Paper One 试卷一
Part ? Listening Comprehension ( 15 minutes,15 points )
Directions: In this section you will hear nine short conversations between two speakers.
At the end of each conversation, a third voice will ask a question about what was said.
Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. Choose the best answer
from the four choices marked A, B, C and D by marking the corresponding letter on the
ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.
1. A. A passenger and a driver.
B. Two passengers.
C. A passenger and a travel agent.
D. A passenger and a bus conductor.
2. A. At a bus stop.
B. At a hospital.
C. In a restaurant.
D. In a supermarket.
3. A. He‘s pale.
B. He didn‘t sleep at all last night.
C. He must have eaten something that had a bad effect on him.
D. The new restaurant didn‘t agree with him on his comment about the food.
4. A. Don‘t hurry, we won‘t be late.
B. We are going to be late.
C. We won‘t be late if we hurry.
D. We will be late if we worry.
5. A. Australians spend Christmas in the summer.
B. The woman is in Australia now.
C. It‘s very cold and rainy in December in Australia.
D. Many Australians go to the beach to have their Christmas dinner.
6. A. No one can find the manager‘s apartment.
B. He helps people find apartments here.
C. He has no idea where to find the manager.
D. His family lives in the apartment building. 7. A. She‘s always running.
B. She‘s still in the race.
C. She feels very comfortable.
D. She still has a fever.
8. A. It will depend on the weather.
B. He has a better idea.
C. He wants to be invited.
D. That‘s a lot to fit into one day.
9. A. A new medicine for headaches.
B. A class they‘re taking.
C. The man‘s job.
D. The man‘s health.
Directions: In this section you will hear two short passages. At the end of each passage,
you will hear some questions. Both the passages and the questions will be spoken only
once. After you hear one question, you must chose the best answer from the four choices
marked A, B, C and D by blackening the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET
with a single line through the center.
10. A. Exciting cities in the world.
B. The capital of Britain.
C. Great Britain.
D. Oxford—a university town.
11. A. On the River Thames not far from Westminster Abbey.
B. Near the Tower of London.
C. In Oxford Street.
D. In Trafalgar Square.
12. A. A professor.
B. A foreign student.
C. A tour guide.
D. A travel.
13. A. It is soft.
B. It never gets wet.
C. It is not common.
D. People can make coins and jewelry with it. 14. A. 12%
15. A. Gold is flexible.
B. Gold does not rust like other metals.
C. Nothing can change gold but acids.
D. Nickel, platinum and copper are commonly mixed with gold.
Part? Vocabulary (10minutes, 10 points)
Directions: In each question, decide which of the four choices given will most suitably complete the sentence if inserted at the place marked. Mark your choice on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.
16. It was a bold idea to build a power station in the deep valley, but it _____as well as we had
A. came off B. went off C. brought out D. made out
17. We all know that hot metal _____as it grows cooler.
A. contracts B. reduces C. declines D. concedes
18. As the population of the world increases, and human needs _____, we must take care not to
use up all of our natural resources at once.
A. extend B. stretch C. strengthen D. expand
19. After he had walked five miles, John found he had _____on both heels.
A. openings B. spots C. blisters D. pimples
20. She‘s been _____about the way she‘s been treated at work.
A. resentful B. jealous C. careful D. cautious
21. Has he changed his mind again? I wish he‘d at least be _____.
A. constant B. flexible C. harmonious D. consistent
22. We all know that every culture has its own ideal of behavior, and the United States is no
A. expectation B. exclusive C. expectancy D. exception
23. Tom just _____his shoulders when I asked him what he thought of the situation.
A. raised B. shrugged C. shrank D. lifted
24. He visited on _____castle in an old part of the city.
A. antique B. ancient C. aged D. olden
25. She‘s so _____no one else has a chance to say anything when she‘s there.
A. popular B. dominant C. prevailing D. domineering
Directions: In each item, choose one word that best keeps the meaning of the sentence if it is substituted for the underlined word. Mark out your choice on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.
26. Teaching is supported to be a professional activity requiring long and complicated training as
well as official certification.
A. systematic B. intricate C. theoretical D. academic
27. The scientists have just found a new way of tapping the sun‘s energy.
A. exploiting B. binding C. reserve D. preserve
28. The design of this architecture shows a great deal of originality. We have never seen a
building like that before.
A. fascination B. creativeness C. fashion D. conventionality 29. Short, frequent practice is more effective than long, infrequent sessions, because it is less
A. deliberate B. harmful C. sophisticated D. exhausting 30. The protesting crowd dispersed after the rally.
A. discouraged B. became violent C. scattered D. irritated 31. His integrity prevented him from cheating his customers.
A. intensity B. completion C. dignity D. honesty
32. Deems Taylor was distinguished both as a music critic and as a composer.
A. inventive B. differential C. classical D. famous
33. Modern nursing practices not only hasten the recovery of the sick but also promote better
health through preventive medicine.
