Kabul ？Afghan？ Kabul， city in east central Afghanistan， capital of
the country and Kabul Province. Kabul is on the Kabul River， situated
at an elevation of about 1800 m ？about 5900 ft？ making it one of the
highest capital cities in the World. The population is around 1 million people. The nation's chief economic and cultural center， it has long been
of strategic importance because of its proximity ？接近？to the Khyber
中亚的最重要通道？， an important pass in the mountains between
Afghanistan and Pakistan. Manufactures of the city include textiles，
processed food， chemicals， and wood products. Tajiks are the predominant population group of Kabul， and Pashtuns？阿富汗民族，几乎半数的阿富汗
人属于普什图民族？are an important minority. Kabul University ？founded
in 1932？ had been the country's most important institute of higher education prior to its closure due to war in 1992. The university was the best known in the region in the 1970 and 1980's. The university now is being partially reopened and only a few students are returning. The University needs much reconstruction in order to operate normally.
An ancient community， Kabul rose to prominence in 1504， when it was
made the capital of the Moghul Empire？摩格尔帝国？ by the conqueror
During the past decade of turmoil in Afghanistan， Kabul Museum has
been virtually emptied and in other areas of the country sites have been plundered.
Babur ？回教君王巴布尔？。 Delhi replaced it as the imperial capital in 1526， but Kabul remained an important Moghul center until it was captured， in 1738， by the Persian ruler Nadir Shah. In 1747 Kabul became part of an independent Afghan state， and in the 1770s it replaced Qandahar as the capital of Afghanistan. It was a focus of British， Persian， and
Russian rivalry for control of the Khyber Pass in the 19th century， when
it was twice occupied ？1839-1842 and 1879-1880？ by British troops. The
city grew as an industrial center after 1940.
Kabul was occupied by troops of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ？USSR？ in 1979！ the USSR withdrew from Afghanistan on Feb. 15， 1989. The city has gone through the toughest and most disastrous civil war in its history between 1992-1996. Over 50，000 people lost their lives
during the Mujahideen ？圣战？ infightings on the streets of Kabul in
1992-1996 period. The city has been under the control of the Taliban government since 1996 and ended in 2001. The Northern Alliance took over
the city as the Taliban withdrew from Kabul and retreated southwards. The fate of the city is yet to be known. The role of UN and World community is important in bringing a stable government in Kabul.
Infrastructures such as roads and traffic system， telephone system，
electricity， water sanitation， renovation of buildings are in shambles
and the need for reconstruction is very much needed to bring back the city of Kabul to a better place for living.