DOC

Lesson EEE_ The Dominant Seventh Chord

By Jose Hayes,2014-07-12 13:38
10 views 0
Lesson EEE_ The Dominant Seventh Chordthe,The

    1

    Lesson EEE The Dominant Seventh Chord

    Introduction:

    In this lesson, you will learn about the dominant-seventh chord, its inversions, and how to handle its

    voice leading.

    Construction:

    The dominant seventh chord is constructed by adding a diatonic seventh (4) to the dominant triad.

    Example 1:

    The following example shows a dominant seventh chord in C major in an SATB setting:

    Example 2:

     7The construction of the V is the same in minor:

    Example 3:

    As with Example 1, Example 3 shows the construction of the dominant seventh chord as a major triad

    on scale degree 5 with an added diatonic seventh. Remember the necessary leading-tone adjustment for

    scale degree 7 in dominant chords in minor keys (G to G# in this case). The following example shows a

    dominant seventh chord in A minor in SATB setting:

    Example 4:

    2

    Activity 5.1: 7Each of the following V chords is presented in SATB setting and is missing one note. Provide

    the missing note as directed for each of the exercises.

Exercise 5.1a:

     7What pitch in the alto voice will complete this V chord in F major? [Answer: E. Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if incorrect: “Incorrect. Try again. (Hint: 7This V chord is missing scale degree 7.”]

Exercise 5.1b:

     7What pitch in the soprano voice will complete this V chord in C minor? [Answer: F. Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if incorrect: “Incorrect. Try again. (Hint: 7This V chord is missing scale degree 4.”]

Exercise 5.1c:

     7What pitch in the bass voice will complete this V chord in A major? [Answer: E. Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if incorrect: “Incorrect. Try again. (Hint: 7This V chord is missing scale degree 5.”]

Exercise 5.1d:

     7What pitch in the tenor voice will complete this V chord in B minor?

    3 #[Answer: A. Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if incorrect: “Incorrect. Try again. 7(Hint: This V chord is missing scale degree 7.”]

    Activity 5.2: 7In this activity you will build V chords in various keys starting with the root.

Exercise 5.2a:

     7What is the root of a V chord in G major?

    [Answer: D. Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if incorrect: “Try again. Remember, the 7root of a V chord is scale degree 5.”] 7[Follow-up question:] Complete the V chord by adding the upper voices. #[Answers: F, A, and C. Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if incorrect: “Try again. That 7pitch does not belong to V in G major.”]

Exercise 5.2b:

     7What is the root of a V chord in G minor?

    [Answer: D. Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if incorrect: “Try again. Remember, the 7root of a V chord is scale degree 5.”] 7[Follow-up question:] Complete the V chord by adding the upper voices. (Remember to raise

    the leading tone in minor keys.) #[Answers: F, A, and C. Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if incorrect: “Try again. That 7pitch does not belong to V in G minor.”]

Exercise 5.2c:

     7bWhat is the root of a V chord in E major? b[Answer: B. Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if incorrect: “Try again. Remember, the 7root of a V chord is scale degree 5.”] 7[Follow-up question:] Complete the V chord by adding the upper voices.

    4 b[Answers: D, F, and A. Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if incorrect: “Try again. That 7bpitch does not belong to V in E major.”]

    Exercise 5.2d:

     7What is the root of a V chord in E minor?

    [Answer: B. Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if incorrect: “Try again. Remember, the 7root of a V chord is scale degree 5.”] 7[Follow-up question:] Complete the V chord by adding the upper voices. (Remember to raise

    the leading tone in minor keys.) ##[Answers: D, F and A. Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if incorrect: “Try again. That 7pitch does not belong to V in E minor.”]

    Tendency tones:

Certain tones of the diatonic scale are more stable than others. Scale degrees 1, 3, and 5the pitches of

    the tonic triadare the most stable. Other scale members form dissonances with these stable tones and are therefore less stable scale members. Because of this dissonance, those scale members pull strongly toward the stable tones. Unstable pitches that gravitate towards pitches of greater stability are referred to as tendency tones.