A. permit B. determine C. accelerate D. accompany
34. The visiting dignitaries ？高官！ 要人，who got into a public brawl(争吵)were the scandal of
A. nuisance B. disgrace C. reactionary D. misconduct
35. In that organization, they place emphasis on mutual aid and cooperation.
A. neutral B. mature C. active D. Exchanged
Part III Reading Comprehension (45 minutes, 30 points)
Directions: There are six passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.
Advertising can be thought of "as the means of making known in order to buy or sell goods or services". Advertising aims to increase people's awareness and arouse interest. It tries to inform and to persuade. The media are all used to spread the message. The press offers a fairly cheap method. Magazines are used to reach special sections of the market. The cinema and commercial radio are useful for local markets. Television , although more expensive, can be very effective. Posters (招贴) are fairly cheap and more
permanent in their power of attraction. Other ways of increasing consumer interest are through exhibitions and trade fairs as well as direct mail advertising.
There can be no doubt that the growth in advertising is one the most striking features of the western world in this century. Many businesses such as those handling frozen foods, liquor (烈性酒) , tobacco and patent medicines have been built up largely by advertising.
We might ask whether the cost of advertising is paid for by the manufacturer or by the customer. Since advertising forms it is the customer who pays for advertising. However, if large scale advertising leads to increased demand, production costs are reduced, and the customer pays less.
It is difficult to measure exactly the influence of advertising on sales. When the market is growing, advertising helps to increase demand. When the market is shrinking (萎缩) , advertising may prevent a bigger fall in sales than would occur without its support. What is clear is that businesses would not pay large sums for advertising if they were not convinced of its value to them.
36. Advertising is often used to _______.
A. deceive customers B. increase production C. arouse suspicion D. push the
37. Advertising is in the main paid for by _______.
A. the customer B. the manufacturer C. increased sales D.
38. The author says that advertising can increase demand _______.
A. all the time B. in any
C. in a growing market D. in a shrinking market 39. The influence of advertising cannot be measured _______.
A. with a machine B. at all C. scientifically D. without difficulty 40. What the last sentence of this piece actually tells us is that _______. A. businesses usually do not pay much for advertising
B. businessmen know well that advertising could bring them more profits C. advertising could hardly convince people of the value of the goods
D. advertising usually cost businesses large amounts of money
Nearly every writer on the philosophy of civil rights activist Martin Luther King,Jr. Makes a connection between King and Henry David Thoreau, usually via Thoreau‘s
famous essay, ‗Civil Disobedience‖ (1849). In his book, Stride Toward Freedom (1958),
King himself stated that Thoreau‘s essay was his first intellectual contact with the theory of passive resistance to governmental laws that are perceived as morally unjust. However, this emphasis on Thoreau‘s influence on King is unfortunate: first, king would not have agreed many other aspects of Thoreau‘s philosophy, including Thoreau‘s ultimate acceptance of violence as a form of protest; second, an overemphasis on the influence of one essay has kept historians from noting other correspondences between king‘s philosophy and transcendentalism. ―Civil Disobedience‖ was the only example of transcendentalist writing with which King was familiar, and in many other transcendentalist writings, including works by Ralph Waldo Emerson and Margaret Fuller, King would have found ideas more nearly akin to his own.
The kind of civil disobedience King had in mind was, in fact, quite different from Thoreau‘s view of civil disobedience. Thoreau, like most other transcendentalists‘ was primarily interested in reform of the individual, whereas King was primarily interested in reform of society. As a protest against the Mexican War, thoreau refused to pay taxes, but he did not hope by his action to force a change in national policy. While he encouraged others to adopt similar protests, he did not attempt to mount any mass protest action against unjust laws. In contrast to Thoreau, King began to advocate the use of mass civil disobedience to effect revolutionary changes within the social system.
However, King‘s writings suggest that, without realizing it he was an incipient transcendentalist. Most transcendentalists subscribed to the concept of ―higher law‖ and
included civil disobedience to unjust laws as part of their strategy. They often invoked the concept of higher law to justify their opposition to slavery and to advocate disobedience to the strengthened Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. In his second major book, king‘s discussion
of just and unjust laws and the responsibility of the individual is very similar to the transcendentalists discussion of higher law. In reference to how one can advocate breaking some laws and obeying other, King notes that there are two types of laws, just and unjust; he describes a just law as a ―code that squares with the moral law‖ and an unjust law as a ―code that is out of harmony with the moral law.‖ Thus, King‘s opposition to the injustice of legalized segregation in the twentieth century is philosophically akin to the transcendentalists‘ opposition to the Fugitive Slave Law in the nineteenth century.
