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# Science- - Ramaz Help

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Science- - Ramaz HelpHelp,help,Ramaz,HELP

2007-9-6 10:49:00

[10/22/07]

Cohesion-

; two molecules or drops of the same substance which are being

attracted to each other

; attraction between particles of two different substances

o exp. whatever holds the water

; meniscus

since the water wants to attract to the walls they

go up against the force of gravity

(Picture- Draw)

o this is an example of capillary action

; Exp. the lab with the smaller hole having water higher

up

; water in trees going up

; dipping a paper towel in water and the water going up

which leads to hydrogen bonds (how?!)

o Water forms dome above height of gall and metal paper clop

(higher density) can float because of surface tension due to

cohesion in hydrogen bonds

; Specific heat

o every substance can be described by different physical

properties water is no exception

; amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one

gram of substance by one degree Celsius

Measured in calories(s)

; the specific heat of water is one calorie

In an ocean the water temperature changes at a very slow rate

2007-9-6 10:49:00 [10/29/07]

+[H] = 1/10,000,000 Mol/Liter

pH scale-

+-1 Acidic (H) 7- Neutral Basic= alkali (OH) 14

Acidic- Acid

Basic- Base

pH- Pavior hydrogen- power of hydrogen- the expression which equals the

+negative logarithm for the expression of [H]

+7-7[H] = 1/10,000,000 Mol/Liter 1/10 ml/liter 1 X 10 ml/liter

--7[OH] 1 X 10 ml/liter

+-2H= 1/100 mol/liter = 1 X 10 pH= -(-2)= 2

An acid is defined as a substance that releases Hydrogen ions, is hydrogen

-ion donor and the OH is the accepter

[10/30/07]

pH

Analysis

-Qualitative

; pH measuring thing (machine?)

o one 11.8

o two 3.2

-Quantitative

; Qualitative

o litmus paper

; two types

red and blue

; one

o turned red into blue

o and blue stayed

; two

o turned blue into red

o kept red as red

; The one that turned red into blue is a base

; Blue into red is an acid

; More qualitative then litmus paper but not exact

o pH paper

; is useless on its on, they key is useful, the key shows

depending on what the pH is with the color on the key,

much more specific

One

; between 12-13

; Two

o 2-3

; the most common pH in most living things is 6.5；？7.5 (biological pH range)

Our stomachs pH is between 1.5；？2

2007-9-6 10:49:00

[10/31/07]

Absent- got sophie lee’s notes

[11/1/07]

Organic Chemistry

; Deals with carbon compounds

o Not all carbon compounds are organic

; CO CO 2

o These compounds are rich in energy

; Since they have 4 valence electrons they have to either

gain or lose 4 electrons

Since that level is very close to the nucleus the

pull on the electrons are very strong

; The solution is to never go ionic but to

share

o Make four covalent bond

; The simplest compound in

nature is one carbon with four

covalent bonds each with a

hydrogen

-methane gas

; Worried about it in coal mines

Miners go down into the shaft and they generate

sparks while drilling and if that hits methane gas,

there’s a large explosion

; Name: Methane

; Structural formula

; Chemical Formula :CH 4

2007-9-6 10:49:00

[11/1/07]

Unsaturated

; When something is filled up to its capacity

o Such as the carbon skeleton when its filled with carbon

; If you have double or triple bond or bonds then the

structure is unsaturated

Having or able to form double and triple carbon

bonds

Fossil fuels

; any carbon-containing fuel

o derived from the decomposed remains of prehistoric plants

and animals that were tramped in rocks

; these were subject to great pressure and heat

all the hydrocarbons which

; methane gas- gas

; coal- solid

; oil- liquid

o all high in energy, contain carbon and

from living organism but today

organisms

; big coal minds in

Wyoming

Utah

Virginia

South Virginia

Pennsylvania

A lot of coal there since

there are from ferns

Which are grown in a hot

planet

So the climate there has

changed greatly

; CH+ O CO 2HO 4222

o This is the result of what happens when you burn any fossil

fuels

Biochemistry

; Chemistry of living organisms

o Branch of organic compounds

; Four basic types of molecules

o Carbohydrates

o Lipids

o Proteins

o Nucleic Acids

; Carbohydrates

o Carbon

o Hydrogen

o Oxygen

[11/5/07]

Carbohydrates

; C,H,O

o If two structures have the same formula but different make

ups then they are

; Isomer

Two or more compounds that have the same

chemical formula but don’t have anything else the

same

; Different chemical and physical properties

due to there structural details

o Building block: sugar = monomer

; Glucose: CHO 6126

If you put glucose in a beaker of water the double

bond the molecule had an oxygen opens up and

the molecule bends and the remaining oxygen

connects to a carbon and make a circle

; In a cytoplasm of a cell there is between

50% and 95% of water, so in a living cell

glucose is always in a ring structure

Is a Monosaccharide

; a sugar composed in one building block

o Glucose

o galactose

o Fructose

; Also all have same chemical

formula

Three isomers

If something ends in ose it’s a sugar

; Disaccharides ex: glucose + glucose = maltose

Glucose + Fructose = sucrose

(can be found in sugar cane and sugar beets)

Glucose + galactose = lactose

(found in milk)

; Polysaccharide ex: Starch

Cellulose

Glycogen

Chitin

2007-9-6 10:49:00

[11/6/07]

Polysaccharides

; Animal cells

o Storage

; glycogen

o Structure

; chitin

; Plant cells

o Storage

; Starch

o Structure

; Cellulose

; A potato is a tuber (A modified underground stem that’s main

function is to store food)

o Grains which are seeds have a lot of starch

; We also eat the cellulose but we cannot digest it

o only things which have the enzyme cellulase can digest it

; glycogen

o is found in our liver and muscle cells

Dehydration synthesis = condensation

; When two fructose join together, which results in one water

molecule coming out and a maltose molecule being form

o The chemical formal of maltose is CHO 122211

[11/8/07]

The reverse of this is hydrolyses

Carbohydrate

Carbon HO 2

C:2H:O

; Every hydrogen there are two oxygen

Oligosaccharide

; Made up of two or more monosaccharide but not that many that it

would be a polysaccharide

Lipid

; Nonpolar molecules

; Hydrophobic compounds

o Fats

o Oils

o Waxes

o Steroids (=sterols)

; Structurally they all are very different

[11/9/07]

Fats

; Found in animals

o (Animal tissue)

; Oil

o Extracted from plants (plant tissue)

; All fats and oils are made up of

o Glycerol

; Made up of three carbons

; acid

Hydroxyl group

; R-OH

o R = residual

; The remainder of the molecule

No charge

Any substance that ends with a substace ol is a

alchohol Glycerol

o Fatty acid

; Organic acid is any substance that attaches to its

residual will be another group

R-COOH

; Known as a carboxyl group

o Usually amount of carbons is even

and there are at least 8 carbons

; Within fatty acids there will be

different types

In the number of Carbons

they have

CHO you write 8162

CHCOOH 715

o Saturated fatty acid

; To be filled up to capacity with

maximum number of Hydrogen

o Unsaturated fatty acid

; To have less then max amount

of Hydrogen’s

o Polyunsaturated

; To have a lot of double and

triple bonds

If you add one Glycerol and three fatty acids

o Three molecules of water come out, since the H and OH leave

; Called dehydration synthesis = condensation

three HO comes out + and one lipid/fat/oil 2

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