II.

    4. Henri Poincare: A great French mathematics and theoretical science professor at the Sorbonne (University of Paris), had a highly original influence on the development of pure and applied mathematics. He also worked on functions that changed celestial mechanics, helped pioneer algebraic (代数拓扑学) topology and co-discovered the special theory of

    relativity. For further introduction to his works, please visit

    http://www.chaos.umd.edu/misc/poincare.html.

    5. Descartes: French Philosopher, Mathematician and Scientist. One of the most influential thinkers in history, Descartes is considered the founder of both modern philosophy and analytic geometry (分析几何). He based his theory that the world is made up of mind and matter on a concept that came to him in a dream. For further information, check out the web page at http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/d/descarte.htm.

Step 3 Detailed study of the text

    ?Language points:

    Words and phrases

    1. No satisfactory way exists to explain how to form a good idea.

    Meaning There is not a way good enough to explain how to find or develop a good idea.

    2. No satisfactory way exists……

    satisfactory: a . good enough to be pleasing, or for a purpose, rule, standard, etc.

    This heater is satisfactory; it does give enough heat.

    取暖器的功效令人满意(释放热量充足。

    The design of the kitchen is satisfactory: the refrigerator is not next to the stove and

    there is enough space

    厨房的设计令人满意(冰箱不靠近炉灶(而且空间很大。

    3. You think about a problem until you‟re tired, forget it, maybe sleep on it, and then flash!

    Meaning: You have been thinking about a problem until you are tired forget it and

    leave it undecided and then suddenly some idea comes to your mind.

4…forget it, maybe sleep on it…(para.1)

    sleep on sth: leave sth. undecided or unattended or until later time

     He will sleep on the matter and tell us the decision later.

    他对此事要考虑一下(再把决定告诉我们。

    5….and then flash!

     Flash: vi .

    1) ( of an idea ) come suddenly

     These lines from Shakespeare just flashed into my mind.

    我突然起了莎士比亚的这几句诗句。

    2) appear or pass suddenly

    The car flashed by so quickly that I could not see the car number.

    汽车飞驰而过(我根本看不见清车牌号。

    The policeman flashed his I.D. card at me, but I could not read his name.

    那个警察只是向我亮了一下他的证件(可我根本看不清他的名字。

    6. of course , all ideas don‟t occur like that but so many do, particularly the most important ones.

    Meaning; not all ideas, of course, come as gifts, but many of them do, especially some big ideas

    that come to your mind unexpectedly.

     occur : vi . come to mind

    It suddenly occurred to him that this was something he should never do. 他突然想到这种事情他根本就不应该做。

    7. They burst into the mind, glowing with the heat of creation.

    Meaning. These ideas come to the mind suddenly and show clearly they are good, creative ideas.

     glow: v. produce light and heat without fire

    Some natural matter can glow in the dark.

     自然物质能在黑暗中闪光。

    glow with: show redness or heat with feeling etc.

    My father‟s face glowed with satisfaction when he saw my college grades.

    父亲看到我的学习成绩时(脸上露出满意的神情。

    8. How they do it is a mystery but they must come from somewhere.

    Meaning. How these ideas come to your mind is a mystery; no one can understand it . But they must have come from somewhere , an unknown force.

    mystery: n. something that is not fully understood.

    Many people have tried to solve the problem but without success; it is a mystery that the girl found the solution to it in just a minute.

    许多人设法解决这个问题(但都没有成功(这个女孩仅在几分钟内把它解决了(真是

    件怪事。

    9.This is reasonable , for psychologists use this term to describe mental processes which are unknown to the individual.

    Meaning. The explanation holds water as psychologists use this special term to describe the patterns going on in our mind, which are not known by human beings.

    process: n. a connected set of actions or events that produce continuation or slow change

    Scientists have now discovered more about the processes of sleeping and dreaming.

    科学家已经对睡眠和做梦的过程有了更多的了解。

    10. creative thought depends on what was unknown becoming known.

    Meaning. Creative thought comes if one can change what was unknown into something that is known.

    depend on : happen according to ; count on

    The success of the factory depends on the workers.

