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Heat Transfer

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Heat TransferH,heat,Heat

     Chemistry

     HS/Science

     Unit: 12

     Lesson: 01

     Suggested Duration: 5 days

    Heat Transfer

    Lesson Synopsis:

    In this lesson, students will review and reconnect with the law of conservation of energy and the forms of energy transfer:

    conduction, convection, and radiation. They will learn the differences between heat and temperature and relate molecular

    kinetic energy to heat transfer. Students are introduced to calorimetry as a method to measure heat transfer and to

    determine the specific heat of a metal.

TEKS:

    C.11 Science concepts. The student understands the energy changes that occur in chemical reactions. The student is expected to: C.11A Understand energy and its forms, including kinetic, potential, chemical, and thermal energies. Supporting Standard C.11B Understand the law of conservation of energy and the processes of heat transfer. Supporting Standard C.11D Perform calculations involving heat, mass, temperature change, and specific heat. Supporting Standard

    Scientific Process TEKS:

    C.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods to solve investigative questions. The student is expected to: C.2E Plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology, including graphing calculators, computers and probes, sufficient scientific glassware such as beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks, pipettes, graduated cylinders, volumetric flasks, safety goggles, and burettes, electronic balances, and an adequate supply of consumable chemicals. C.2F Collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision. C.2I Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphs, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

    GETTING READY FOR INSTRUCTION

    Performance Indicator(s):

    ; Use calorimetry to identify an unknown metal. Write a summary report that includes collected data, calculations,

    and a discussion of the data to support your conclusions. Given the identity of the metal and an accepted value

    for its specific heat, calculate percent error. (C.2E, C.2F, C.2I; C.11A, C.11B, C.11D) 3D, 3E; 5B

Key Understandings and Guiding Questions:

    ; Energy is conserved when heat is transferred.

     What is the law of conservation of energy?

     What is the difference between heat and temperature?

     What are the three types of energy transfer?

     List the forms of energy you know about. What is an example for each?

     How is a calorimeter used to measure energy transfer?

Vocabulary of Instruction:

    ; energy ; thermal energy ; phase change

    ; kinetic energy ; specific heat ; heat transfer

    ; potential energy ; law of conservation of energy ; calorimetry Materials:

    Refer to Notes for Teacher section for materials.

Attachments:

    ; Handout: The Law of Conservation of Energy (1 per group)

    ; Handout: The Specific Heat of Aluminum (1 per group)

    ; Handout: Thermochemistry Practice Calculations (1 per student)

    ; Teacher Resource: Thermochemistry Practice Calculations KEY

    ?2012, TESCCC 06/05/13 page 1 of 10

     Chemistry HS/Science Unit: 12 Lesson: 01

    ; Teacher Resource: Performance Indicator Instructions KEY

Advance Preparation:

    1. Prior to Day 1, obtain materials for the Engage: Heat and Temperature Demonstration. You will need two hot

    plates and three Celsius thermometers and/or temperature probes. Determine an appropriate method to project

    the discussion questions during the demonstration for students to be able to view as the demonstration and

    discussion progresses.

    2. Prior to Day 2, prepare materials for The Law of Conservation of Energy Laboratory Activity:

    ; You will need one 12 oz. aluminum soda can calorimeter for each group. Punch an additional triangular hole

    in the top to so water may be added easily. The cans may get sooty, so you will probably want a fresh set for

    each class.

    ; Obtain the food morsels you want to burn, such as cheese puffs or nuts. Be sure you have the label with

    Calorie information. Calculate joules per gram for students if needed.

    ; Bend the paper clips to hold the morsels; cut aluminum foil 6x6 in. squares. You will need one square per

    group.

    ; Conduct a practice run to make any necessary adjustments to the procedure.

    ; Make sure your fire extinguisher is in working order.

    ; If you have safety concerns about the ability of your students to follow instructions, conduct the investigation

    as a demonstration.

    3. Prior to Day 3, obtain and prepare materials for The Specific Heat of Aluminum Investigation.

    ; Prepare or purchase your foam cup calorimeters.

