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the cognitive academic language learning approach - Strategic

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the cognitive academic language learning approach - StrategicThe,the

    NCLRC

    Summer Institute 2006

    Helping Struggling Students Become Good

    Language Learners

    Presented by

    Anna Uhl Chamot, Ph.D.

    Jill Robbins, Ph.D

    National Capital Language Resource Center

    http://nclrc.org

    Helping Struggling Students Become Good Language Learners 2006 Chamot & Robbins

    Table of Contents Who is the Struggling Learner? ................................................................................................. 3 Brainstorm: Teaching and Learning Strategies for Independent Learning .................. 5 The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach ........................................................ 6 Theoretical Background: A Cognitive-Social Learning Model ........................................... 7 What is a Learning Strategy? ..................................................................................................... 7 Examples of Learning Strategies ............................................................................................... 8 What Are Your Own Learning Strategies? ............................................................................. 9 Using Strategies for a Purpose ................................................................................................ 10 CALLA-FL Instructional Sequence .......................................................................................... 14 Experiencing a CALLA-FL Lesson ............................................................................................. 15 CALLA-FL INSTRUCTIONAL SEQUENCE .......................................................................... 16 Teaching Language Learning Strategies ................................................................................ 18 Goals, Motivation, and Success ................................................................................................. 25 THINK-ALOUD DEMONSTRATION ..................................................................................... 26 Evaluation and Enhancement of a Language Lesson ............................................................ 30 Strategy Questionnaire: Learning vocabulary in a Foreign Language........................... 31 Learning Strategies Through Play ........................................................................................... 32 Spanish Animal Mascot Names ................................................................................................. 35 Online Resources ........................................................................................................................... 36 Selected References .................................................................................................................... 36 Goal-Setting Lesson ..................................................................................................................... 38

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    Helping Struggling Students Become Good Language Learners 2006 Chamot & Robbins

    WHO IS THE STRUGGLING LEARNER?

    Definition: A struggling learner is a student who has difficulty keeping up with classmates of the same age in a developmentally appropriate learning environment. They may not qualify for special education services, remedial or other school services. While the learning disabled child has high and low levels of knowledge and skill levels, often the struggling learner’s strengths and needs can be described as “flat.” Struggling learners often:

    • Have difficulty organizing themselves and their work environment.

    • Have trouble following verbal instructions

    • Are overwhelmed by work tasks and need work chunked for them.

    • Have weak social and emotional skills.

    These children can easily fall between the cracks of the educational system unless we provide them with the assistance they need. (Fischer n.d.)

    ACTIVITY: With a partner, discuss a struggling student whom you have recently taught or who you know in your administrative role. Then listen to your partner describe such a student. Compare experiences and approaches to helping the student. Note: the first section below refers to the students’ first language. The second section refers to the students’ performance in the target language.

Profile of a struggling learner Student 1 Student 2

    Age of learner

    Setting: (Elementary/Secondary)

    First Language Strengths/Weaknesses Write S or W

    Literacy Level (appropriate to grade level)

    Interacting with Peers

    Interacting with Adults

    Motivation to Learn

    Organization Skills

    Doing homework

    Other:_______________________

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    Helping Struggling Students Become Good Language Learners 2006 Chamot & Robbins

    Target Language Strengths/Weaknesses Write S or W

    Literacy

    Interacting with Peers

    Interacting with Adults

    Motivation to Learn

    Organization Skills

    Pronunciation

    Remembering Vocabulary

    Understanding Grammatical Structures

    Doing homework

    Other:_______________________

    What similarities did you find between your and your partner’s students?

What similarities or differences did you notice in how you and your partner tried

    to intervene with the students?

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    Helping Struggling Students Become Good Language Learners 2006 Chamot & Robbins

    BRAINSTORM: TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES FOR INDEPENDENT

    LEARNING

    What are some of your most effective teaching strategies?

    When you use these teaching strategies, what are

    your students doing or thinking?

    How do you know?

    What obstacles have you found that FL students have in achieving academic success?

    How do you encourage your students to learn independently?

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    Helping Struggling Students Become Good Language Learners 2006 Chamot & Robbins

    THE COGNITIVE ACADEMIC LANGUAGE LEARNING APPROACH

    The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA) is an instructional model for second and foreign language learners based on cognitive theory and research. CALLA integrates instruction in priority topics from the content curriculum, development of the language skills needed for learning in school, and explicit instruction in using learning strategies for academic tasks. The goals of CALLA are for students to learn essential academic content and language and to become independent and self-regulated learners through their increasing command over a variety of strategies for learning in school. CALLA can be used in ESL, EFL, bilingual, foreign language, and general education classrooms.

    CALLA's principal objectives are to assist students in:

    ; Valuing their own prior knowledge and cultural experiences, and relating this

    knowledge to academic learning in a new language and culture

    ; Learning the content knowledge and the language skills that are most

    important for their future academic success;

    ; Developing language awareness and critical literacy

    ; Selecting and using appropriate learning strategies and study skills that will

    develop academic knowledge and processes

    ; Developing abilities to work successfully with others in a social context

    ; Learning through hands-on, inquiry-based, and cooperative learning tasks

    ; Increasing motivation for academic learning and confidence in their ability

    to be successful in school

    ; Evaluating their own learning and planning how to become more effective and

    independent learners.

    CALLA was developed by Anna Uhl Chamot and J. Michael O'Malley, and is being implemented in approximately 30 school districts in the United States as well as in several other countries

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    Helping Struggling Students Become Good Language Learners 2006 Chamot & Robbins

    THEORETICAL BACKGROUND: A COGNITIVE-SOCIAL LEARNING MODEL

    ; The learning process is mentally active and strategic.

    ; Learning involves higher level thinking, not just memory.

    ; Social context and interaction are critical.

    ; Students learn content by relating it to their prior knowledge.

    ; Students learn processes through integrative practice individually and with

    peers.

    ; Learning strategies can be taught and learned.

    WHAT IS A LEARNING STRATEGY?

    Learning strategies are steps taken by students to assist their own learning. These

    steps may be either thoughts or actions. Strategies are ways to understand,

    remember, and recall information. They include ways to practice skills efficiently.

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    Helping Struggling Students Become Good Language Learners 2006 Chamot & Robbins

    EXAMPLES OF LEARNING STRATEGIES

    Match the learning strategy with its description.

    Use Background Knowledge Make sure I am understanding the

    task and material. Predict Imagine or draw a picture to help me

    understand.

    Take notes Check whether I have completed the

    task correctly. Use real objects/role play Find another way to say it. Cooperate Use what I already know to help me

    learn.

    Substitute/paraphrase Guess the meaning from the context. Monitor Guess what will happen.

    Use imagery Work with other students.

    Make Inferences Make groups of similar words or

    images.

    Evaluate Write down important information. Group/Classify Pantomime or use objects to help me

    understand.

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    Helping Struggling Students Become Good Language Learners 2006 Chamot & Robbins

    WHAT ARE YOUR OWN LEARNING STRATEGIES?

    Identify a challenge you have faced in the last two weeks. Example: I bought a new cell phone and had to learn how to add my phone numbers to it.

    The strategies I used were:

    ; trying the way I used with my old cell phone (that didn’t work)

    ; asking my daughter she said she hadn’t figured it out yet either

    ; looking in the user’s manual – the instructions were not in clear

    English

    ; calling the help line finally I got the answer I needed!

    My Challenge: ___________________________________________

    Describe to a partner the strategies you used to meet the challenge.

    What did you learn about your partner's strategies?

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Helping Struggling Students Become Good Language Learners 2006 Chamot & Robbins

USING STRATEGIES FOR A PURPOSE

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