    工厂的成功取决于工人的工作。

    Depending on how much he sells, his earnings will increase.

    他收入的增加取决于他能卖出多少。

    11…. It is easiest to examine it in the great creative personalities , many of whom experienced it in an intensified form and have written it down in their life stories and letters.

    Meaning. Many of the highly creative persons had experiences of this sort and felt its

    effects strongly, as you can find it their life stories and letters, so their case is easiest to study

    and understand.

    12….. the great creative personalities…..

     personality: n .

    1) a person who is well-known to the public

     please note that it is countable noun in this case.

    A number of local personalities were present.

    出席的有许多当地政要。

    2) the quality or condition of being a person

     I like Jack because he has a friendly personality.

    我喜欢杰克是因为他性情随和。

    13…. In an intensified form.

     intensify: v. make or become stronger

    Efforts to reach the injured man have been intensified because of a sudden turning for

    the worse in the weather.

    由于天气突然变得更恶劣(援救伤员的工作加紧了步伐。

    The enemy‟s breakthrough intensified as there was no hope for their reinforcement.

    由于增援无望(敌人加强了突围。

    14….and have written it down in their life stories and letters.

     write down : record in writing

    After two months‟ intensified course, he could write down the teacher‟s lecture in English.

    经过两个月的强化训练(他已能用英语记下老师讲课的内容了。

    15. One can draw examples from genius in any field

     genius: n. a person of exceptional natural ability

    Richard Wagner is a genius.

    理查得.瓦格纳是个天才。

    16. all truly creative activities depend in some degree on these signals from the unconscious…

     in….degree: to the limit of ; somewhat

    Production of fruit and vegetables has also risen in varying degrees.

    水果和蔬菜的产量也有了不同程度的增长。

    He was not in the slightest degree interested.

    他一点也不感兴趣。

     signal :

    1) something that suggests something else exists or is going to happen.

     Japanese leaders saw the visit as an important signal of support.

    日本领导人把那次访问看作是对方给予支持的重要信号。

    2) a gesture, sound or action which is intended to give a particular message.

     Stop when the signal light is red.

    信号灯变红时就停下来。

    She made a signal with her arm for a left turn.

    她用手臂示意向左拐弯。

    17….and the more highly insightful the person, the sharper and more dramatic the signals become.

    Meaning. If the person is more insightful, then the signals become sharper and more obvious.

    Please pay attention to the structure “ the more…. the more….. ”

    The sooner you start , the more quickly you will be finished.

    你开始得越早(完成得就越快。

    The more people you know , the less time you have to see them.

    你认识的人越多(你能用于见你们的时间就越少。

    18. and more dramatic the signals become.

     dramatic: a. very obvious, sudden, exciting or not expected

    The lives of the earliest foreigners who settled in America must have been dramatic and exciting.

    早期定居美国的移民们生活一定充满变化又令人兴奋。

    19. take the example of Richard Wagner composing the opening to “ Rhinegold ”.

     Meaning. Look at Richard Wagner writing the beginning part of Rhinegold as an example.

     compose: v. create or produce ( a written or musical piece )

     The piece of music is composed for the celebration of the 2008 Olympic Games to be held in China.

     这首乐曲是为庆贺将在中国举办2008年奥运会而创作的。

     opening: n. the beginning part

     This is a natural opening for a narrative.

     这是叙述文常用的一种开头方式。

    20. Wagner had been occupied the idea of the “ Ring ” for several years.

     Meaning: for several years Wagner busied himself with the idea of composing the “ Ring ”.

     be occupied with: be busy with sth

     She was occupied with the cleaning of the big house.

     她正忙于打扫那幢大房子。

     I‟m afraid that you won‟t be able to see the doctor for he is fully occupied with appointments this afternoon.

     恐怕你见不到那位大夫(因为他今天下午的预约已经排满了。

    21. … and for many months had been struggling to begin composing.

     struggle: vi. Try hard to do sth

     struggle for a living 为生活而奋斗

    struggle to one‟s feet 挣扎着站起来。

    22….could not sleep for noise without and fever within.

