Unit Three

By Tim Boyd,2014-02-17 11:20
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Unit Three

    Unit Three

    What’s in a Name?

    Key Points

     Activity 1 Naming Names

    ; ; The acronym may accidentally spell an uncomplimentary word / a word which has a negative (derogatory) meaning:

    ; ; Fiona Alice Tanner Graham Adam Yiend

    ; ; Nichola Ann Green

    ; ; Usually in England it is only the first of the given names which is ever used ; ; Shortened forms are common among friends and colleagues

    Activity 2 Origins

    ; ; Sources of names:

    Place of identity: Some names indicate where the person came from, e.g., Norman, Moor, Hall, Chesterfield , and Wood.

    Occupation: Cook, Clark, Taylor, Smith, Turner, Butler, Thatcher, Chandler, and Cooper ; ; Sources of names:

    Family relationships: Surnames were also coined from first names to indicate family relationships, as Robertson, Donaldson, MacDonald, O’Patrick, Watkins, Thomas

    Ethnic identity: English names: the name plus “son” ,as Robertson, Donaldson , Watkins, Thomas; Scottish names : “Mac”, or “Mc” added before the name, as MacDonald; Irish names : “O” placed before the name ,as O’Patrick.

    ; ; Personal characteristic: Long, Little, Young, Moody, Fox, Brown, Rich, and Newman

    Activity 3 Titles

    ; ; In China, some commonly used titles for addressing people are given below : ; ; Comrade : usually between any male or female ,still widely used but diminishing in the recent years

    ; ; Master;师傅? : traditionally a title for a skilled worker, now often used to any unknown ordinary person of both sexes, usually middle-aged or older persons especially those who provide services, still quite commonly used

    ; ; Miss: to some young ladies, married or not , especially those who work in service business, such as a waitress, shop assistant, air hostess, etc., becoming more and more popular . ; ; Mister/sir : a respectful term of address to known or unknown learned persons, usually males, common in written Chinese, increasingly heard .

    ; ; Teacher : A respectful term of address to a learned or professional person, who is not necessarily a teacher, used to either male or female, if to a known person, often used with the surname, commonly used

    The conventions for using English names and titles:

    ; ; In less formal settings, it is usual for people meeting for the first time to use first names straight away, regardless of any difference in ages or status.

    The most frequently used titles used before surnames are Mr, Mrs ( for a married woman), Miss (for an unmarried woman ) and Ms (referring to both married and unmarried women). They are not usually used alone ,but children often address schoolmistresses simply “Miss” without adding their surnames and regardless of whether they are single or married.

    The conventions for using English names and titles:

     Some general terms of address: “Sir” and “Madam” are polite ways of addressing a man or woman, and are usually used only by someone who is providing a service such as a shop assistant to a customer or policeman to a member of the public . Other general titles which do the work of first names informally such as “Mack”, “Buddy”(Am), and “mate”(Br. & Aus.) . In America “guys” is the collective informal term for addressing a group of friends: “Come on you guys, let’s



; ; A number of terms of endearment: “dear” , “darling” , “love”,” honey”, “sweetheart”, etc..

    Task 3 More Mix-ups

    ; ; Case 1

    A British tourist is travelling by train in china. Sitting opposite him is a Chinese passenger. They introduce themselves to each other…

    ; ; British tourist: Hello, I’m Eric Jackson. Glad to meet you.

    ; ; Chinese passenger: Hello, my name is Liu Xin. I’m glad to meet you, too. Where do you come from, Mr. Eric?

    ; ; British tourist: I’m from Britain. Please just call me Eric, Mr. Xin.

    ; ; Chinese passenger: and you may just call me Liu Xin.

; ; Case 1 Reference

    ; ; Both of them have taken each other’s given name for the surname, since the order of the surnames of Chinese and English names are just the opposite. According to British custom its quite normal for persons who first meet to address each other by their given names alone, whereas here, when people first meet, they usually address each other by their full names and never by their given names alone.

    ; ; Case 2

    A British tourist is visiting a Chinese family. The Chinese hostess introduces herself and her husband to the guest…

    Chinese hostess: Welcome to my home. My name is Cai Hong, and this is my husband. British tourist: Thank you, Mrs. Cai. It’s a pleasure to meet you, Mrs.Cai. I’m Lucy Taylor.

    Chinese hostess: Have a seat, Madam Lucy.

Case 2 Reference

    The British tourist thinks that Cai Hong’s surname is her husband’s surname, since she is unaware of the fact in China women still use their own surnames after marriage. Cai thinks that “madam” is a respectful term of address for any female English speaker, unaware of the fact that in Britain it is usually used by someone who is providing a service such as a shop assistant to a customer or a policeman to a member of the public. It is never used as a title before someone’s name. She also mistakes the given name for the surname.

    ; ; Words and expressions:

    ; ; Peer: ( in Britain) : a person who has a high social position and any of a range of titles including Duke, Earl , Marquis (Marchioness),Baron and Viscount, or a life peer, who is a member of the House of Lords: a hereditary peer.

    ; ; Aristocracy: class of people who had high social ranks;

    ; ; Aristocrat: member of aristocracy; aristocratic

    ; ; Precede: to be or go before (someone or something )in time or space: be preceded by

    Task 4 Lords and Ladies

    ; ; Hereditary or life peers: they are known by the inherited title “Lord” before their names, as in “Lord Emsworth”;

    ; ; The titles which are not inherited but honored by the Queen include knighthood: “Sir” is put in front of the holder’s first name .