    Scale degree 7, for example, forms a dissonant minor second with the tonic and tends to resolve to scale degree 1. Likewise, scale degree 4 forms a minor second with scale degree 3, and therefore tends to esolve downwards by step. In the diatonic minor scale (see Lesson CCC), scale degree 6 is a tendency r

    tone that resolves to 5 for the very same reason.

     7There are two tendency tones in the V chord: scale degrees 7 and 4. These two tendency tones form a

    tritonea dissonance that requires resolution.

    Example 5:

Activity 5.3: 7It is important that you be able to recognize the tendency tones present in a V chord and treat

    them accordingly. In this activity you will identify the tendency tones and the interval they form.

    Exercise 5.3a: 7Identify the two tendency tones in the following V chord (scale degrees 7 and 4):

    5

     #[Answers: G and D. Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if partially correct: “That is partially correct. [X] is a tendency tone, but [Y] is not. Try again.” Response if incorrect: “Incorrect. Try again.”]

    [Follow-up question:] What interval do these two tendency tones form? #[Answer: diminished fifth (d5). Response if correct: “Correct! G and D form a diminished

    fifth.” Response if incorrect: “Incorrect. Try again.”]

Exercise 5.3b: 7Identify the two tendency tones in the following V chord (scale degrees 7 and 4):

     b[Answers: A and E. Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if partially correct: “That is partially correct. [X] is a tendency tone, but [Y] is not. Try again.” Response if incorrect: “Incorrect. Try again.”]

    [Follow-up question:] What interval do these two tendency tones form? b[Answer: diminished fifth (d5). Response if correct: “Correct! A and E form a diminished

    fifth.” Response if incorrect: “Incorrect. Try again.”]

Exercise 5.3c: 7Identify the two tendency tones in the following V chord (scale degrees 7 and 4):

     #[Answers: E and B. Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if partially correct: “That is partially correct. [X] is a tendency tone, but [Y] is not. Try again.” Response if incorrect: “Incorrect. Try again.”]

    [Follow-up question:] What interval do these two tendency tones form? #[Answer: augmented fourth (A4). Response if correct: “Correct! E and B form an augmented

    fourth.” Response if incorrect: “Incorrect. Try again.”]

Exercise 5.3d: 7Identify the two tendency tones in the following V chord (scale degrees 7 and 4):

    6

     #[Answers: F and C. Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if partially correct: “That is

    partially correct. [X] is a tendency tone, but [Y] is not. Try again.” Response if incorrect:

    “Incorrect. Try again.”]

    [Follow-up question:] What interval do these two tendency tones form? #[Answer: diminished fifth (d5). Response if correct: “Correct! F and C form a diminished

    fifth.” Response if incorrect: “Incorrect. Try again.”]

    Scale degree 7, the leading tone, pulls strongly upward toward scale degree 1, which is only a half step away. (Despite this strong pull, the voice containing the leading tone does not always resolve directly to the tonic. These exceptional cases are discussed below.) Scale degree 4, the other tendency tone, pulls strongly downward to 3, its half-step neighbor. These dual tendencies create an urgent need for resolution of a dominant seventh chord. The following example demonstrates the proper resolutions of tendency tones 4 and 7 to 3 and 8:

    Example 6:

    In this case the augmented fourth formed by 4 and 7 resolves outward to a sixth. (You may wish to refer back to Lesson FFF where the tritone interval progressions are explored in greater depth. This particular example uses the progression from Example 4 in Lesson FFF.)

Activity 5.4: 7In this activity, you will resolve the tendency tones from the V chords of the previous lesson.

    Exercise 5.4a: 7Resolve the two tendency tones in the following V chord:

    [Answer:

    7

    . Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if incorrect: “Incorrect. Remember, scale degree 7 tends to resolve to 1 and scale degree 4 tends to resolve to 3. Try again.”]