     Please notice that both “ without ” and “ within ” are used as adverbs here.

     without: ad. outside

     The dog remained shaking without.

    狗在门外发抖。

    within: ad. inside

    A voice within told him what to do .

    在他内心深处有个声音告诉他该怎么办。

    He looked calm without but anxious within.

    他外表看起来很镇静(但内却很焦急。

    He was at peace without and at war within.

    他外表显得很安祥(可内心的斗争却十分激烈。

    23. …. In the afternoon flung himself on a couch intending to sleep.

    fling: vt. Throw with force

    He flung his shoes at the dog that would not leave his door.

    他用力把鞋子掷向那条老在他家门口转悠的狗。

    24. then the miracle happened…

     miracle: n . act or event that cannot be explained by known laws of nature.

    It is a miracle that the small child lived through the earthquake.

    这个小孩在地震中幸存下来(真是个奇迹。

    25. … his unconscious mind had been seeking for so long…

     seek for: make a search for; look for

     He has been seeking for a new place to live for several months, but he has not found

    anything he can afford.

    他几个月来(一直在找一个新住处(但还没有找到一处价格上他能承受得起的地方。

    26.falling into a sleeplike condition, he suddenly felt as though he were sinking in a mighty

    flood of water.

    Meaning: he seemed to fall into a sleeplike condition. Suddenly he felt as if he were sinking

    in a violent ocean.

     as though: as if

     Please notice that “ as though ” or “ as if ” is often followed by a clause in subjunctive

    mood.

     Why is she looking at me as though she knew me? I have never seen her before in my

    life.

    为什么她年老看着我(好像认识我似的:我可从未见过她呀。

    She looks almost as if she were drunk.

    她看上去像是喝醉了。

    26….. the rush and roar soon took musical shape within his brain.

    Meaning: the image and sound of the rush and roar of the violent ocean became clear in a

    musical form in his brain.

     take shape: develop or start to appear in such a way that it becomes fairly clear what its final form will be.

     After several days‟ discussion, their project began to take shape.

    经过几天的讨论(他们的项目框架开始成形了。

    27. he recognized that the orchestral opening to the “ Rhinegold ”, which he must have carried about within yet had never been able to put into form, had at last taken its shape within him.

    Meaning. He realized the orchestral opening to the “ Rhinegold ” had finally been formed in

    his mind . before this , the music must have existed in his ( unconscious ) mind, but he had never been able to express it in a clear form.

    28. …. Yet had never been able to put into form.

     Put into form: express in clear form

     Now that you understand the problem, you have to think about how to put it into form to make yourself understood.

    既然你已理解了这个问题(现在要考虑的是以什么方式表达才能使别人听懂。

    29.As a contrast, we may consider a famous story : the discovery by Henri Poincare , the great French mathematician ,of a new mathematical method called the Fuchsian functions. Meaning :We may consider a famous story ,which is very different from the other examples .This story is about how Henri Poincare , the great French mathematician, discovered a new mathematical method called the Fuchsian functions.

    contrast: n. (with between) unlikeness or difference shown by comparing objects or people There is a great contrast between summer and winter.

    冬夏之间区别极大。

    If you compare the weather here with the weather in my country, there is not much contrast. 如果把这里的气候与我国的气候作一个比较(两者差别不大。

    30: … spent an hour or two trying a great number of combinations, but he arrived at no result.

    Meaning: … spent a couple of hours trying various combinations, but he made no success.

     spend ( time ) doing sth: pass the time doing sth

     He spent an hour each day exercising.

    他每天花一小时运动。

    Now more and more city adults spend their free time to improve themselves at school or college.

    现在城里越来越多的成年人利用业余时间到学校或大学去充电。

     Compare: spend ( time ) on sth

     He doesn‟t spend much time on his homework.

    他花在作业上的时间不多。

    31. …. a great number of combinations, but he arrived at no result.

     combination: n. something that results from two or more things ( esp. chemicals ) being combined.

     This project is a good combination of science and art.

    这个项目是科学与艺术的完美结合。

     It took them a long time to arrive at a very difficult decision.

