The mystery of the Norilsk Uprising
Epigraph: To the memory of my grandfather Mihajlo Tkachuk, perished in Famine of 1933 at village Zhurbinka, Vinnichina, Ukraine, Dedicated
1. titles: The name and meaning of GULAG, Stalin’s system of camp-prisons, now is known
all over the world. Not many of those, who came back from there until the middle of XX century, there were no amnesty for condemned to death… In may 1953 in Norilsk, far at the North, at once 20 000 unarmed political prisoners of Gorlag-Main went on strike. 70% of strikers were Ukrainians - UPA warriors and the members of OUN. The “Uprising of
Spirit”, as it was named later by historians, has lasted for 69 days and nights, almost as Commune of Paris has. And than it were Vorkuta, Kengir, abolition of GULAG, Hrustchev’s thaw, desidents of the sixties…
2. Norilsk Radio, weather report
3. Voice-over: “There took place the events that would never happened in normal conditions. Those events were caused by the situation, existed at that time and, unfortunately, still didn‟t
over yet and, to some extent, is resurrecting now. Today we are not guaranteed it won‟t happen
again. Because there are not any of organized anti-imperial force in today‟s Russia.
All of the political parties are pro-imperial or straight-imperial.
And it needs to remind people what it was and why it was. If we‟ll forget, the past can recur, and we won‟t let it happen.”
From memoirs of Stepan Semenjuk, one of the leaders of the Norilsk Rebellion underground committee at 3-rd convict department
4. The mystery of the Norilsk Uprising
5. Part 1 “Behind the Bars of North”
6. Norilsk has been growing around metallurgical complex. Its building was started as early as 1935 by the first group of political prisoners, 1200 men, who arrived here by the river Yenisei. Everything, from railroads to barracks was built by hands. By the spring of 1953, according to the figures, given by the commander of Norilsk metallurgical complex colonel Zverev, only at “Gorlag” – “State Particular Treatment Camp” - there were about 30 000 prisoners.
7. title: “Moscow, 2003, anniversary meeting of the Norilsk insurrectionists”.
8. “From the very first days in the camp I was surprised to discover, that actually I didn‟t get into some special place. In the camp were acting the same sort of relations like, as they say, at large. They were just more naked, more cynical… And it still stays a mystery, how the uprising could
happen there? Mind you, it was the State Particular Treatment Camp, part of the system that was created by the personal instructions of the “All Nations Leader” for the dangerous special State offenders. How in such treatment could arise and to be prepared for a number of months so good organized strike?
8a Leonid Trus (Novosibirsk, Russia)
9. Lvov, 2003 “The meeting of Norilsk political prisoners”
2 10. At his known book “Archipelago GULAG” Aleandr Solzhenitsin wrote: “In 1953 the disorders in the camps were continuing in different places – such as great arising in Norilsk. We
should dedicate it special chapter, if we‟d have some information about it. But – we haven‟t…
11. The story of Norilsk uprising is covered by the mist of mystery… Even after discharge
further prisoners didn‟t dare to talk about the past. Before Perestroika the subject of Resistance in GULAG was the top secret.
Later have started to appear the first memoirs of strikers at far North… But only during the meetings in their own circle the political prisoners of Norilsk could tell how the people were
changing struggling for the freedom, what was their common inspiration and strength and for
what they sacrificed their lives…
12. Dmitro Kalynyak (Lvivska oblast).
It‟s already 50 years gone
The graves has been covered by the moss There are no crosses on them by now
Only memory has left – here they were living
The slaves of the awful Empire
Who have arisen for the freedom
And fallen in the battle like heroes
Oh, if the Shmidtiha-mountain
Would speak out once
And tell, how many men
Have been buried in it
They are lying in the graves without crosses Buried in the permafrost
The slaves of GULAG and GORLAG
Their sculls are punched by the pick –
Such way „the red charons” were taken
Dead prisoners through the watch -“stix”
To be sure they won‟t escape from the graves
There were the unwritten laws of Che-Ka. It‟s the International there under mountain
They are lying in the eternal peace:
Lithuanians, Germans, Japanese,
Koreans, Letts, Estonians,
Finns, Czechs, Slovaks,
Romanians, Hungarians, Poles…
But more than half of those who are there It‟s our guys from Ukraine
Because such is the fate of our nation –
To pay expensive for the freedom.