Exercise 5.4b: 7Resolve the two tendency tones in the following V chord:

[Answer:

    . Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if incorrect: “Incorrect.

    Remember, scale degree 7 tends to resolve to 1 and scale degree 4 tends to resolve to 3. Try again.”]

Exercise 5.4c: 7Resolve the two tendency tones in the following V chord:

[Answer:

    8

    . Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if incorrect: “Incorrect.

    Remember, scale degree 7 tends to resolve to 1 and scale degree 4 tends to resolve to 3. Try

    again.”]

    Exercise 5.4d: 7Resolve the two tendency tones in the following V chord:

    [Answer:

    . Response if correct: “Correct!” Response if incorrect: “Incorrect.

    Remember, scale degree 7 tends to resolve to 1 and scale degree 4 tends to resolve to 3. Try

    again.”]

     7There remain, however, two other notes in the V chord: the root (5) and the fifth (2). These two voices, 7forming a fifth in the V chord, usually resolve in similar motion to an octave. This “5 - 8” motion is

    one of the basic interval progressions outlined in Lesson AAA. The following example shows the basic interval progressions in the upper and lower voice pairs:

    Example 7:

    As you’ll recall from Lesson AAA, four-part harmony is an extension of three-part harmony which, in turn, is built from combinations of basic interval progressions. The voice leading in Example 7 can be

    9

    explained in this manner. The outer voices form the primary interval progression of a third expanding to an octave. The tenor, then, supports the soprano with a “6 - 8” progression. Finally, the alto harmonizes

    with the tenor in parallel thirds (“3 - 3”). Looking at the progression this way, we can see that the

    augmented fourth between the alto and soprano is a resultant interval.

    In the example above, you might have noticed that the resolution chord has three roots, a third, and no fifth. This voicing of the I chord is common at cadences. This type of voice leading, with both chords in root position, provides a strong sense of repose and, thus, closure.

    Examples 5-7 show the resolution of a V7 chord in C major. The same rules apply to dominant seventh chords in minor keys. Example 8 shows a V7 chord in C minor resolving to the tonic harmony:

    Example 8

Note that all the same voice leading patterns appear: the augmented fourth (tritone) formed by F and Bª

    resolves outward to a sixth (a major sixth in minor, because scale degree 4 must now resolve a whole-step down to 3), 2 resolves stepwise to 1, and 5 leaps down to 1.

Activity 5.5:

    In this exercise, you will complete the resolution of the previous activities to the I chord.

    Exercise 5.5a:

    Taking your answer from the previous activity, complete the resolution to the I chord by

    providing pitches for the bass and alto:

    [Answer:

     (allow for bass to be up an octave). Response if correct: “Correct!” 7Response if incorrect: “Incorrect. Remember, both scale degrees 2 and 5 will resolve to 1 as V

    moves to I. Try again.”]

    10

    Exercise 5.5a:

    Taking your answer from the previous activity, complete the resolution to the I chord by providing pitches for the bass and soprano:

[Answer:

     (allow for bass to be up an octave). Response if correct: “Correct!” 7Response if incorrect: “Incorrect. Remember, both scale degrees 2 and 5 will resolve to 1 as V

    moves to I. Try again.”]

Exercise 5.5a:

    Taking your answer from the previous activity, complete the resolution to the I chord by providing pitches for the bass and tenor:

[Answer:

     (allow for bass to be up an octave). Response if correct: “Correct!” 7Response if incorrect: “Incorrect. Remember, both scale degrees 2 and 5 will resolve to 1 as V

    moves to I. Try again.”]

Exercise 5.5a:

    Taking your answer from the previous activity, complete the resolution to the I chord by providing pitches for the bass and tenor:

Report this document

For any questions or suggestions please email
cust-service@docsford.com