    他们花了很长时间才作出了一个艰难的决定。

32. one night he drank some black coffee, contrary to his usual habit , and was unable to

    sleep.

     black coffee: coffee without milk and sugar

     black coffee 清咖啡

     milk coffee 加牛奶的咖啡

     strong / weak coffee / 淡咖啡

     contrary to : opposite to

     He passed the examination , contrary to what I expected.

     他考试及格了(这出乎我的预料。

     Contrary to all advice he gave up his hob and left for the south.

     他不所任何劝告(辞了工作(去了南方。

    33many ideas kept surging in his head…

     keep ( on ) doing sth: continue doing sth

     keep smiling! 保持微笑!

    You shouldn‟t keep thinking about it.

     你不应该老是去想它。

     surge: vi . move ( as if ) in waves

     Memories surged in his mind.

    对往事的回忆不断涌上他的心头。

    34. … he could almost feel them pushing against one another.

     against: prep. In the direction of and meeting

     The rain beat against the window.

     雨点拍打在窗户上。

     Waves were striking against the shore.

    波涛拍打着海岸。

    35. … until two of them combined to form a stable combination

     Stable: a . firm; without movement

     People guess that the price of oil should remain stable for the rest of the year.

     人们估计在今年剩下的日子里油价会保持稳定。

    I am happy to learn that my father‟s health is making slow but stable progress.

    我很高兴地获悉(父亲的健康状况正缓慢而稳定地好转。

    36. when morning came, he had established the existence of one class of Fuchsian functions.

    Meaning: when morning came, he had proved the existence of one group of Fuchsian

    functions.

    Please note that the word “ come ” is not only used to talk about a person‟s or an animal‟s

    action but also an event or time.

    The time has come for us to move on.

     我们该继续前进了。

    There will come a time when a crisis will occur.

     危机必将出现。

    What comes after?

    后来怎么样:

    It often happens that success comes after many failures. 经过过多次失败后才获得成功是常有的事。

My work comes first.

    我的工作是第一位的。

    37….. he had established the existence of one class of Fuchsian functions.

     Eistence: n. the fact or state of existing

     This is the oldest steel bridge in existence.

    这是现存的历史最悠久的钢桥。

     Some people think that it is difficult to prove the existence of unconscious mind. 有人认为

    难以证实潜意识的存在。

    38. here, we see the conscious mind observing the new combinations being formed in the unconscious…..

     observe: vt . see and notice sth. or sb; watch sth. or sb carefully.

     The police observed the man break into the store.

     警察看着那个人闯进了商店。

     His job is to observe the movements of clouds and the changes in temperature.

    他的工作就是观察云的移动和温度的变化。

    39…. the Wagner story shows the sudden explosion of a new concept into consciousness.

     explosion: n . a sudden bursting out

     We are living in an age of knowledge explosion; we have hardly had the time to learn the new concepts.

    我们生活在知识爆炸的时代(几乎来不及学习新的知识。

     concept: something formed in the mind; a thought or idea

     The text doesn‟t explain the concepts very clearly.

    这篇课文没有把概念解释清楚。

    40.a third type of creative experience is exemplified by the dreams which came to Descartes at the age of twenty-three and determined his life path.

    Meaning: at the age of twenty-three Descartes had the dreams that determined his life path. These dreams were good examples to support a third type of creative experience. exemplify : vt. Show by example

    The room‟s style exemplifies his ideal of beauty and plainness.

    这房间的风格表明了他对美与质朴的憧憬。

    41. Descartes had unsuccessfully searched for certainty, first in the world of books, and then in the world of them.

    Meaning: Descartes had not been successful in searching for life with no doubt to it; he first searched for it in piles of books and then from crowds of people. Search for: try to find; look for

     They searched for the missing boy everywhere, but they could not find him. 他们到处

    寻找那个走失的小孩(但仍没能找到。

     Scientist searched for the cause of the disease.

    科学家们千方百计寻找这种疾病的病因。

     We often waste our time searching for keys, glasses and other small objects that are in continuous use.

     我们常常浪费时间去找那些常用的东西(如钥匙、眼镜和其它小东西。

    42…..in the world of books; in the world of men

     world: n. a particularly area of human activity

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