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    DECS Languages & Multicultural Education Portfolio Group page 1 of 7

    LITERACY STRATEGIES aligned with the ESL SCOPE AND SCALES

    teaching strategy Genre - Text in Context

    General concept of examine two or more texts of the same field, tenor, more but different genre is about text type-

    genre structure and ask students to identify the genre, and the differences in organisation of the text

    the genres genres are typical

     brainstorm types of genres and their social context (purpose) responses to demands

     examine the differences in one genre across different levels of

    complexity: identify the differences

     identifying the overall purpose of a genre, including a macro genre

    Example teaching strategy Genre - Structure

    1. Can the student recount deconstruct models

    produce sequence paragraphs of a text model which have been cut up description different types label the stages of a text narrative of written place information in categories / proforma auto / biography “story” texts other…………………

    2. Can the student procedure deconstruct models

    produce sequence paragraphs / stages of a text model which have been cut up report different types label the stages of a text explanation of written transfer information from a text into a categories proforma argument factual texts plan and construct a text from information under headings discussion

     identify the minor genres within the macrogenre text involving two or provide cards with headings, subheadings and information for students more genres to create structured overview other ……………………

    3. Can the student giving an opinion deconstruct models

    produce sequence paragraphs of a text model which have been cut up personal reflection different types label the stages of a text film, book or art review of written other …………………. reviews

    4. Can the student recount of an outing deconstruct models

    produce sequence paragraphs of a text model which have been cut up description different types label the stages of a text create or retell a story or of oral “story” event with fictional or texts real characters

     auto / biography

     other………………..….

    5. Can the student giving instructions order written instruction (on card) then give the instructions while

    produce / doing the procedure report of a research, case different types label the stages of an oral text study, survey or of oral factual transfer information from an oral text into a categories proforma, and interview texts construct own oral text from this information explain a natural

     construct oral text from given information phenomena or how

    something works

     other……………………

    6. Can the student discussion of a social or label the stages of an oral text model

    participate in moral issue sequence lines of dialogue

    different types interview students and of oral factual other community texts members about current

    issues

     other………………..….

    7. Can the student giving an opinion Examining the language of opinion. Groups read a text and each

    produce member picks out a card on which an emotion is written eg anger, personal reflection different types sadness, amusement (as appropriate for the text) Each member of the (monologue) of oral reviews group tries to give an opinion based on the emotion. film, book or art review watch or listen to reviews broadcast on radio and TV and identify the other……………..…. structure and features of the oral texts

    Professional Development and Resource Materials for ESL Stella Emberson and Rosie Antenucci September 2002

    DECS Languages & Multicultural Education Portfolio Group page 2 of 7

    Genre - Language: language appropriate for the organisation of the text

    Example teaching strategy

    1. Can the cloze procedure for a text delete temporal conjunctions. Can give a conjunctions: First,

    student use list or leave competent students to fill in their own Then, After that, In

    language to sequencing of paragraphs noting linking conjunctions addition, Finally

     explore the effect and appropriateness of the choice of conjunction or organise the

    phrase text as a

    whole? phrases: The main factor, cloze exercises using selection from list of given words

    Another reason, One of

    the main arguments, The

    final issue

     phrases or clauses of complete missing words in circumstances eg (On) Saturday I went

    circumstance (time, place, out; (Because of) the rain; (Because) we left late; (By) talking quietly

    manner, cause): In 1919, to the horse, he was able

    Because the emperor

    died, With a soft touch

     quotation or rhetorical find quotations or rhetorical questions in magazines, newspapers,

    questions: Can the world journals, oral debates and discuss their use to structure the text

    survive?

     sub-headings and group information under provided headings

    headings students provide headings for given information

     nominalisation / noun circle nominalisation and noun phrases in text models

    phrases foregrounded:

    Environmental pollution is another concern.