41. which one of the following best states the main idea of the passage?
A. King‘s philosophy was more influenced by Thoreau‘s essay on civil disobedience
than by any other writing of the transcentalists.
B. While historians may have overestimated Thoreau‘s influence on king, King was
greatly influenced by a number of the transcendentalist philosophers.
C. Thoreau‘s and King‘s views on civil disobedience differed in that King was more
concerned with the social reform than with the economic reform of society.
D. Although historians have over-emphasized Thoreau‘s influence on King, there
are parallels between King‘s philosophy and transcendentalism that have not
been fully appreciated.
42. The passage provides support for which one of the following statements about the
quotations in lines 27-28?
A. They are an example of a way in which King‘s ideas differed from Thoreau‘s but
were similar to the ideas of other transcendentalists‘ thought.
B. They provide evidence that proves that King‘s philosophy was affected by
C. They suggest that King, like the transcendentalists, judged human laws by ethical
D. They suggest a theoretical basis for King‘s philosophy of government.
43. According to the passage, which one of the following is true of Emerson and Fuller?
A. Some of their ideas were less typical of transcendentalism than were some of
B. They were more concerned with the reform of the society than with the reform of
C. They would have been more likely than Thoreau to agree with King on the
necessity of mass protest in civil disobedience.
D. Some of their ideas were similar to King‘s than were some of Thoreau‘s.
44. According to the passage, King differed from most transcendentalists in that he
A. opposed violence as a form of civil protest.
B. Opposed war as an instrument of foreign policy under any circumstances.
C. Believed that just laws had an inherent moral value.
D. Was more interested in reforming society than in reforming the individual. 45. Which of the following best describes King in regard to the theory of ―civil
A. He was a pious disciple.
B. He was a violent reformer.
C. He was a strong opponent.
D. He was a revolutionary developer.
When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brothehood of Sleeping Car Porters, he began a ten-year battle to win recognition from the Pullman Company, the largest private employer of Black people in the United States and the company that controlled the railroad industry‘s sleeping car and parlor service. In 1935 the Brotherhood became the first Black union recognized by a major corporation. Randolph‘s efforts in the battle helped transform the attitude of Black workers toward unions and toward themselves as an identifiable group; eventually Randolph helped to weaken organized labor‘s antagonism toward Black workers.
In the Pullman contest Randolph faced formidable obstacles. The first was Black workers‘ understandable skepticism toward unions, which had historically barred Black workers form membership. An additional obstacle was the union that Pullman itself had formed, which weakened support among Black workers for an independent entity.
The Brotherhood possessed a number of advantages, however, including Randolph‘s own tactical abilities. In 1928 he took the bold step of threatening a strike against Pullman. Such a threat on a national scale, under Black leadership, helped replace the stereotype of the black worker as servant with the image of the Black worker as wage earner. In addition, the porters‘ very isolation aided the Brotherhood. Porters were scattered throughout the country, sleeping in dormitories in Black communities, their segregated life protected the union‘s internal communications from interception. That the porters were a homogeneous group working for a single employer with a single labor policy, thus sharing the same grievances from city to city, also strengthened the Brotherhood and encouraged racial identity and solidarity as well. But it was only in the early 1930‘s that federal legislation prohibiting a company from maintaining its own unions
with company money eventually allowed the Brotherhood to become recognized as the porters‘ representative.
Not content with this triumph, Randolph brought the Brotherhood into the American Federation of Labor, where it became the equal of the Federation‘s 105 other unions. He reasoned that as a member union, the Brotherhood would be in a better position to exert pressure on member unions that practiced race restrictions. Such restrictions were eventually found unconstitutional in 1944.
46. According to the passage, by 1935, the skepticism of Black workers toward union
A. unchanged except among Black employees of railroad-related industries.
B. reinforced by the actions of the Pullman Company‘s union.
C. mitigated by the efforts of Randolph.
D. weakened by the opening up of many unions to Black workers.
47. In using the word ―understandable‖ (line 9), the author most clearly conveys _____.
A. sympathy with attempts by the Brotherhood between 1925 and 1935 to establish
an independent union.
B. concern that the obstacles faced by Randolph between 1925 and 1935 were
C. ambivalence about the significance of unions to most Black workers in the
D. regret that the historical attitude of unions toward black workers. 48. The passage suggests which of the following about the response of porters of the
Pullman Company‘s own union?
