W i s c o n s i n T o b a c c o C o

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W i s c o n s i n T o b a c c o C o

     W I S C O N S I N T O B A C C O C O N T R O L B O A R D

    Technical Assistance and

    Training for Tobacco-free Coalitions

    Guide to conducting restaurant and

    worksite tobacco policy surveys

    June 2001

Designed for use by Wisconsin’s local tobacco-free coalitions by:

     University of Wisconsin Madison Comprehensive Cancer Center University of WisconsinCooperative Extension

     University of WisconsinMadison Center for Health Policy and Program Evaluation

    User’s guide to conducting restaurant and

    worksite tobacco policy surveys

    Table of contents

Introduction and purpose of this guide Page 1

Ten steps to conducting a telephone survey Page 2

The questionnaires: What they are and how to use them Page 3

Conducting the survey: Step-by-step instructions Page 4


Key terms and phrases 1

Troubleshooting telephone interviews 2

The basics of proper interviewing 3

Restaurant and worksite telephone interview call logs 4

Wisconsin county codes 5

Industry codes 6

Where to get help 7

Restaurant smoking policy questionnaire 8

Worksite smoking policy questionnaire 9


    Restaurant and worksite smoking policies affect everyone in The Wisconsin Tobacco Wisconsin. As local tobacco-free coalitions implement Control Board Monitoring and tobacco control programs, restaurants and worksite Evaluation Program smoking policies are a principal target for change. The University of Wisconsin As coalitions implement strategies to encourage smoke-free Monitoring and Evaluation Project restaurants and worksites, gathering information about monitors trends in tobacco use,

    evaluates statewide efforts in tobacco current policies will allow coalitions to track changes over

    control, and provides technical time, target businesses with the potential for change, and assistance and training in program contribute data to the statewide monitoring and evaluation evaluation for local health coalitions. effort to better understand effective strategies. The partnership includes the UW Comprehensive Cancer Center, the

    Center for Health Policy and Program As you set out to conduct your surveys, the following

    Evaluation, and the University of questions will help guide choices about how you proceed: WisconsinCooperative Extension. Why you are conducting the survey? Contact information for Regional Who will use the data? How they they use the data? Evaluation Specialists appears on

    page 19. What resources, including time, people, skills and funds, do you have available to conduct the survey, enter data, and analyze results?

Purpose of this guide

This guide provides standard questionnaires for conducting

    telephone surveys with worksites and restaurants, as well as

     step-by-step instructions and tools to guide the survey process. The surveys will allow coalitions to gather A questionnaire is a information about current practices and monitor smoking standardized group of policy changes over time. questions, and a survey is the process of using a

    standardized instrument to These questionnaires were designed to serve as a resource

    collect data. This guide offers for tobacco control efforts across the state. Coalitions are information about how to use not required to use these questionnaires. However, the questionnaires as a means coalitions can contribute community-level data to a to conducting surveys of statewide database on restaurant and worksite smoking worksites and restaurants.

    policies that will allow us to compare changes over time

    across geographic regions. This effort will help us understand more about local approaches that work, those that don’t, and why.

    Tobacco Control Monitoring and Evaluation Program 1

Ten steps to conducting a telephone survey

These questionnaires will allow you to collect information about worksite and restaurant smoking

    policies. However, administering the questionnaire is just one part of the survey process. To ensure

    your data are useful and credible, be prepared to implement the steps listed below. More detail

    about each of these steps appears in this guide.

    Make sure that this telephone survey is the most appropriate method 1. Clarify the reasons you are

    to achieve your goals. These questionnaires were designed to collect conducting the survey standardized information to determine tobacco use policies at

    restaurants and worksites at the point in time when you conduct the


    Given your resources, surveying all restaurants or worksites in your 2. Clearly identify the

    region may not be realistic. If not, determine an adequate sample resources (time, people, size based on the purpose of your survey. funds, and skills) you have


    Depending on your goals, you may wish to target businesses in a 3. Identify the region of your

    city, a group of towns, or a county. Be explicit about your choices. survey.

    Specify the population of potential worksites and restaurants. 4. Identify your population.

    Remove from the list those businesses that do not meet the criteria of Obtain a list of restaurants a worksite or a restaurant, defined on page 4 of this guide. or worksites in this region.

    Your main goals in this step are to ensure interviewers: 5. Select and train

    1) become familiar with the questionnaire interviewers. 2) ask questions as stated on the questionnaire

    3) know how to handle the interview process

    4) understand how to record responses

    5) know how to enter data consistently

    Several tools provided in this guide will help you track and record the 6. Prepare to conduct

    interviews you conduct. Make an adequate number of copies of the telephone interviews. questionnaire. Assign a unique identification number to each

    worksite or restaurant. Track each call using a telephone interview

    log found in Appendix 5. Preparing your tools in advance will allow

    you to avoid unnecessary delays in your survey.

    Keep in mind that telephone interviews take time to complete. In pilot 7. Conduct telephone

    tests, each interview took between 5 and 12 minutes to complete. interviews.

    Enter data into a spreadsheet or database. 8. Enter data.