    ; Typically, for each calorimeter you will need a “koozie” and foam coffee cup that fits into it (better) or else

    two foam cups, one inside the other.

    ; Make a lid from foam or cardboard for each calorimeter with a hole for the thermometer, cut to fit inside

    the top of the inside cup.

    ; You will need several commercial specific heats of metals cylinder sets. These sets are of different metals of

    the same mass and diameter. Use the Al cylinders for this activity and the others for the Performance

    Indicator. The cylinders have a little hook at the top so they can be suspended.

    ; If you do not have the cylinders, you will need approximately 60 g of aluminum for each group.

    ; You will need test tubes large enough to contain the cylinders.

    ; Conduct a practice run to make necessary adjustments.

    4. Prior to Day 4, develop a plan for your Energy Concepts Summary.

    ; Derive a guide for the key concepts.

    5. Prior to Day 5 prepare materials for the Performance Indicator. Be sure to consider group size and quantities

    available.

    ; You will use the other metal cylinders if you have the specific heat sets. If not, you will again need 60 g

    samples of a variety of metals, such as iron shot and BBs.

    6. Prepare attachment(s) as necessary.

    Background Information:

    This unit bundles student expectations related to conservation of energy and energy changes - a major aspect of chemistry. Thermochemistry is the study of the transfer of heat energy in physical changes and chemical reactions.

    Prior to this unit, in elementary school, students studied the states of matter as a physical property. During this unit, students will study the amount of heat needed to be absorbed or released for the state of matter to change and in chemical reactions. Stoichiometric calculations of heat transfer are also addressed.

Students were introduced to energy and conservation in Grade 6:

    ; The student knows that the Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it

    just changes its form (6.9).

    ; The student is expected to investigate methods of thermal energy transfer, including conduction, convection, and

    radiation (6.9A).

    This is the last time that these concepts will be directly taught before the STAAR assessment.

?2012, TESCCC 06/05/13 page 2 of 10

     Chemistry HS/Science Unit: 12 Lesson: 01

    STAAR Note:

    Thermochemical equations in chemical reactions will be tested as a Readiness Standard under Reporting Category 4: Gases and Thermochemistry.

    Energy must be defined in terms of work. A system that has energy can do work; that is, it can exert a force through a distance. Energy is not real; we can only observe the effects of energy transfer from one system to another in terms of the work done.

    In chemistry, we think about energy first in terms of kinetic molecular theory. Moving particles (translation, rotation, and vibration) in gases, liquids, and solids have kinetic energy. Heat is a measure of the total amount of kinetic energy in the

    system. The temperature of a system is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the system.

Consider two simple systems - one beaker of hot water and one of cold. They contain different amounts of heat i.e., total

    kinetic energy. They are also at different temperatures hot water molecules have more average kinetic energy than the

    cold water molecules. If the two beakers of water are mixed in a third beaker, the molecules mix and collide with each other, transferring kinetic energy to and from each other.

    Assuming that no heat is lost to the surroundings (conservation of energy in a closed system), the total heat in the third beaker is the sum of the two. However, the average kinetic energy of the water molecules in the third beaker is less than

    the average in the original hot water and more than the average in the original cold water. And so, the temperature of the water in the third beaker is between the original two temperatures.

    In the International System of Units (SI), work and energy are measured in joules (J), the work done (energy used) by applying a force of one newton over a distance of one meter. Water provides the standard for measuring changes in energy in a chemical system, i.e., in its molecular average kinetic energy (temperature) and the ability to do work. It turns out that 4.18 J of energy change the temperature of one gram of water one Celsius degree. So, chemists agree that the heat capacity of water, or specific heat, c, is 4.18 J/g ?C. p

    Note: The calorie (cal) and kilocalorie (kcal or Cal) are related to water as well. One calorie raises the temperature of one gram of water by one Celsius degree. So, one calorie of energy is equivalent to 4.18 joules, as shown in the STAAR Chemistry Reference Materials. (Note: One kilocalorie, 1000 calories, is the energy unit related to the energy available in foods and often referred to as a Calorie as well.) Calorie gets its name from calor, the Latin word meaning heat. James

    Joule investigated the relationship between mechanical work and heat, so units in both are measured in Joules in his

    honor.