    2. Can the conjunctions: However, colour the links within the text: reference links

    student use As a result, Subsequently, examine a text to find out which conjunctions are working to structure

    language to Therefore the text and which are building cohesion

    create compare a student text and a book text for cohesion cohesion compare the types of conjunctions: additive, adversative, temporal, within the comparative and consequential, that you are likely to find in each text? genre

     do a concept map for a text and identify the type of conjunction that

    will be required to express the relationship between parts

     give the everyday meaning of the conjunctions used in a text

     reference items: he, it, draw arrows between reference items and participants(nouns) to find

    this, those, that process, the links within the text

    one of them

     find the different vocabulary sets in a text and discuss the effect of vocabulary sets

    those sets of words ; synonyms & antonyms

     discuss the different vocabulary sets that you would expect in ; classification / different genres taxonomies mix and match words that typically go together ; composition: Car- brainstorm / recall the words that go together related to the topic carburettor, wheels etc; start with a key idea and brainstorm the words related to the topic and ; collocation: to lodge a look for them in a text complaint find the composition sets attributes, parts, stages

     intonation (for spoken replay a taped presentation and examine the role of intonation

    texts)

    Professional Development and Resource Materials for ESL Stella Emberson and Rosie Antenucci September 2002

    DECS Languages & Multicultural Education Portfolio Group page 3 of 7

    3. Can the linking words: and, but, do a clause analysis and decide if the sentence has a linking or binding

    student use or, so conjunction

    language to binding words: as, if, combine 2 sentences into one sentence with a range of conjunctions

    make complex since, whenever, after identify the type of conjunction used in a variety of sentences sentences? categorise conjunctions according to function: additive (and),

    temporal (and then), comparative (whereas) and consequential

    (because)

     identify the conjunctions in a text and colour the words according to

    the different functions that they perform

     Start with three related simple sentences and continually add more

    information to each sentence, using different devices for cohesion and

    complexity

     relative pronouns and highlight the relative pronouns and relative clauses

    clauses: the building, which

    was completed in 1919;

    who…; that…

     projection: Scientists believe identify this feature in texts

    that mix and match beginning and ends of sentences

     non-finite clauses: The identify this feature in texts

    team, having seen the change sentences with causal conjunctions into sentences with non-

    results, finite clauses

     general do clause analysis of sentences:- find the different types of sentences

    and label the sentence parts (theme, rheme; dependent clause).

Register

    Example teaching strategy

    General concept of rewrite an initial sentence with changes and examine whether field, register comprises all of

    register tenor or mode is changing in each case field tenor and mode and

    is what shapes a text

    according to context

Field Text in Context

    Example teaching strategy

    General concept of examine two or more texts of the same genre and levels of formality field is about the "what" -

    field but different field and ask students to identify the field, the difference the content or topic

    in field and where the evidence for field and the difference, lies

     reconstruct a text from main content words

Field Language: language appropriate to the content of the text

    Example teaching strategy

    1. Can the match pictures with everyday vocab biology eating, thigh

    student use matching everyday and technical vocab bone, red blood cells, bad

     cloze / dictagloss everyday illness

     word / phrase lists nouns / noun

    groups for the find the noun groups used in a text

    context?

    2. Can the biology- digestion, femur, explore multiple meanings of the same word: solution

    student use erythrocytes, virulent draw up taxonomy from text

    technical infection matching everyday and technical vocab nouns / noun

    groups for the

    context?

    3. Can the action verbs: to eat, to identify the verbs in a text and group them

    student use stir, to hit, to taste, to put make lists of different types of verbs

    up with to convey the identify the type of verb required for a particular text everyday

    verbs for the writers view of the explore the effect of changing the verb type used

    context? information

     mental verbs: to think, to

    like, to seem

    Professional Development and Resource Materials for ESL Stella Emberson and Rosie Antenucci September 2002

DECS Languages & Multicultural Education Portfolio Group page 4 of 7

     speaking(verbal) verbs: to

    say, to talk about

     relational verbs: to be, to draw lines to link the verb to the participants

    have, to become

    4. Can the action verbs: to digest, to explore multiple meanings of the same word: table student use dissolve, to react explore synonyms

    technical mental verbs: to consider, verbs for the to hypothesise, to admire, context? to perceive, to appear to

     speaking verbs: to state,

    to declare, to speak out

    against, to suggest

     relational verbs: to be, to

    have, to become

    5. Can the circling parts of a noun group: thing, deictic, classifier, epithets, descriptive adjectives:

    student numeratives, measure exciting medical discoveries

    compose explore the changing of the normal order of describers

     cloze exercise to fill in the missing describers complex

    noun groups? noun groups qualifiers: identify the qualifiers in a range of sentences

    exciting medical discoveries in change two or more simple sentences into one sentence with longer