14. “Hi, you listen to the “Radio Svoboda” (Freedom). In our program are taking part one of the
leaders of the Norilsk Uprising Evgeny Gritsyak and long-term political prisoner Evgen
Sverstyuk. Today‟s issue of “Alternative” we begin from almost private thoughts about those
time and space, which should stay in memory of the generations as the time and space of
15. What it needs for the revolt in the camp?
16. Well, I‟ve written at the beginning of my memoirs: it needs something… like the push from the outside that would touch the life of every prisoner in the camp, regardless of their nationality, beliefs or political opinions. Everyone must feel that it‟s for the sake of his own. Otherwise it can‟t be started. You can‟t make people go for it by force.
17. So, it must the blood be shed?
18. Yes. Let‟s move back in time a little. It has begun from the revolt in the camp at the south of
Krasnoyarsk Territory in 1948. It happened, that “blatnye”, the criminals, raped our girl, and did
violence to her a lot. One of our guys, Khmil, maybe, I don‟t know for sure, shouted: “Guys! Our
blood is being abused!” The guys have got startled furiously; they came to barrack, destroyed
the plank beds and, armed with these planks, thrashed into criminals… “Blatnye” have got their
knives, saying: “Just look, what they are doing!” The criminals were laughing at “politicals”,
because they used to know them as a depressed and helpless mass, that couldn‟t even save their
bread allowance from them. And they were making fun of it. Well, but when that “mass”
attacked them, they‟ve stopped laughing… Witnesses said, about 80 of criminals were killed. They were jumping over barbed wire, crying: “Guard, don‟t shoot, those banderas are killing us!” But the guard was shooting, because the “zone” was broken. After that “blatnye” have
begun to say: “We‟re respecting the banderas”…
19. “Kiev, November 22, 2004. Majdan”
20. From the memoirs of Stephan Semenyuk:
“The cruel regime for the prisoners has always been held by common efforts of camp‟s management and so called criminal “elite”. The political prisoners were most punished. That practice still reflects sometimes in our today‟s life at the Ukraine. I mean, intimacy, if not to say,
union, between criminal and power structures. It‟s very difficult to overcome, it needs strength of mind, knowledge and, first of all, political will withstand, to fight and win that evil. And there in Norilsk we‟ve withstood, we overcome.”
21. “They‟ve taken us to Dudinka, it‟s a port where the Yenisey flows into the sea. Then took us
to the box-wagons, 100 km by rails to Norilsk, were we‟ve came to the prison-camp at last.
We‟re after journey; it needs to take us to the bath. We are the girls, the stuff in the bath-house are the guys, Asians… We were shaven… everywhere… guys by blunt razors… it was such humiliation over the people; I still can‟t remember it without anger…”
22. Rozalia Galitska (Ivano-Frankivsk oblast)
23. We‟ve been taken to Norilsk. It was a great zone, zone 6 – “correctional-working camp”. As
I can remember, there were no barracks beside. It was the zone of heavy penal servitude. We‟ve
got the very hard conditions.
24. Stephaniya Chaban (Kiev oblast)
25. We were feeding very badly. Fulfilling the rate, you‟ve got 600 grams of bread, not fulfilling – 300. What‟s the use from 300 grams of bread per day for the young man, and that bread is only
good to make the horses. And “balanda”, the soup from rusty salt sardine…
26. Anastasia Tarnavska (Chernovtsy oblast).
27. That was the awful camp and different works. The biggest and worst was the cement and brickworks. There was the huge clay-pit. It was the dreadful work, and furthermore we were bitten by managers-criminals, who were under protection of the camp administration.
28 Petro Saranchook (Mykolajiv)
29. They are inquisitors. No one nation, no one religion, no one policy didn‟t created such a camps like Stalin and Beriya did. It was the horror. Under their descendants the camps have changed, lighten a little. But we were eaten by the bugs and louses. Stalin in no way wasn‟t right to no Russian, no Georgian nation. He treated men violently like hell. He hated humans and treated dogs better. Such a butcher he was…
30. Gagi Mosashvily, the Orthodox priest (Motsameta, Georgia)
31. I call all of the soviet commanders “comprachikos”. There were the people in medieval Spain, who kidnapped the children and they were put in the wooden stocks, which squeezed their parts and make them gibbous…
Those “comprachikos” wanted to eliminate people physically. And I say that those Russians with Soviets are mental “comprachikos”.
