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The Chical Nature of Matter (6th Set of notes)

By Curtis Snyder,2014-01-29 06:26
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    thThe Chemical Nature of Matter (4 Set of notes)

    7-5.10 Compare physical changes (including changes in size, shape, and state) to chemical changes that are the result of chemical reactions (including changes in color or temperature and formation of a precipitate or gas).

    Physical changes do not change the composition of a substance, only the physical properties.

    Evidence:

    1) Change in state of matter

    ;;When a substance changes from one state of matter to another (for example, changing from solid to liquid, from liquid to solid, or from liquid to gas), the composition of the substance remains the same. ;;Examples of change in state might include: melting of 1.____ _______, hardening of melted wax, or evaporating of water from wet clothes.

    ;;When a substance changes directly from a gas to a solid (the forming of frost from water vapor) or from a solid to a gas (2.____ _____, solid air fresheners) that change of state is called sublimation. This is still a

    physical change because the composition of the substance remains the same.

2) Change in size or shape

    ;;When a substance changes in size or shape (for example, cutting, tearing, dissolving, stretching, or wrinkling), its composition remains the same.;Examples include: shredding paper, dissolving sugar in water, stretching a

    3._______ _______, wadding up a piece of paper, or denting a piece of metal.

    Chemical changes result in the formation of one or more new substances with new chemical and physical

    properties.

    Evidence:

    1) Color change

    ;;When a substance changes color, the chemical composition of the substance may have changed (for example, iron turns to a reddish-brown when it rusts, clothes change color when bleach is added, apples turn brown when they react with oxygen in the air, or marshmallows turn black when burned).

    ;;It is possible to have a color change without a chemical change (for example, adding food coloring to water).

2) Temperature change

    ;;When a substance is combined with another substance, there may be an increase or decrease in temperature (for example, when wood 4._______ to ash and gases, the temperature increases.)

    ;;It is possible to have a temperature change without a chemical change (for example, warming of the water in a

    pond).

3) Formation of a precipitate

    ;;When two solutions are combined, they may form a solid substance. This solid substance is called a precipitate and indicates that a chemical change has occurred.

    ;;For example when carbon dioxide is combined with aqueous calcium hydroxide (limewater), solid calcium carbonate (chalk) is formed as the precipitate.

    ;;The precipitate may be in the form of very small particles, appearing as cloudiness in the solution or as a solid which settles to the bottom of the container. (LAB: milk and 5.____________)

4) Formation of a gas

    ;;When solid or liquid substances are combined, they may form gas bubbles.

    ;;The formation of the gas may indicate that a chemical reaction has taken place. For example when vinegar is added to baking soda, it forms carbon dioxide bubbles.

    ;;It is possible to form gas without a 6._____________ change (for example, when water is heated to boiling).

What evidences were witnessed during the “Reaction in a Bag” Lab?

    ____________________, _____________________, _________________________ thThe Chemical Nature of Matter (4 Set of notes)

    7-5.10 Compare physical changes (including changes in size, shape, and state) to chemical changes that are the result of chemical reactions (including changes in color or temperature and formation of a precipitate or gas).

    Physical changes do not change the composition of a substance, only the physical properties.

    Evidence:

    1) Change in state of matter

    ;;When a substance changes from one state of matter to another (for example, changing from solid to liquid, from liquid to solid, or from liquid to gas), the composition of the substance remains the same. ;;Examples of change in state might include: melting of 1.____ _______, hardening of melted wax, or evaporating of water from wet clothes.

    ;;When a substance changes directly from a gas to a solid (the forming of frost from water vapor) or from a solid to a gas (2.____ _____, solid air fresheners) that change of state is called sublimation. This is still a

    physical change because the composition of the substance remains the same.

2) Change in size or shape

    ;;When a substance changes in size or shape (for example, cutting, tearing, dissolving, stretching, or wrinkling), its composition remains the same.;Examples include: shredding paper, dissolving sugar in water, stretching a

    3._______ _______, wadding up a piece of paper, or denting a piece of metal.

    Chemical changes result in the formation of one or more new substances with new chemical and physical

    properties.

    Evidence:

    1) Color change

    ;;When a substance changes color, the chemical composition of the substance may have changed (for example, iron turns to a reddish-brown when it rusts, clothes change color when bleach is added, apples turn brown when they react with oxygen in the air, or marshmallows turn black when burned).

    ;;It is possible to have a color change without a chemical change (for example, adding food coloring to water).

2) Temperature change

    ;;When a substance is combined with another substance, there may be an increase or decrease in temperature (for example, when wood 4._______ to ash and gases, the temperature increases.)

    ;;It is possible to have a temperature change without a chemical change (for example, warming of the water in a

    pond).

3) Formation of a precipitate

    ;;When two solutions are combined, they may form a solid substance. This solid substance is called a precipitate and indicates that a chemical change has occurred.

    ;;For example when carbon dioxide is combined with aqueous calcium hydroxide (limewater), solid calcium carbonate (chalk) is formed as the precipitate.

    ;;The precipitate may be in the form of very small particles, appearing as cloudiness in the solution or as a solid which settles to the bottom of the container. (LAB: milk and 5.____________)

4) Formation of a gas

    ;;When solid or liquid substances are combined, they may form gas bubbles.

    ;;The formation of the gas may indicate that a chemical reaction has taken place. For example when vinegar is added to baking soda, it forms carbon dioxide bubbles.

    ;;It is possible to form gas without a 6._____________ change (for example, when water is heated to boiling).

What evidences were witnessed during the “Reaction in a Bag” Lab?

    ____________________, _____________________, _________________________

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