    Solids, liquids, and gases have different specific heats, i.e., the amount of energy needed to change the temperature of one gram of the matter by one Celsius degree. In the laboratory, the heat gained by water in a closed system can be used to determine the specific heat of a solid. This process is called calorimetry. In a perfect calorimeter (closed system, no

    heat energy is lost to the surroundings), heat gained by water equals the heat lost by the solid.

Using Q as the measure of heat gained or lost, in joules, within our system:

    Q = mc?T waterpwater

    In other words, the heat gained by the water is equal to the mass of water in grams (m) times the specific heat of water (c, p

    4.18 J/g ?C) times the temperature change in degrees Celsius of the water, ?T (T T). waterfinalinitial

    For the unknown solid, the heat lost is shown by the following:

    Q= mc?T lost psolid

    The heat lost by the unknown solid equals the mass of the solid times the unknown specific heat times temperature change of the solid.

By setting Q = Q, the cof the solidcan be calculated. waterlostp

    Some accepted specific heats for various metals follow and may be used to identify unknown pure metals. Note that different resources report values to varying significant figures. o; Aluminum: 0.899 J/g C o; Copper: 0.385 J/g C o; Lead: 0.129 J/g C

    ?2012, TESCCC 06/05/13 page 3 of 10

     Chemistry HS/Science Unit: 12 Lesson: 01 o; Steel: 0.452 J/g C o; Tin: 0.222 J/g C o; Zinc: 0.387 J/g C

GETTING READY FOR INSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL PLANNING DOCUMENT

    Instructors are encouraged to supplement and substitute resources, materials, and activities to differentiate instruction to address the needs of learners. The Exemplar Lessons are one approach to teaching and reaching the Performance Indicators and Specificity in the Instructional Focus Document for this unit. Instructors are encouraged to create original lessons using the Content Creator in the Tools Tab located at the top of the page. All originally authored lessons can be saved in the “My CSCOPE” Tab within the “My Content” area.

    INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES

    Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher

    ENGAGE/EXPLORE/EXPLAIN Heat and Temperature NOTE: 1 Day = 50 minutes Demonstration Suggested Day 1

    Engage:

    1. Describe the demonstration equipment you have set up to the class, and explain what you will be doing in the demonstration (see Instructional Materials: Notes). ; hot plates (for demonstration, 2 per teacher) 2. Instruct students to get out their notebooks and to diagram the ; thermometers or temperature demonstration, write observations, make a data table, and to answer the probes (for demonstration, 3 per questions presented during the demonstration without discussion with their teacher) neighbors. Do not provide answers at this time. Note: Project questions in ; beakers (400 mL, for order to assist students. demonstration, 3 per teacher) ; ring stands (with clamps to hold 3. Project the terms heat and temperature, and instruct students to define thermometers/probes, for both terms based upon their prior knowledge and experiences. demonstration, 3 per teacher) ; tap water (for demonstration, 1 L 4. Instruct students to predict what will happen to the heat and temperature in per teacher) each system. Provide a few minutes for students to share predictions with ; safety goggles (1 per teacher) a shoulder or table partner. ; apron (1 per student) ; hot mitt or heat resistant gloves (per 5. Call upon a few students to share ideas with the rest of the class. Accept teacher) all answers at this time, but make note of misconceptions to address later in the lesson.