32. Zenonas Drogins (Klaipeda, Lithuania)
33. The working day lasted for twelve hours in the pit. I remember the first time we were driven to the pit. It was the awful snowstorm than. There were the poles already standing in the pits. We shoveled the snow, the guard stood beside. There was the lid, I‟ve put it up and saw the rope-
ladder. We‟ve come down by that ladder, and they‟ve taken it away. They gave me the pick, and I was picking there… I had to gouge 20 centimeters of those permafrost to earn some bread.
34. Anastasia Knysh (Vinnitsa)
35. So, the prisoners were making those pits by the picks, by hands. Such pits reached 3, 5 meters deep, sometimes 10 meters and more.
36. Teodor Artemiychook (Zbazhe, Poland)
37. Ternopol. The Political Prisoners Museum
38. We‟ve got here the suit of simple prisoner, shortly in Russian called ZeKa, and the suit of the convict. Zek has got two numbers, at the jacket and at the pants; the convict has got one more at the hat. Chuni (the boots) and the stockings we‟ve recreated exactly the same like it were at the
North. That was given to prisoners, who were working at the open space at 40-50 degrees of frost. Those are self made, twisted from tire… Sure, the snow was packing in there, the legs were
frostbiting. They weighted about 4-5 kilos…
39. Igor Olestchook (Ternopil)
40. The special feature of the camp #4 was that the people there mostly were digging at the city building. It was the hardest work, people stayed for 15 hours at frost. The death-rate was highest there. Sometimes, look, we are coming back from work, the band is playing marches. And yet, in each column are carrying dreads, one-two of a hundred, and three, four, five are been supporting under the arms, half-dead.
41. Ivan Kryvutsky (Lvivska oblast)
42. I was very cold already… We‟ve said to guardian: “Sir! We‟ve seen the sleepers there at the
sledges. Let us to take one to make a fire”. Then those sledges have come closer, overloaded, and
we‟ve seen that there weren‟t sleepers, but the frozen corpses, half dressed or naked. That were corpses of the people from the fourth zone, been carrying to Shmidtiha. That‟s were our elite, our
43. Stefaniya Nedorozhnyak-Koval (Lvivska oblast)
44. The prisoners were buried pitiable – sure, no coffins, no music, all in one pit, naked. Tag on the leg – and that‟s all, without a single word. Nobody said: “Farewell, comrade, farewell, friend…”
45 Georgiy Fyoringer (Russia, Norilsk)
46 The lips are sticking, freezing to the brass, but they don‟t stop playing… He didn‟t know any
marches, just some classics tunes from… Carmen, for example. Then I‟ve heard at first time about opera. We were country boys, how did we know? A was arrested at teenage, tenth-former.
46 Miron Melen (Lvivska oblast)
47 While we were being escorted to work to the mine, the prison‟s radio operator, even younger
than me, was playing records: “The Satan there he gives the ball, he gives the ball – people are
dying for the metal!”
48 Meletiy Suschyk (Vinnitsa)
49 The prison-camps were tightly enclosed by the barbed wire, every 50 meters there were watch-towers with red-strap‟s machine-guns. You can see – there are the living barracks, it‟s a
nutrition unit, it‟s a staff of the administration, and here is so called BUR – the medium security
barrack. It‟s a prison in the prison, there were no heating, just the cold lock-ups. There were imprisoned the killers or so called “work refusers”. They were imprisoned there for a month and more…Either man could endure that torture and get yourself an easier work or he gave up and came back to brigade.
50 Vilnius, 2003. The meeting of the “Norilsk Knights”
51. In every camp there were a lot of Ukrainians. Those were very young, kind and friendly guys who keep in touch with Lithuanians. And during the revolt in the 5-th camp, they were together in the first ranks.
52. Viktoras Viltchinskas (Vilnus, Lithuania)
53. Moscow 2003. The anniversary meeting of the Norilsk Rebrllion members
54. The power in the camps belonged to the thieves, the criminals or bitches as they were called there. When I came there, the first groups of resistance were already being organized. They called us “crow-bar belted”. We‟ve rebuffed those thieves and they‟ve start be afraid of us.