    ; ; Other titles awarded by the Queen are indicated by adding the initials of the award after the surname, as “Mr. Arthur Scott,OBE(Order of the British Empire)”

    Activity 4 Kin terms

    Task 1 Cultural differences in using kin terms

    In China kin terms are not only used within one’s own family but also to other people. The

    appropriate use of kin terms may reflect a person’s politeness, respectfulness, and friendliness. However, in Britain kin terms are mainly confined to family members, though


    some families still keep the tradition of having children use kin terms when addressing adults who are close neighbors and family friends.

    Task 1 Cultural differences in using kin terms

    ; ; For example: In Britain Children address their parents’ brothers and sisters with the title of Uncle or Aunt plus their first names, or simply by their names without adding a title. The kin terms do not distinguish between paternal and maternal relatives, nor between relatives according to birth order.

    ; ; Whereas in China children address them with the title only and the titles can tell whether they are from their father or mother’s side and whether they are older or younger than their father or mother. The way of addressing them by their first names without adding a title couldn’t be applied in Chinese families because it would be regarded as impolite and


    In Chinese the use of kin terms is closely related to age and politeness. The appropriate and extended use of kin terms according to age is taken as reflecting good manners, Whereas English speaker do not use kin terms so extensively .Also they tend to view age as a relatively private thing , especially among females.

    Task3 Getting mixed-up

    ; ; Case 1

    ; ; Lin Mei is a Chinese student who is now studying at a university in America. Her seven-year-old daughter Jia Jia is with her and studies in a primary school. They have been in America for three years. Wang xiao hong is a Chinese visiting scholar at the same university as Lin Mei…

    ; ; One day Wang Xiaohong came to visit them. Below is their conversation.

    ; ; Wang Xiaohong: 佳佳? 你妈妈在家吗,

    ; ; Jiajia : 在。妈妈? 小红阿姨找你。

    ; ; Lin Mei: 王教师您来了? 请坐。 我女儿真不懂礼貌。 佳佳? 以后要叫王阿姨。

    ; ; Reference

    ; ; In my view, I think the combination of the term of address Xiaohong Ayi reflects the mixture of two cultures. On the one hand we have the extended use of kin terms preceded by a person’s name , conventionally surname, e.g., Wang +Auntie, in Chinese culture. On the other hand we have the conventional use of kin terms followed by given names e.g., Auntie+Xiao-hong, in the culture of English speaking countries.

    ; ; In other words, it shows the combination of Chinese sequence, i.e., name +kin term and English use of given name. Since Jia has lived in America for three years , she must have been strongly influenced by the foreign culture despite the influence of Chinese culture from her mother and other Chinese. So from

    Jia-jia’ s point of view it is appropriate and polite to call Wang Xiao-hong Ayi.

    ; ; However, Lin Mei, as an adult, still sticks to the Chinese Culture when dealing with a Chinese who came to America only recently; and according to Chinese culture, it is impolite for a child to address an adult by using his or her given name.

     Activity 5 His and Hers

    ; ; Task 1 Difference in male and female names

    ; ; In Chinese, male names tend to connote firmness, strength, the power and grandeur of nature, moral values, etc., whereas female names often suggest elegance, manners, virtues, the beauty of nature.

    ; ; Task 1 Difference in male and female names

    ; ; Male names: 赵刚---meaning strong and firm


; ; 王海--- meaning big and broad-minded

    ; ; Female names: 秦雅芳--- meaning elegant and fragrant, pleasant and graceful

    ; ; 陈淑贤meaning kind, gentle and virtuous

    Task 2 ..and them

    ; ; Differences between male and female names:

    ; ; Number of syllables of first names: female names tend to be longer with more syllables( many to be trisyllabic), e.g. Katherine, Elizabeth, Amanda, Victoria; male names tend to be much more monosyllabic and short

    ; ; Number of syllables of first names: female names are likely to be longer with one more syllables, e.g., the pet name for Roberta is Bobbie not Bob; male names are much more likely to be one-syllable ones, e.g., the pet name for Robert could be either Bob or Bobbie, but Bob is almost certainly a male, Bobbies could be either a male or female

    Percentage of names with stress on a

    syllable other than the first: there is a higher percentage (25%) of female names , e.g., Patricia, Elizabeth, Amanda, Rebecca, Michelle, there is a lower percentage of male names( 5%), e.g., Jerome.

     Sound of the stressed syllables : female names tend to make more use of /i/ sound, e.g., Lisa, Tina, Celia, Maxine, Fifi , but male names make much less common use of /i/ sound, though it can be

    found in names such as Steve, Peter, and Keith

    ; ; Last sound: female names more likely end in a vowel , e.g., Linda, Tracy, Patricia, Deborah, and Barbara; or very likely end in a nasal as in Jean, Kathleen, Sharon, Ann ; male names much more likely end in a plosive (consonant) ,e.g., Bob, David, Dick, Jack ; ; Speed at which fashion change: female names change more quickly, male names change less quickly

    Task 5 Language and sex

    Using Language That is Not Sexist

    ; ; Sometimes the use of particular words can support unfair or untrue attitudes to a particular sex, usually women. For example using the pronoun he to refer a doctor, when you do not

    know if they are male or female, might support the belief that it is not normal for women to be doctors.


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