A. Few porters ever joined this union.
B. Some porters supported this union before 1935.
C. Porters, more than other Pullman employees, enthusiastically supported this
D. The porters‘ response was most positive after 1935.
49. The passage suggests that in the 1920‘s a company in the United States was able to
A. use its own funds to set up a union.
B. require its employees to join the company‘s own union.
C. develop a single labor policy for all its employees with little employee dissent.
D. pressure its employees to contribute money to maintain the company‘s own
50. According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood of sleeping car Porters in
B. Other labor unions were among the obstacles in Randolph‘s struggle for the
benefits of the Brotherhood.
C. The very isolation of the porters was good for the Brotherhood.
D. Porters were diverse in their complaints.
In Democracy and its Critics, Robert Dahl defends both democratic values and
pluralist democracies, or polyarchies (a rough shorthand term for Western political systems). Dahl arguse convincingly that the idea of democracy rests on political equality –
the equal capacity of all citizens to determine or influence collective decisions. Of course, as Dahl recognizes, if hierarchical ordering is inevitable in any structure of government, and if no society can guarantee perfect equality in the resources that may give rise to political influence, the democratic principle of political equality is incapable of full realization. So actual systems can be deemed democratic only as approximations to the ideal. It is on these grounds that Dahl fends polyarchy.
As a representative system in which elected officials both determine government policy and are accountable to a broad-based electroate, ploarchy reinforces a diffusion of power away from any single center and toward a variety of individuals, groups, and organizations. It is this centrifugal characteristic, Dahl argues, that makes poyarchy the nearest possible approximation to the democratic ideal. Polyarchy achieves this diffusion of power through party competition and the operation of pressure groups. Competing for votes, parties seek to offer different sections of the eletorate what they most want: they do not ask what the majority thinks of an issue, but what policy commitments will sway the electoral decisions of particular groups. Equally, groups that have strong feelings about an issue can organize in pressure groups to influence public policy.
During the 1960‘s and 1970‘s, criticism of the theory of pluralist democracy was vigorous. Many critics pointed to a gap between the model and the reality of western political systems. They argued that the distribution of power resources other than the vote was so uneven that the political order systematicall gave added weight to those who were already richer of organizationally more powerful. So the power of some groups to exclude issues altogether from the political agends effectively countered any diffusion of influence on decision-making.
Although such criticism became subdued during the 1980s, Dahl himself seems to support some of the earlier criticism. Although he regrets that some Western intellectuals demand more democracy from polyarchies than is possible, and is cautious about the possibility of further democratization, he nevertheless ends his book by asking what changes in structures and consciousness might make political life more democratic in present polyarchies. One answer, he suggests, too look at the economic order of polyarchies from the point of view of the citizen as well as from that of producers and consumers. This would require a critical examination of both the distribution of those economic resources that are the same time political resources, and the relationship between political structures and economic enterprises.
51. The characterization of polyarchies as ―centrifugal‖ (line 11-12) emphasizes the
A. way in which political power is decentralized in a polyarchy.
B. central role of power resources in a polyarchy.
C. kind of concentrated power that political parties generate in a polyarchy.
D. dynamic balance that exists between economic enterprises and elected officials in
52. In the third paragraph, the author of the passage refers to criticism of the theory of
pluralist democracy primarily in order to ______.
A. refute Dahl ‗s statement that Western intellectuals expect more democracy from
polyarchies than is possible.
B. advocate the need for rethinking the basic principles on which the theory of
C. suggest that the structure of government within pluralist democracies should be
D. point out an objection to Dahl‘s defense of polyarchy.
53. It can be inferred from the passage that Dahl assumes which one of the following in
defense of polyarchies?
A. Polyarchies are limited in the extent to which they can embody the idea of
B. The structure of polyarchical governments is free of hierachical ordering.
C. The citizens of a polyarchy have equal access to the resources that provide
D. Polyarchy is the best political system of foster the growth of political parties. 54. The passage can best be described as _____.
A. an inquiry into how present-day polyarchies can be made more democratic.
B. a commentary on the means pressure groups employ to exert influence within
C. a description of the relationship between polyarchies and economic enterprises.
D. a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of polyarchy as a form of
55. According to the passage, the author‘s attitude toward Dahl‘s theory may be best
A. Indifferent B. Bitterly critical
C. Positive D. Quite neutral
A nurse and her elderly uncle were waiting for a bus at a corner in downtown Chicago. Buses came by, but not the one they wanted. The woman finally half-entered one of the buses and asked the driver if the bus she wanted stopped at that corner.
The driver ignored her, so she repeated the question. Incredibly, he then closed the door--on her arm-- and drove off.