55 Vilnius, Genocide Victims Museum
56 Bronyus Zlatkus (Vilnius, Lithuania)
57 Ternopol, The Union of Political Prisoners
58 We‟ve got some underground organizations, one of them was youth. We called them “intelligents”. They were writing the lyrics, the poems. It was our illegal Ukrainian nationalists
youth organization. Mikola Yurchenko from Ternopol, Ivan Kivutsky, Teophil Fedik, Miron Melen from Lvov belonged to that organization. And a lot of other, unfortunately, are dead already.
59 Mikhaylo Bakanchuk (Ternopol)
60 As early as 1947 we‟ve founded OUZ - underground trans-polar Ukrainian organization.
We‟ve start to publish our magazine. The first issue was sensational, because came to KGB and the result was very different than I‟ve expected. At first I‟ve thought that we‟ve lost but it turned
out our great victory. Soon the rumors spread that the underground literature is being published, and that the banderas have lift their heads.
61 Mikola Yurchenko (Ternopol oblast)
62 We are publishing the magazine! We‟ve designed it as we could, I‟ve made some drawings. Everything, all articles were written handmade, by pensile. When we gave it to read to the people, some were crying, those, who understood. Year 47-th! It was small – six pages. And than the
problem - were to hide it? We‟ve made a lot of copies. So we‟ve packed into the pitch – and hide
in the wall, at the building where we were working. And Pilipchuk was putting it there too, because there was no connection with the outside.
63 Teophil Fedik, Miron melen (Lvov oblast)
64 Romaniy was writing the articles, and he included some of his lyrics. I even remember his first verse:
I‟ve stood up to vengeance for my native land
And I‟m smashing the enemy in the unequal fight
It‟s a great joy to see my strength
And to know, that the knife is sharpening in the battle
My land, my land! I‟ve never tired
I‟m free from tiredness and rest
Until the enemy at home is punishing my people
I‟ve got the strength – I‟m still young!”
65 What about Ukrainians, it needs to say that they hold with a single heart. That feelings intensified even more when professor Antonovich appeared at the camp. The Ukrainians have started to organize. It was at the camp Kayerakan. Some time later I‟ve heard that somebody handwrote the history of Ukraine and it has being passed between the prisoners. I couldn‟t wait
to get that history. At last my friend Mikhaylo Voychenko told me: “I‟ve got that professor Antonovich in my brigade, the one who wrote the history of the Ukraine and it‟s being passed from hand to hand and all Ukrainians are reading it with great admiration”.
66. One of my interlocutors at the camp was professor Antonovich to whom I was often coming to drying room to dry my valenki. He was an old man, the historian and we were discussing the history, but and ban. Once I‟ve asked him: What the historical progress is? –The progress? Well,
the history moves, it‟s a fact, but is it a progress or regress – it needs to think yet.” Young
Ukrainians were coming to him like to the lectures, and he lectured them like students. He used to say while lecturing: “Well, young men, that‟s all that I can tell you about that issue according
to the information at nineteen forty something. More fresh data were inaccessible to me”.
67. Arno Toomas Pihlak (Tallin, Estonia)
68 Stepan Semenyuk (Zelena Gura, Poland)
69 Those nation is powerful, that‟s got the sons, united by the love to their Motherland.
70 beside, to that organization belonged Semenyuk Stepan, Shumuk Danilo, Zagorujko also, Sushkevich Yakiv Romanovich, further member of Centralna Rada, familiar to historian Grushevsky.
71 Kost Korol (Chernovtsy)
72 From Ukrainian point of view, all that opposition has started earlier – it was continuation of
the liberation movement, because we were bound completely. All nations – Ukrainians, Polish,
Turkmen, Baltic nations were bound morally to continue the fight, which they‟ve began ten or
fifteen years ago.
73. They united as the countrymen. The discipline in our underground organization was severe. The system of recognition was “the two”: I knew one man and he knew me. The Ukrainians got
“the three”. Three men were familiar to each other. We‟ve got “the two” and it saved us from all troubles.
74. To the Innocent Victims of the Red Terror
75 Aleksandr Valyums (Daugavpils, Latvia)
76. We prayed, each one was saying her prayer separately. Get up early, than late at night we prayed our God. We always celebrated the holydays, since the first year in prison. At Christmas Eve we‟ve brought the small branch from tundra – we didn‟t find the pine tree – and decorated it
with the cotton wool. We didn‟t eat the bread, and saved the bit for the supper.