    Using descriptive analyses will be helpful (see page 10). 9. Analyze and interpret data.

    Reporting your results is a critical part of the process. Remember to 10. Share your results and

    document your survey process. This will help others understand how document your methods. you gathered the information and judge the strengths and

    weaknesses of the data.

    2 Tobacco Control Monitoring and Evaluation Program

The questionnaires: What they are and how to use them

This guide contains two survey questionnaires from the Wisconsin

    The Questionnaires Tobacco Control Board’s Monitoring and Evaluation Program


    The questionnaires appear in the appendices. They contain These questionnaires were designed for use by telephone core items to measure the interviewers. They can be easily adapted for use as questionnaires smoking policies of worksites for face-to-face interviews but should not be used as mail surveys and restaurants in your

    in their current form. county. Data from this

    questionnaire will be most

    useful at the statewide level if Coalitions may add additional questions to the questionnaire as you do not change the long as all MEP survey items remain unchanged. Keep in mind questions in this core that adding questions will lengthen the time required for interviews questionnaire. Consider as well as for data entry. adding questions to this core

     only if they are important to

    your program. We recommend that interviewers follow the order of the survey

    questions as presented on the questionnaire and recite them as

    worded, being careful to accurately record each response.

    Following this procedure ensures uniformity of responses. On page 13, we have included a list of definitions to clarify this process. Please ensure that interviewers are familiar with these definitions before proceeding with the survey.

    These data will prove valuable in our efforts to understand trends in worksite and restaurant smoking policies across Wisconsin. These data will not be used to evaluate your coalition. Rather, they increase our understanding of whether policies are changing statewide.

    Later this summer, we will provide instructions about how you can contribute your data to the statewide database.

    Tobacco Control Monitoring and Evaluation Program 3

    Conducting the surveys: Step-by-step instructions

    Whom you choose to survey depends on 1) the purpose of your What is a worksite? survey, 2) how you plan to use the data, 3) the resources you have available to conduct the survey, and 4) the resources you have A worksite is any private available to enter and analyze the data. place of business operating

    within your county. For

    purposes of this survey, do The following steps should clarify in greater detail how to conduct a not include restaurants, telephone survey using the worksite or restaurant questionnaires we taverns, municipal or have provided. county buildings. A separate questionnaire for

     public buildings will follow.

     Q. What if a business has 1. Clarify the reasons you are conducting the survey. more than one branch within the county? A. Count each branch as a separate worksite. 2. Clearly identify the resources (time, people, funds, and skills) you have available. We recommend that each coalition designate an individual who is responsible for overseeing the What is a restaurant?

    survey process. Volunteers might include university or college

    A restaurant is any students looking for service learning opportunities or members of

    business that serves food, a community organization with whom you might share the results has at least one sit-down of your data. eating area, and has alcohol sales that constitute less than 50% of total sales.

    3. Identify the region of your survey. Will you survey worksites Q. What if the respondent

    says that alcohol sales or restaurants in a city, group of towns, county, or region?

    fluctuate over the course of the year, above 50% and below 50%? A. Complete the survey. It 4. A. Identify your population. is best to go ahead with the survey if the person is not Worksites: A comprehensive business list is usually available definite about where they

    either from the local Chamber of Commerce or from the fall.

     County Development Office. Local sanitarians may also be a

     source of current lists of restaurants or worksites. Try to obtain an electronic file or database so that you can make the process more efficient. You can use this file to manage your list, print labels for each questionnaire, and track changes in telephone numbers or contact information.

    4 Tobacco Control Monitoring and Evaluation Program

    Restaurants: Obtain a list of all businesses with food licenses. To ensure accuracy, the list should be recentpreferably updated within the past year. This list will comprise not only restaurants but also businesses such as taverns and gas stations with food booths. Again, an electronic file or database will allow you to manage information about these establishments. Over time, this might include information about your contacts with local restaurants or your own “rating scale” of how ready establishments are to change their smoking policies.

    B. Remove from the list businesses that do not meet the worksite criteria or

    establishments that do not meet the definition of a “restaurant.”

    Worksite survey: Do not include government and other public offices. There will be

    a separate questionnaire developed for those worksites. Before you conduct the survey,

    delete all “restaurants” from the list. A restaurant is considered a place of business that

    serves food, has at least one sit-down area, and whose alcohol salesif anyconstitute

    less than fifty percent of total sales. If you are in doubt that the business meets this

    definition of worksite, keep it on the list. Non-worksites will be screened out during the

    survey process.

    Restaurant survey: Remove from the list businesses that are not restaurants. A

    restaurant is considered any business that serves food, has at least one sit-down area,

    and whose alcohol sales, if any, constitute less than fifty percent of total sales. If you

    are in doubt that the business is a restaurant, keep it on the list. Non-restaurants will be

    screened out during the survey process.

