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    Semester 2 Review Sheet

    1. The process that breaks down rocks and other material at the Earth’s

    surface is called… Weathering

    2. The movement of rock particles by wind, water, ice or gravity is called.. Erosion

    3. The most important factors in determining the rate of weathering are..

    Climate and type of rock

    4. What process causes the mineral composition of rocks to change?

    Chemical Weathering

    5. A hot, wet climate causes weathering to take place…

    faster

    6. Living organisms in soil help to… mix soil and make humus

    7. Decomposers are organisms in the soil that… break down dead organisms and

    return nutrients to the soil

    8. Most of the work of mixing humus within the soil is done by… earthworms

    9. Soil is a very valuable resource because… it takes a long time to make and

    everything depends on soil.

    10. In conservation plowing, why are dead weeds and stalks of the previous

    year’s crop left in the ground? To return nutrients to the soil

    11. The chemical weathering of bedrock made of limestone by groundwater can

    make… caves

    12. The forces that cause erosion are… wind, water, gravity, ice, animals

    13. Mass movement includes slump, creep, landslide, mudflow

    14. After a heavy rain, a steep hillside made of clay may experience… slump

15. Deltas are built up by… deposition

    16. What happens as gravity pulls water down a slope? Potential energy is

    changed to kinetic energy

    17. When a fast flowing river slows down, what size of sediment would be

    deposited first? large

    18. A river’s power to erode depends on… speed and slope

    19. What can make the impact of natural hazards more severe? Removing plant

    life

    20. The movement of rock below the Earth’s surface is usually caused by faults

    and energy is released

    21. An earthquake with a magnitude of 3 on the Richter scale is 10 times

    greater than an earthquake that is a 2, but100 times stronger than a quake

    with a 1

    22. The ring of Fire accounts for what percent of all seismic activity in the

    world? 75-90

    23. A structure build on bedrock is better able to withstand an earthquake 24. Why do scientists study earthquake warnings? To prevent them from

    happening

    25. Which countries experience more earthquakes? Those near fault zones

    26. What causes Tsunamis? Underground earthquake or landslide

    27. A tornado is a vortex of air that extends from the base of a storm cloud to

    the ground

    28. The winds of a hurricane must be at least 74 mph

    29. The earth’s rotation causes day and night

    30. Earth’s rotation is 24 hours and it’s revolution is 365 ? days

    31. Earth’s tilted axis and it’s revolution give us seasons

    32. In the Northern Hemisphere, we receive direct rays from the sun and have

    longer days during summer

    33. When the Earth’s axis is pointed neither towards nor away from the Sun it is

    called equinox

    34. Why do we only see one side of the moon? Because the moon rotates once

    for each revolution around the Earth

    35. Draw the moons phases starting with a new moon and going through to a full

    moon

    36. A Solar eclipse will occur when the moon is directly between the Earth and

    the sun.

    37. Differences in how much the moon pulls on different parts of the Earth

    causes tides

    38. What structure directs the activities of the cell? nucleus

    39. List the levels of body organization. Cell, tissue, organ, organ system,

    organism

    40. What is homeostasis keeping a stable internal environment despite changes

    in the external environments.

    41. Name 2 minerals stored in bone Calcium and Phosphorous

    42. Which type of muscle controls digestion? smooth

    43. Which type of muscle is used during exercise? skeletal

    44. How do pairs of muscles work together? One contracts while the other

    relaxes

    45. How does the skin protect the body from disease? By keeping disease

    causing organisms outside the body

    46. Digestion is the process by which your body breaks down food into smaller

    nutrient molecules

    47. Mechanical digestion is when foods are broken down physically such as by

    your teeth.

    48. Chemical digestion is the process of chemically breaking down food with

    digestive juices, such as the enzyme pepsin

    49. What is one thing that prevents acid from burning through the stomach

    lining? mucus

    50. How long does food stay in the stomach? 4 hours

    51. What is the main thing absorbed by the large intestine? Water

    52. What are some of the functions of the cardiovascular system? Carry

    oxygen, glucose, and waste products to and from cells, attack disease

    causing microorganisms.

    53. Blood is pumped away from the heart by the ventricles

    54. When does the heart rate change? When the body needs more oxygen

    55. Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called arteries

    56. Which chamber of the heart contracts with the most force? Left ventricle

    57. Plasma is 90% water

    58. Why is exercise important? To strengthen the heart muscle

    59. What do lymph nodes do? Trap disease causing bacteria

    60. Artery walls thickening as a result of buildup of fat is known as

    atherosclerosis

    61. Define Cilia the tiny hair like structures that keep mucus, dirt, and

    microorganisms out of the lungs

    62. Define Alveoli clusters of tiny sacs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are

    exchanged

    63. Define Diaphragm domed shaped muscle beneath the lungs that helps move

    air in and out of the body.

    64. Define Epiglottis the small flap of tissue that closes when swallowing, to

    prevent food from entering the airways.

    65. Define Bronchi tubes that lead off the trachea to carry air into the lungs

    66. What type of reproduction produces organisms from 2 parents? sexual

    67. What type of reproduction produces organisms from 1 parent? asexual

    68. Humans have 23 pairs of these. chromosomes

    69. What is a segment of DNA that contains information about a specific trait?

    gene

    70. What is the chemical code in chromosomes that contain information for an

    organism? DNA

    71. What is the first organism in a food chain? producer

    nd72. A hawk eats a mouse that eats grass. The hawk is a 2 level consumer

    73. Secondary succession is succession that occurs in an area where an

    ecosystem previously existed

    74. Abiotic factors are non-living

    75. Photosynthesis is carbon dioxide combines with water in the presence of

    sunlight to produce glucose and oxygen. 6CO + 6HO ; CHO + 6O 2261262

    76. 10 % of energy is transferred from one level of a food web to the next. 77. What would be a wolf’s adaptations? Sharp claws, speed, excellent

    hearing/eyesight

    78. What is behavior? All the actions it performs

    79. A cat hissing when it sees a dog is a response

    80. List some non-renewable resources coal, corn

    81. Extinct means all the members of a species disappear from Earth

    82. Why is a diverse gene pool good? To strengthen an organisms ability to fight

    disease

83. The biggest cause of extinction is human activity

    84. Give an example of migration bird travels from its winter home in S.

    America to New York

    85. Most adaptations are inherited - true/false

    86. What are the most diverse ecosystems in the world? Tropical rainforests

    87. Illegal killing of an animal is called poaching

    88. Describe the increase in human population. It was 6 billion by 2000

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