77. Nina Petrich (Lutsk)
78. We didn‟t eat the mush for the whole week – were saving it for kutya. And we‟ve got the girl,
she was the priest daughter, and we were caroling and she performed the ritual at the Holy Night at Christmas. At the Holy Night we were eating the kutya.
79. Mikola and Mariya Drutsun (Chernovtsy).
80. At the Holy Night our folks were gathering all to their table – Uzbeks, Lithuanians, everyone,
who was there.
82. We were writing the letters to the girls as if it were from the boys… that we are waiting for them, we believe, that we‟ll be free, that you are our future wives, don‟t give up to any exhorts.
Because we‟ve got the mud also… you could fall and not get up. But that way we tried to hold
the spirit, hold mentally and morally.
83. Stefaniya Chaban (Kiev oblast).
84. My mom couldn‟t fortune tell. Than once she said: “I won‟t let people to get down” I will tell them fortune, I will lie to them that they will be let go home soon, that soon all that troubles will be over. You know – they were coming on and on to my mom, and mom fortune told so… And
every night she preyed like: forgive me, Lord, for I‟m telling the lie to the people. But, you know,
she kept the people‟s spirit up.
85. Olena Malevitch (Rovno)
86. Embroidered the Holy Mother in the jail. We‟ve ripped up some rags, and now, look, were embroidering that way. And so those Holy Mothers were saving us.
87. Only the faith in the strength of mind was leading us to the victory.
88. Lvov, 2003. The Meeting of the Norilsk political prisoners.
89. The prayer to the Holy Spirit for those who sacrificed their lives to the altar of love, altar of the Motherland for their people.
90. Only the enemy of the mankind could build at the North such kind of a city. You feel Norilsk by the taste. There is something devilish in the scent of the sulfur, that‟s following 230 000
inhabitants of that city for all their life. The sulfur evolves during the copper and nickel production and collects in the lungs. Norilsk is one of the most polluted cities of the world. The action of destroyed air reaches for thousand km – people in the Finland and in the Canada
complains of it.” Quote from the periodical “The news of the metal mining industry”, April 22,
Film 2 “The virus of rebelliousness”
92. I was transferred here, to the place close on Karaganda. Once there was the death-camp Spassk. And around Karaganda there were a lot of settlers. And through those settlers we connected with the organization that gave us the information from the Ukraine. We orientate ourselves a bit and even got the guidelines what to do. By that time there were mass of rebelliousness at Kazakhstan.
93 Meletiy Semenyuk (Volynska oblast)
94. And than appears the young enforcement, in 48-49, those guys, who were assistants at UPA, the liaisons. And they couldn‟t wait to prove themselves at the camps.
But there stayed the generation of older prisoners, who were experienced at those actions and the youngsters didn‟t want to be behind. And finally they won. And when administration understood
that can‟t do anything, even with the support of those criminal gangs, they decided to transfer us, the most unruly, to Norilsk, because Karaganda prison didn‟t fit to them to punish us somehow.
There were settlers from Ukraine around, who were deported here in 1948.
95. Who‟s that one? Chabua Amiredjiby… And he wrote well at the picture – Chabua
Amiredjiby, former ZEK.
96. Karaganda‟s Chabua Amiredjiby belonged to the insurgent committee of the 5-th camp. In his book “The mount Mborgaly” he wrote: “Before our transport has arrived, the “bitches” in the
camp not only denuded the prisoners of money earned by hard work, but also the packages they received from the outside. The camp administration was giving to those criminals the jobs of
superintendent and brigade-leaders, simply saying, closer to the bread. Their brutality has no borders. Into that circle of lawlessness and violence we were brought, the multinational but tight unity of the people. We‟ve got the aim – to arise the common revolt. It needed to break the chain
between the powers and criminals, uncover the intelligencers and repulse them properly.”
97. Chabua Amiredjiby (Tbilisi, Georgia)
98. The Norilsk Uprising was, at practice, the revolt of Ukrainians, Lithuanians and Caucasians against the Russian imperialists.
99. “The virus of rebelliousness” was brought to Norilsk by transport from Karaganda”
100. As early as in the autumn of 1952 the transport from Karaganda has arrived. And there, you know, at that transport, 1200 men have arrived. And the powers let us know immediately, that we‟ve been brought here to die.