    C. Looking at the list, decide whether you have the time, money, staff and volunteers to call all the worksites or just a sample of them

    A sample is a portion or a subgoup of a larger group called a population. Decisions about sampling depend on your population size, what

     you want to know, and the resources you have

    Sampling available. For more specific information on Two standard ways to draw a sample are selecting a sample, see probability sampling and nonprobability sampling. A Program Development and

    probability sample is a sample whose members Evaluation: Sampling by Ellen

    Taylor-Powell at the University you choose randomly. This means that each

    of Wisconsin Cooperative member of the population has an equal chance Extension publications web site: of being selected. This increases the likelihood that your information will represent the characteristics of the entire group.

    and choose Program

    Development and Evaluation If you want to generalize your findings to the from the menu at left. entire population, or to be able to say that the

    Tobacco Control Monitoring and Evaluation Program 5

    sample statistically represents the larger population, you should use a probability sample. If your population is small, you may conduct a sample of the entire population. If you want to learn about individuals or particular cases within a population, nonprobability sampling is


    For example, if you had a list of all worksites in your county and randomly selected every fifth worksite to include in your sample, you would have a simple random sample, and you could say that your sample fairly represented the population of worksites. In this example, it would be important to judge whether an alphabetical list might bias your sample by excluding particular establishments or worksites with names that reflect that industry. If possible, you may wish to stratify the worksite list by industry and perform a stratified sample

    to ensure each type of industry in your region is represented.

    In tests of the worksite survey, each interview required between 5 and 12 minutes. You can estimate the amount of interview time you will need for your target sample by multiplying the target number of completed interviews roughly by 15 minutes. This will give you a conservative estimate.

    D. How many surveys should you complete?

    Response rate refers to the proportion of interviews completed to the total sample you set out to interview. Again, your desired response rate will depend on the purpose of your survey and the resources available to conduct the survey. If you collect too much data and cannot enter and analyze it, it will not be worth much to you. However, if you collect too little data, you may not have enough information to generalize about worksite and restaurant policies in your region. Moreover, some counties may have very few restaurants, while others may have more than a thousand. In the latter case, you need to assess how you will use the data and whether you have the resources to survey all restaurants. For more information about choosing a sample that will allow you to calculate more precise statistics, refer to the UW Extension document mentioned in the above inset.

    6 Tobacco Control Monitoring and Evaluation Program

    5. Select and train interviewers.

    Interviewers should read “Telephone Interviewer Instructions” and “The Basics of Proper Interviewing” beginning on page 18. These will provide some useful general guidelines for conducting a telephone interview.

    Prior to initiating the calls, all interviewers should understand questions on the questionnaire and their interviewing role. Interviewers should read the questions out loud to ensure they understand the questions and response items. Ideally, interviewers will make calls in a quiet place, away from distractions.

    6. Prepare to conduct telephone interviews.

    Using the list of worksites, create a “unique identifier” for each worksite you attempt to contact. We suggest using a series of sequential numbers0001, 0002, 0003 . . . 1000so that you will

    be able to tell worksites from one another. For example, if you talk with two McDonald’s

    franchise owners and their names are both Jim Smith, you will easily know from the unique identifier that they are two separate franchises. Also, if you want to share data with another group but you don’t want to share identifying information, such as names, cities, and telephone numbers, you can easily remove those items from the database and leave the unique identifier to help you tell the respondents apart.

After you have determined the number of worksites or restaurants you will survey, make an

    adequate number of copies of the questionnaire. Interviewers will document responses

    from each interview on the questionnaire form, and having multiple copies before starting will make the process run more smoothly. Each interviewer should have on hand a blank pad of paper to record notes about particular interviews.

    Decide ahead of time whether interviewers should or should not capture respondent comments that fall outside the standard questions. If you think this information is important (and it probably is!), you may want to keep a separate log of open-ended comments. Be sure to code those comments using the unique identifier on the survey questionnaire so that you can match the comment with the respondent. This will prove critical in later analysis.

    Tobacco Control Monitoring and Evaluation Program 7

    7. Conduct telephone interviews.

    Worksites: Call worksites during times convenient for people who work in personnel

    officesdaytime calls to businesses open during the day and evening calls to those open at

    night. Interviewers should ask to speak to the human resources manager, safety officer, or

    someone knowledgeable about smoking policies at each worksite. Depending on the size or

    management structure of the worksite, this may be the owner or manager.

    Restaurants: Call restaurants during times when restaurant owners or managers will most

    likely be available. Interviewers should ask to speak to the restaurant manager or assistant

    manager to complete the survey.

    If the appropriate person is unavailable, the interviewer should ask when that person will be available, record the alternate time on the call log, and offer to call back then. Keeping a call log is especially important when interviewers conduct only a few interviews at a sitting or when the interviewing task is shared among several people. We suggest that you divide respondents between interviewers and that interviewers keep separate call logs. To increase the response rate, attempt multiple calls when you do not get a complete response to survey items on the first call. Call back until the appropriate person is reached and the questionnaire is completed. Depending on your time and resources, determine a reasonable number of call-backs (we recommend five).

    Record data immediately as you move through the interview. If a respondent offers multiple answers, ask him or her to identify the choice that best fits the question.

    8 Tobacco Control Monitoring and Evaluation Program

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