    recent times; the new noun groups

    shopping centre located near

    the centre of the city; the

    reason for intervention

    6. Can the ; educate ;education develop tables of word forms as in column two. Leave blanks so that

    student use learners have to put in nominalised forms. ; precipitate

    nominalisatio;precipitation ns? ; believe ;beliefs

    ; possible ; possibility

    ; different ; diversity

    ; might ; possibility, risk

    ; because of the …; the

    cause of …

    7. Can the prepositional phrases: at circle circumstances in other texts student the first sign of .., with brainstorm the kinds of circumstances possible compose utmost care develop word / phrase lists for each kind from texts complex adverbs: tentatively explore the effect on a text of changing the adverbs circumstance dependent clause: When circle the subject and main verb of sentence with dependent clauses s of time, the food passes down the identify whether the circumstance adds information about how, why, place, manner, oesophagus,…. when, where or with whom cause? put the information in a table and convert back to text

     draw a line from the verb to the circumstance

    

    8. Can the verbs: the rain led to flooding explore options and the most appropriate choice for the context.

    student Students can be given one option such as the noun group and asked to noun group: The cause of express cause find others. the flooding appropriately? circumstance: Because of

    the heat,

     clause with conjunction:

    Because the weather was

    bad,

    9. Can the direct: According to; the explore choices of acknowledging information and the effects of the

    student manager said, " choice

    reference and explore the validity of the source of various texts indirect: It is commonly acknowledge thought; Many studies have explicitly explain and teach referencing information shown that appropriately? reference list

Professional Development and Resource Materials for ESL Stella Emberson and Rosie Antenucci September 2002

    DECS Languages & Multicultural Education Portfolio Group page 5 of 7

    Tenor Text in Context

     Example teaching strategy

    1. General examine two or more texts of the same genre and field but different tenor is about the "who" -

    concept of levels of formality and ask students to identify the tenor, the difference the relationship between

    tenor in tenor and where the evidence for tenor and the difference, lies the participants of the text

     place texts on a continuum of formality

     guess the writer of a text: status, role and relationship to audience

     ask students to write the same task taking on different roles as a writer

     compare the clause analysis of a spoken like and written like text:

    compare the number of clauses

     examine two texts with different attitude to the same issue

     identify the bias of a text

    Tenor Language: language appropriate to the roles and relationships between text participants

     Example teaching strategy

    1. Can the for information put words of possibility on a continuum from least possible to most

    student use certainty: maybe, possible

    the probably, certainly, change the degree of modality of sentences and explore in which appropriate might, could, will, context that modality is appropriate

    language of possibility, believe, belief, explore the combinations of elements of modality modality? suggest

     usuality: once, always,

    occasionally, regularly,

    for the most part, tend to,

    common

    for goods and services arrange statements in order of obligation and inclination

     obligation: must, can, change the degree of modality of sentences and explore in which

    need to, would it be context that modality is appropriate

    possible to; perhaps you explore the combinations of elements of modality

    could; It's a bit noisy, isn't

    it? compelled, compulsion

     inclination: will, might,

    could, don’t want to,

    willing, willingness

     subjectivity: I believe, I change sentences with human participants to non-human participants

    feel, I am certain, Loggers and note the change of grammar that is required

    think that

     objectivity: The issue will

    certainly cause, Logging

    is

    2. Can the ; well endowed versus fat develop pairs of attitudinal language at different degrees of formality

    student use ; The traumatised asylum locate vocabulary along a continuum from most informal to most appropriate seekers versus Those poor formal and experiment with its use

    attitudinal refugees… critically examine the pattern of evaluative language in a text and language? ; the outstanding portrayal discuss how it positions the readers

    of versus his good acting complete a cloze exercise of statements made by people of different

    ; Fortunately versus status and authority

    luckily.

    3. Can the ; verbal processes: state, identify the language resources used to appraise information in text

    student use report, announce, stress, models

    appropriate argue, claim, affirm, substitute appraisal language in a text model and identify any

    language to speculate difference in meaning that might occur

    appraise ; nominalisation: information? assumption, argument,

    view

    Professional Development and Resource Materials for ESL Stella Emberson and Rosie Antenucci September 2002

    DECS Languages & Multicultural Education Portfolio Group page 6 of 7

    4. Can the ; straight as an arrow develop banks of words with cultural or idiomatic connotations

    student use ; He passed away. identify the cultural sources of some common examples of idiomatic

    idioms, expression and experiment with their use ; Dressed in white, the cultural Chinese woman followed explore the pronunciation of common examples of foreign words and knowledge or her son’s coffin. the effect of using an English pronunciation on these words words from ; Like Galileo, he compare the idiomatic expressions used in two different contexts other challenged… critically responding to cultural references used in a context languages? ; He fiddled, like Nero,

    while the company

    collapsed.