101. Bronyus Zlatkus (Lithuania, Vilnius)
102. I‟ve come to Medvezhka, the first camp, the highest. The snow and rain were falling. We were undressed naked and searched. They knew that we were searched many times before, and just wanted to have fun of us. One guard-Lithuanian, the one well-fed by Che-Ka, has told us: “Bandera‟s cripples, you would die here!” He couldn‟t imagine that he himself will find his grave at that camp month and half later.
103. One of those kinds, Dorosh, was executed at Medvezhka. Origins from Lvov area, he‟s
created the criminal gang here, robbed under cover of UPA, and chekists were keeping him, knew his every step. But he was creating the image of UPA as the bandit‟s organization. Until the people themselves have started to cry, what you are doing? Later he was imprisoned however and sentenced to 10 years… but in the camp they let him to take up the leading posts. But there at 1952 he was executed for all that by our guys, who knew him from the outside, knew, who he is. And since it have started that way in all prisons.
105. Ivan Krivutsky (Lvov oblast)
106. We didn‟t come to build, we were judged to serve time. So who wants is working, who
doesn‟t – not working, anyway nobody will take our norm of 600 gram of bread from us. It was oticed by old prisoners from 4-th and 5-th camps. And they said: Why those Karaganga men are n
not working when we have to work? We don‟t want either. And it went that way, the discipline declined in a month.
107. The country is mourning for bereavement. Farewell, our teacher and leader, our dear friend, our dear comrade Stalin!
108. When the mustached leader gave up his spirit to the God or to the devil, we all hoped for some changes for better.
109. Mikchaylo Baranchuk (Ternopol oblast)
110. When Stalin died, all quieted somehow. Thinking maybe something will change. And when the amnesty was - about million were sat free, but only - the criminals.
112. When in the camp we‟ve felt, that the tyrant doesn‟t exist anymore, we‟ve decided that we can raise our demands. At once people have started to get together and think, what to do, how to organize either revolt or escape.
113. Ambartsum Hlgtyan (Georgia, Tbilisi)
114. In fact there were no any relief still, but it was some uncertainty between the chekists what‟s going on and what it will be. Ant than we‟ve decided – the revolt only!
115. Sure, there was the group which was preparing the revolt secretly, dreamed about it to happen. And the security services got their own dream at the same time – to provoke the revolt to
prove their necessity. And that was prepared also – they were sending out criminals, making the
116. Alla Makarova, historian (Russia, S-Petersburg)
117. While working around the garrison, we‟ve noticed such a slogan: The warrior! Remember whom are you guarding – the murderers of your fathers and mothers. Be watchful! It was the slogan for them to remember, that we‟re the murderers of their dads and moms.
118. It came to light later, that they were frightening the conscripts at the garrison that the prisoners are busy preparing the revolt; they want to get the garrison, butcher everybody there and come into the town. They‟ve frighten them a lot. The soldiers were never free to use their
weapons inside of the camp before. Now they‟ve got the permission to use it in case of danger.
They even were stimulated – 100 rubles and 10-days vacation.
119. Vilnius, The Genocide Victims Museum
120. The guys came out, exited by the spring. Everything revives a bit – the strength, the hope…
and they‟ve start singing the Ukrainian song at threshold.
121. Nina Petrich (Lutsk)
122. The column of the woman was passing by and met the prisoners from the 5-th zone. They were shouting something to each other, because there were wives, daughters, sisters, relatives between the woman or some neighbor or sweetheart. One of the guars has opened the fire. Some were killed and wounded then.
123. Episode from the film “Runaway” (Georgia)
124. At the first zone - shot down, at the fifth zone – shot down, at the fourth zone – shot down,
than at the third zone – 6 men were shot down. Well, if they would shoot selectively – one for
this, one for that, don‟t be so aggressive… But there the casual people were shot and none was sure he won‟t be shot tomorrow. And it united all of us, all nations, and all groups, which we‟ve
got there: opposite, non-opposite… Because everyone knew the threat to his life is at any step. That united us, without it we couldn‟t arise… The people were shot down there and I called to the prisoners, that the innocent blood was shed again. Let‟s mark it at our flag. Half hour later
the flag was hang already – two wide black stripes and one red in the middle, symbolizing the blood that was shed. Byelorussian Georgiy Klimovitch have written the hymn of Norilsk men, which last lines are: “And let the black flag with the red stripe will show us the way in the righteous struggle!” And when I was at the conference at the Moscow, there was sounded the