     Explore/Explain I: Safety Notes:

    1. Turn both hot plates to high. Remind students to write answers in their Demonstrate safety precautions by

    notebooks without discussion. wearing safety goggles and an apron

    Facilitate a class discussion: and by exercising glass and heat safety

    ; What will happen to the water temperature in each beaker on the measures.

    hot plate? Each temperature will rise. Instructional Notes:

    The purpose of the demonstration is to ; Why? Heat energy will be transferred from the hot plate to the water

    focus students’ attention on the through the beaker.

    concepts of heat and temperature. ; What are three the types of heat transfer? How are they

     demonstrated? Answers may vary. Conduction from the hot plate

    To prepare for the demonstration: through the glass to the beaker is the main process. Students may

    Place two of the 400 mL beakers on hot also cite additional types. Convection: As the water is heated, the

    plates. Pour 100 mL of tap water in one warmer water at the bottom rises and cooler water at the top, being

    and 250 mL of tap water in the other denser, sinks to the bottom. Radiation: The hot plates radiate heat to

    two. Place both beakers on a hot plate. their surroundings.

    Mount thermometers in each beaker of ; Assuming I leave the beakers on the hot plates long enough, what water. will happen? The water in each beaker will boil. ; What will be the same in the two beakers? Each thermometer will oPut 100 mL of tap water in the third read 100C. beaker, and set it aside. ; What differences will you observe between the two beakers? The temperature will rise faster in the beaker with less water; it will boil first.

    ?2012, TESCCC 06/05/13 page 4 of 10

     Chemistry HS/Science Unit: 12 Lesson: 01

    Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher

    2. Provide periodic temperature readings. Instruct students to record the Pose questions in a manner that will readings in their notebooks. While allowing both beakers to come to allow you to refer to them later.

    boiling, pose the following questions:

    More hot water means more energy in ; What is the law of conservation of energy? (Energy is not created

    the hot water. A cup of spilled hot coffee or destroyed it just changes forms.)

    will cause more damage than a few ; List the forms of energy you know about. Give an example for

    drops. each form. Answers will vary. Examples may be kinetic, potential,

     heat (thermal), electrical, mechanical, chemical, etc.

    At some point, you may need to clarify

    heat and thermal energy as being the 3. Turn off the hot plates.

    same. Continue the discussion:

     ; What comparisons can you make about the water temperature You may want to deflect questions until and amount of heat energy in each beaker of water at boiling? later about the constant temperature at The temperatures are the same. But there is more heat energy stored boiling at this time. in the beaker with more water because there is more water. ; Was the same thing true of the beakers of water at room temperature before I started heating them? Yes. There is more heat energy in the 250 mL of water. ; So, what is the difference between heat and temperature? Use the State Resource: words kinetic energy and water molecules. Heat is the total amount Texas Education Agency, STAAR of kinetic energy in the water molecules; temperature is a measure of End-of-Course Success Training the average kinetic energy of the molecules. Lesson: Heat Transfer ; How long will the transfer of energy take place between two quantities of matter? Transfer of energy will take place until the two

    quantities reach the same temperature. Heat energy lost equals the

    heat energy gained in a system. STAAR Note:

    4. Check the temperature of the 100 mL of tap water on the table and 100 mL Students are introduced to potential and of water on the hot plate. Report to the students: kinetic energies (6.8A), thermal energy

    (6.9A. 6.9B), and energy ; Predict the temperature of the mixture when I add the hot water to

    transformations in Grade 6 (6.9C). the room temperature water. Why? The temperature will be about

     half way between the hot and room temperature water since the

     volumes of both are equal. Transfer of energy takes place between

     two quantities of matter that are at a different temperature until the two

    Check for Understanding: reach the same temperature.

    Utilize the small and large group ; Explain what happened in terms of kinetic energy and

    discussions as an opportunity for temperature. The molecules of the hot water collided with and

    formative assessment. provided kinetic energy to the molecules in the colder water as they

     mixed. The resulting temperature reflects the average kinetic energy of

    all of the water molecules in the third beaker.

    ; Does heat affect the temperature of materials the same way? Consider glass and aluminum for example. No, some materials, like Science Notebooks: glass, stay hot for a long time. Others, like aluminum, heat and cool Students diagram the demonstration, easily. write observations, and answer questions in their notebooks. 5. Ask students to discuss their answers to the questions in small groups, and then ask volunteers to share out with the class. Circulate as students

    discuss.

