Science- - Ramaz Help

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     2007-9-6 10:49:00



    ; two molecules or drops of the same substance which are being

    attracted to each other


    ; attraction between particles of two different substances

    o exp. whatever holds the water

    ; meniscus

     since the water wants to attract to the walls they

    go up against the force of gravity

    (Picture- Draw)

    o this is an example of capillary action

    ; Exp. the lab with the smaller hole having water higher


    ; water in trees going up

    ; dipping a paper towel in water and the water going up

     which leads to hydrogen bonds (how?!)

    o Water forms dome above height of gall and metal paper clop

    (higher density) can float because of surface tension due to

    cohesion in hydrogen bonds

    ; Specific heat

    o every substance can be described by different physical

    properties water is no exception

    ; amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one

    gram of substance by one degree Celsius

     Measured in calories(s)

    ; the specific heat of water is one calorie

    In an ocean the water temperature changes at a very slow rate

     2007-9-6 10:49:00 [10/29/07]

    +[H] = 1/10,000,000 Mol/Liter

pH scale-

    +-1 Acidic (H) 7- Neutral Basic= alkali (OH) 14

Acidic- Acid

    Basic- Base

    pH- Pavior hydrogen- power of hydrogen- the expression which equals the

    +negative logarithm for the expression of [H]

    +7-7[H] = 1/10,000,000 Mol/Liter 1/10 ml/liter 1 X 10 ml/liter

    --7[OH] 1 X 10 ml/liter

+-2H= 1/100 mol/liter = 1 X 10 pH= -(-2)= 2

An acid is defined as a substance that releases Hydrogen ions, is hydrogen

    -ion donor and the OH is the accepter





    ; pH measuring thing (machine?)

    o one 11.8

    o two 3.2


    ; Qualitative

    o litmus paper

    ; two types

     red and blue

    ; one

    o turned red into blue

    o and blue stayed

    ; two

    o turned blue into red

    o kept red as red

    ; The one that turned red into blue is a base

    ; Blue into red is an acid

    ; More qualitative then litmus paper but not exact

    o pH paper

    ; is useless on its on, they key is useful, the key shows

    depending on what the pH is with the color on the key,

    much more specific


    ; between 12-13

    ; Two

    o 2-3

    ; the most common pH in most living things is 6.5;?7.5 (biological pH range)

    Our stomachs pH is between 1.5;?2

     2007-9-6 10:49:00


    Absent- got sophie lee’s notes


    Organic Chemistry

    ; Deals with carbon compounds

    o Not all carbon compounds are organic

    ; CO CO 2

    o These compounds are rich in energy

    ; Since they have 4 valence electrons they have to either

    gain or lose 4 electrons

     Since that level is very close to the nucleus the

    pull on the electrons are very strong

    ; The solution is to never go ionic but to


    o Make four covalent bond

    ; The simplest compound in

    nature is one carbon with four

    covalent bonds each with a


    -methane gas

    ; Worried about it in coal mines

     Miners go down into the shaft and they generate

    sparks while drilling and if that hits methane gas,

    there’s a large explosion

    ; Name: Methane

    ; Structural formula

    ; Chemical Formula :CH 4

     2007-9-6 10:49:00



    ; When something is filled up to its capacity

    o Such as the carbon skeleton when its filled with carbon

    ; If you have double or triple bond or bonds then the

    structure is unsaturated

     Having or able to form double and triple carbon


    Fossil fuels

    ; any carbon-containing fuel

    o derived from the decomposed remains of prehistoric plants

    and animals that were tramped in rocks

    ; these were subject to great pressure and heat

     all the hydrocarbons which

    ; methane gas- gas

    ; coal- solid

    ; oil- liquid

    o all high in energy, contain carbon and

    from living organism but today

    hydrocarbon is not found living


    ; big coal minds in




     South Virginia


     A lot of coal there since

    there are from ferns

     Which are grown in a hot


     So the climate there has

    changed greatly

     ; CH+ O CO 2HO 4222

    o This is the result of what happens when you burn any fossil



    ; Chemistry of living organisms

    o Branch of organic compounds

    ; Four basic types of molecules

    o Carbohydrates

    o Lipids

    o Proteins

    o Nucleic Acids

; Carbohydrates

    o Carbon

    o Hydrogen

    o Oxygen



    ; C,H,O

    o If two structures have the same formula but different make

    ups then they are

    ; Isomer

     Two or more compounds that have the same

    chemical formula but don’t have anything else the


    ; Different chemical and physical properties

    due to there structural details

    o Building block: sugar = monomer

    ; Glucose: CHO 6126

     If you put glucose in a beaker of water the double

    bond the molecule had an oxygen opens up and

    the molecule bends and the remaining oxygen

    connects to a carbon and make a circle

    ; In a cytoplasm of a cell there is between

    50% and 95% of water, so in a living cell

    glucose is always in a ring structure

     Is a Monosaccharide

    ; a sugar composed in one building block

    o Glucose

    o galactose

    o Fructose

    ; Also all have same chemical


     Three isomers

    If something ends in ose it’s a sugar

    ; Disaccharides ex: glucose + glucose = maltose

     Glucose + Fructose = sucrose

     (can be found in sugar cane and sugar beets)

     Glucose + galactose = lactose

    (found in milk)

    ; Polysaccharide ex: Starch




     2007-9-6 10:49:00



    ; Animal cells

    o Storage

    ; glycogen

    o Structure

    ; chitin

    ; Plant cells

    o Storage

    ; Starch

    o Structure

    ; Cellulose

    ; A potato is a tuber (A modified underground stem that’s main

    function is to store food)

    o Grains which are seeds have a lot of starch

    ; We also eat the cellulose but we cannot digest it

    o only things which have the enzyme cellulase can digest it

    ; glycogen

    o is found in our liver and muscle cells

Dehydration synthesis = condensation

    ; When two fructose join together, which results in one water

    molecule coming out and a maltose molecule being form

    o The chemical formal of maltose is CHO 122211


    The reverse of this is hydrolyses


    Carbon HO 2


    ; Every hydrogen there are two oxygen


    ; Made up of two or more monosaccharide but not that many that it

    would be a polysaccharide


; Nonpolar molecules

    ; Hydrophobic compounds

    o Fats

    o Oils

    o Waxes

    o Steroids (=sterols)

    ; Structurally they all are very different



    ; Found in animals

    o (Animal tissue)

    ; Oil

    o Extracted from plants (plant tissue)

; All fats and oils are made up of

    o Glycerol

    ; Made up of three carbons

    ; acid

     Hydroxyl group

    ; R-OH

    o R = residual

    ; The remainder of the molecule

     No charge

     Any substance that ends with a substace ol is a

    alchohol Glycerol

    o Fatty acid

    ; Organic acid is any substance that attaches to its

    residual will be another group


    ; Known as a carboxyl group

    o Usually amount of carbons is even

    and there are at least 8 carbons

    ; Within fatty acids there will be

    different types

     In the number of Carbons

    they have

     Instead of expressing exp.

    CHO you write 8162

    CHCOOH 715

    o Saturated fatty acid

    ; To be filled up to capacity with

    maximum number of Hydrogen

    o Unsaturated fatty acid

    ; To have less then max amount

    of Hydrogen’s

    o Polyunsaturated

    ; To have a lot of double and

    triple bonds

    If you add one Glycerol and three fatty acids

    o Three molecules of water come out, since the H and OH leave

    ; Called dehydration synthesis = condensation

    three HO comes out + and one lipid/fat/oil 2

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