    ; faux pas

    5. Can the eye contact video tape students and explore what could be improved

    student use role playing when to have direct gaze in a variety of informal and posture non-verbal formal situations

    elements to gestures

    establish the physical distance relationship?

    6. Can the pronunciation, word discuss how word choice, accent reflect status and power

    student use stress, intonation, tone read aloud short extracts in different characters

    appropriate pacing and volume examine the effect on meaning of words with same spelling and verbal different pronunciation connective elements: I elements to modelling of different use of pace and volume agree, That’s great, Can I establish the peer appraisal: commenting on an area to be improved add that, If I were in your relationship? place I would..

Mode Text in Context

    Example teaching strategy

    General concept of examine two or more texts of the same genre and levels of formality mode is about the "how" -

    mode but different mode and ask students to identify the mode, the the medium of

    difference in mode and where the evidence for mode and the communication

    difference, lies

     discuss the difference between a spoken like and written like text

     discuss the use of light, sound and music in films and software

     discuss why what is foregrounded might be important

Mode Language: the language appropriate to the medium of communication of the text

    Example teaching strategy

    1. Can the construct links from the find the links from introduction in text models

    student introduction to the body underline the first sentence in each paragraph of the text and look for

    foreground and the conclusion the links to the introduction

    at the whole

    text level?

    2. Can the use of topic sentence get students to find the topic sentences in a range of paragraphs

    student investigate the options of what is foregrounded to capture and

    foreground maintain the attention of the audience

    at paragraph discuss the effect of foregrounding a quotation, question or quoted level? speech

     get students to complete the missing topic sentence for sample

    paragraphs. The topic sentence need not be the fist sentence

     identify the topic sentence and elaboration in a variety of paragraphs elaboration, extension, or

    examples given in the

    paragraph are related to

    the topic sentence

     sequence sentences in a paragraph and discuss the sequence logically ordered

    information in the

    paragraph

    Professional Development and Resource Materials for ESL Stella Emberson and Rosie Antenucci September 2002

DECS Languages & Multicultural Education Portfolio Group page 7 of 7

    3. Can the foreground circumstances experiment with complex foregrounding: two circumstances student of time, place, manner,

    foreground cause as appropriate:

    at the After about 5 minutes; To

    sentence make sure the results are

    level? accurate

     foreground verbs in identify the foregrounded element in text models

    procedures: Heat the test tube

     foreground abstractions:

    Environmental pollution is

     use the passive voice compare the effect of changing what is foregrounded, on active and

    when a result, concept is passive voice

    foregrounded: The famine convert active sentences to passive sentences

    was caused by the drought. cloze exercise

    4. Can the primary tenses: play,

    student use played, will play change the tense of a verb and explore the change in meaning the tense secondary tenses: is accurately? playing, was playing,

    have played, had played,

    will be playing, going to

    play

    5. Can the speech marks convert quotes to sentences with direct speech student use circle the direct speech in an unpunctuated text print indirect speech: he said identify ways that indirect speech is used in text models conventions? that develop list of ways of forming indirect speech

     cloze exercise for sentences with indirect speech

     punctuation experiment with using semicolons, colons and dashes and discuss the

    possible reason for use

     spelling identify patterns in the spelling of words using prefixes and suffixes

     handwriting handwriting exercises

     print justification: centre

    justified, fully justified

     font choice

    6. Can the images, symbols, evaluate the effectiveness of size and placement of images and verbal

    student diagrams and graphs, text in webpages

    compose the tables develop story board to plan web pages text using a captions for diagrams, match captions and visual range of arrows in flow charts etc. media with hyperlinks add hyper links to existing texts the foregrounding to make add appropriate links to written text appropriate appropriate links between links between powerpoint presentation the media? and verbal text: As you

    can see

Professional Development and Resource Materials for ESL Stella Emberson and Rosie Antenucci September 2002

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