    6. Come to agreement on each answer in the large group discussion, and direct students to revise their answers as needed. Monitor to ensure

    students are recording accurate information.

    7. Include the following in the discussion:

    ; Heat and temperature are not the same.

    ; Heat, symbolized by Q, is the energy transferred as a result of a

    ?2012, TESCCC 06/05/13 page 5 of 10

     Chemistry HS/Science Unit: 12 Lesson: 01 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher

    temperature difference. Temperature, T, is the measure of the

    average kinetic energy of particles within a material.

    ; Heat energy transfers from matter at higher temperature to matter

    at a lower temperature, mostly by conduction and convection.

    ; Conduction is the transfer of heat energy between substances

    that are in direct contact with each other.

    ; Convection occurs when areas of a liquid or gas at different

    temperatures rise and fall to due to density differences.

    ; Radiation does not rely upon any contact between the heat

    source and heated material, as is the case with conduction and

    convection.

EXPLORE/EXPLAIN II Law of Conservation of Energy Suggested Day 2

    1. Divide the class into groups of 24.

     2. Inform students they are going to investigate the transfer of heat when a Materials: food item is burned using a soda can calorimeter. ; soda can calorimeter (see Advance Preparation, 1 per group) 3. Explain that in a calorimeter, the heat produced by the burning food warms ; thermometer or temperature probe the water. By knowing the mass of the water warmed and the change in (1 per group) temperature of the water, the amount of heat absorbed by the water can ; ring stand (1 per group) be calculated. ; metal ring (1 per group) ; wire gauze (1 piece per group) 4. Define specific heat as the amount of heat required to warm 1 gram of a ; electronic balance (1 per group) substance one Celsius degree. 4.18 joules per gram per degree Celsius ; food item (see Advance (4.18 J/g?C) is the specific heat of water. Preparation, such as cheese puff morsel or nuts including food label, 5. Distribute the Handout: The Law of Conservation of Energy to each 1 piece per group) group. Instruct groups to read the activity and prepare a data table. ; paper clip (1 per group) Answer any questions that students may have regarding the instructions. ; aluminum foil (see Advance Preparation, square 6x6 cm, 1 per 6. Discuss safety precautions (see Safety Notes). group) ; matches (1 box per group) 7. Monitor and assist as students complete the investigation. ; graduated cylinder (100 mL or 250 mL, 1 per group) 8. Guide students as they calculate the heat absorbed by water using their ; tap water (per group) own data and the formula: ; safety goggles (1 per student)

     Q = mc?T ; apron (1 per student) p

    where m is the mass of water in the can calorimeter, c is the specific heat Attachments: pof water, and ?T is the difference in the beginning and final temperature of ; Handout: The Law of

    the water in the can calorimeter. Ask students to locate this formula in the Conservation of Energy (1 per

    STAAR Chemistry Reference Materials. group)

9. Monitor students, and answer questions as students calculate the energy in the food item and the experimental error for their data. They may need Safety Notes: assistance in getting joules per gram from the food label. Note: You may Wear goggles and an apron at all times wish to do this for them. during the investigation. 10. Facilitate a class discussion in which students reflect on the experimental Observe all safety precautions for results related to conservation of energy: working with open flames. ; How well was the law of conservation of energy demonstrated? Not very well too much loss of heat to the surroundings, which Use teacher discretion in allowing couldn’t be measured students to work with open flames. ; What could have been done better? Better insulation to prevent heat

    ?2012, TESCCC 06/05/13 page 6 of 10

     Chemistry HS/Science Unit: 12 Lesson: 01

    Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher

    loss, ensure the food item burned 100%, etc. Review fire safety rules with students.

    NOTE: If there are safety concerns 11. Continue the discussion, and instruct students to reflect on sources of

    about your students’ ability to follow error and heat loss in this investigation.

    instructions and work safely with

    open flame, consider conducting this

    activity as a demonstration.

    Instructional Notes:

    Use the specific heat of water as 4.18 o J/(g C), as per the STAAR Chemistry

    Reference Materials.

    The food label must have Calorie

    information.

    Be sure to conduct a trial run of the

    investigation prior to class in order to

    make needed adjustments.

    NOTE: A soda can is not a very efficient

    calorimeter, but is used to help students

    reflect on the concept of conservation of

    energy.

     Misconception:

    ; Students may confuse

    conservation of energy and

    different forms of energy.

    STAAR Note:

    The STAAR Chemistry Reference

    Materials includes the formula for Q and

    the value for the specific heat of water.

     Science Notebooks:

    Students prepare a data table, record

    data and observations, make

    calculations, and discuss sources of

    error in the laboratory activity in their

    science notebooks.

    EXPLORE/EXPLAIN III Laboratory Activity: The Specific Heat of

    Aluminum Suggested Day 3

    1. Divide the class into groups of 24. Inform students they are going to

    determine the specific heat of aluminum by using a better type of calorimeter. Materials (per group) ; foam cup calorimeter (see Advance 2. Display a foam cup calorimeter and aluminum, and discuss precautions

    ?2012, TESCCC 06/05/13 page 7 of 10

     Chemistry HS/Science Unit: 12 Lesson: 01

    Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher

    that should be taken in transferring the metal to the foam cup. Also discuss Preparation, 1 per group)

    safety concerns and precautions. ; thermometer or temperature probe

     (1 per group)

    3. Facilitate a discussion of the following: ; pure aluminum cylinders, or other

    ; Why is this calorimeter better than the soda can we used in the solid pieces of aluminum (see

    last activity? Better insulated so there is less heat loss to Advance Preparation, several per

    surroundings group)

    ; What do you expect to happen to the temperature of the water in ; electronic balance (1 per group)

    the calorimeter when hot aluminum is added to it? The water ; hot plate (1 per group) temperature will increase. ; beaker (250 mL, 1 per group)

    ; What do you expect to happen to the temperature of the ; test tube (large enough to contain aluminum? Its temperature will decrease. cylinders, 1 per group) ; What factor determines the amount of temperature change? The ; test tube clamp (1 per group) mass of the aluminum ; distilled or de-ionized water (100 mL per group) 4. Distribute the Handout: Laboratory Activity: The Specific Heat of ; tap water (200 mL per group) Aluminum to each group. Instruct students to read the investigation and ; string (per group) prepare a data table in their notebooks. Answer any questions that ; safety goggles (1 per student) students may have regarding the instructions. ; apron (1 per student) ; hot mitts or heat resistant gloves (1 5. Discuss safety precautions. pair per group) 6. Monitor and assist as students complete the investigation. Answer Attachments: questions as students make their calculations of c and % error for p; Handout: The Specific Heat of aluminum. Aluminum (1 per group) ; Handout: Thermochemistry 7. Model a sample calculation for the class using data from one of the Practice Calculations (1 per groups. student) ; Teacher Resource: 8. When all calculations are complete, instruct groups to post their data and Thermochemistry Practice facilitate a discussion of the class results for aluminum. Calculations KEY 9. Discuss sources of error in the investigation. Ask students to discuss

    whether the calorimeters they used were “closed” systems or not and to justify their answers. Safety Notes:

    Ask: Wear goggles and an apron at all times

    ; How is a calorimeter used to measure energy transfer? While they during the investigation.

    may be constructed differently, calorimeters measure the energy given

    off or absorbed during a physical (or chemical) process. The Exercise glass and heat safety

    temperature change of water is used to measure the heat absorbed or precautions.

    released by the change. By multiplying the specific heat by the

    temperature change and mass of the water, the heat produced by the

    reaction can be calculated, assuming that the calorimeter itself does

     not absorb any heat and heat does not escape (a closed system). Science Notebooks: While these assumptions are not error free, they make good Students prepare a data table, record estimations possible. data and observations, and make calculations, in their science notebooks. 10. Point out that different materials have different capacities to store energy, also known as specific heat values: Students work sample problems and ; Explain why two areas exposed to the Sun’s energy, such as practice problems in their science beach sand and an asphalt parking lot, feel different when walked notebooks. upon by bare feet? Sand and asphalt have different specific heats.

    So, absorbing the same amount of energy makes them different

    temperatures.

11. Model additional examples of problems using the equation Q = mc?T, p

    and ask for students to model problem solving for the class as well.

    ?2012, TESCCC 06/05/13 page 8 of 10

     Chemistry HS/Science Unit: 12 Lesson: 01 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher 12. Distribute the Handout: Thermochemistry Practice Calculations and/or

    other practice calculations from a locally adopted textbook and/or other

    resource to each student. Assign as class or homework as appropriate for

    your students.

    ELABORATE Energy Concepts Summary Suggested Day 4 1. Facilitate a class discussion in which students reflect on energy concepts.

    Project the following to guide the discussion:

    Check for Understanding: ; kinetic energy of particles

    Allow students time to work in partners ; temperature and kinetic energy of particles

    or small groups, revise, and elaborate ; examples of heat transfer (convention, conduction, and radiation) on their notes. Monitor to ensure and particles accurate information is recorded. ; using calorimetry

     ; practical examples of specific heat and temperature changes

    Instructional Notes:

    An alternative activity could be putting 2. Continue the discussion:

    each of the energy concepts on a large ; How can the conservation of energy be observed? Answers will piece of white paper around the room. vary in terms of student results in this lesson.

    Hand a few small sticky note pads to students to write responses. You may 3. Ask students to refer back to their original notes from the Day 1 Engage assign a certain color to different groups demonstration. Instruct students to revise their original answers, to track responses and gauge incorporating the concepts discussed in today’s discussion. Monitor and understandings. Ask students to write assist as necessary. their supporting facts learned throughout this lesson and post them on 4. Ask students to work with a partner or in small groups to ensure they have the appropriate paper. Then, allow complete and accurate information in their notes from the discussion. students to rotate through the posters in a “gallery walk” to view all responses. 5. Ask for student volunteers to read from their revised notes. Allow students Discussion would then follow. to revise. Validate responses with the whole group, and clear up any misconceptions or underdeveloped concepts.

6. Mention potential energy as needed, but explain to students that this topic Misconception: will be discussed in the next lesson.

     ; Student may think heat and

    temperature are the same.

     Science Notebooks:

    Students revise notes on energy and

    heat transfer in their science notebooks.

    EVALUATE Performance Indicator Suggested Day 5 Performance Indicator

    ; Use calorimetry to identify an unknown metal. Write a summary report that includes collected data, calculations, and a discussion of the data Materials: to support your conclusions. Given the identity of the metal and an ; foam cup calorimeter (see Advance accepted value for its specific heat, calculate percent error. (C.2E, Preparation, 1 per group) C.2F, C.2I; C.11A, C.11B, C.11D) 3D, 3E; 5B ; thermometer or temperature probe (1 per group) 1. Refer to the Teacher Resource: Performance Indicator Instructions ; metal cylinders or large pieces of KEY for information on administering the assessment. metal (such as copper, lead, zinc, steel tin, 1 cylinder per group) ; electronic balance (1 per group) ; hot plate (1 per group)

    ?2012, TESCCC 06/05/13 page 9 of 10

     Chemistry HS/Science Unit: 12 Lesson: 01

    Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher

     ; beaker (250 mL, 1 per group)

     ; test tube (large enough to contain

     cylinders, 1 per group)

     ; test tube clamp (1 per group)

    ; distilled or de-ionized water

    (approximately 100 mL per group)

    ; tap water (200 mL per group)

    ; safety goggles (1 per student)

    ; string (per group)

    ; hot mitts or heat resistant gloves (1

    pair per group)

    Attachments:

    ; Teacher Resource: Performance

    Indicator Instructions KEY

    ?2012, TESCCC 06/05/13 page 10 of 10

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