DOC

1. Water metabolism Study Questions

By Randy Washington,2014-05-21 21:05
9 views 0
1. Water metabolism Study Questions

    Water metabolism

    (Study questions)

    考试时没有汉语注释???

    I. Translation of the Following Term Into Chinese.

    1. water metabolism 2. free water 3.colloidal particles4. bound water 5. sol 6.colloidal olution 7. gel 8. simply diffusion 9. passive process 10.driving force11. mass flow s

    12.pressure gradient 13.quaporins 14.water-selective channels 15. chemical potential 16.free energy 17.given state 18.standard state 19. water potential 20.unit volume 21.water solution 22.pure water 23.osmosis 24.solvent 25.semi-permeable membrane 26.solute concentration 27.concentration gradient 28.selectively-permeable membrane 29. partially-permeable membrane 30.differentially-permeable membrane 31. ideal semi-permeable membrane 32. plant cell water potential 33.partial molal volume 34. solute potential 35.osmotic potential 36.dissolved solutes 37. turgor pressure 38.hydrostatic pressure 39. plasmolysis 40. deplasmolysis 41.plasmolyzed cells 42.hypotonic solution 43.hypertonic solution 44.isotonic solution45. permanent wilting point 46. apoplast 47.intercellular air spaces 48.plant tissues 49. apoplast

    0. transmembrane pathway 51.plasma membrane 52. symplast pathway 5

    53.plasmodesmata.54. symplast pathway 55. cellular pathway 56. Casparian strip 57. root pressure 58. bleeding59.bleeding sap 60. guttation 61.xylem sap 62.vascular

    3. transpirational pull 64. Transpiration 65. evapotranspiration 66. lenticular plants 6

    transpiration 67.woody plants 68. cuticular transpiration 69. stomatal transpiration 70. transpiration rate 71. transpiration ratio 72.dry matter 73. transpiration coefficient 74.water requirement 75.transpiration coefficient 76. water requirement 77. cavitation 78. embolism 79.tensile forces80. critical period of water 81. reasonable irrigation 82. irrigation 83. drip irrigation 84. surface irrigation 85. sub-irrigation 86.water table 87.water level 88.water status 89.colloidal status 90.osmotic system91.immature cells 92.physiological index 93.dynamic equilibrium 94.quantitative expression 95.qualitative expression96.water potential gradient 97.concentration gradient 98.guard cells 99.cytoplasm layer 100.mitochondria envelope 101.leaf transpiration 102.potassium ion uptake 103.calcium ion uptake 104.sodium ion uptake 105.copper ion uptake 106.environmental stress 107.nucleic acids inorganic substances108. organic substances109. 110.reaction medium 111.ecological drought 112.soil moisture 113.soil solution 114.physiological functions 115.starch phosphorylase 116.subsidiary cells 117.soluble sugars 118.oxidative phosphorylation 119.electric potential 120.glycolysis 121.phtotophosphorylation 122.cytosol 123.organic ions 124.parenchymatous cell 125.mesophyll cell 126water column

    II. Translation of the Following Term Definition Into Chinese, With the Corresponding Term written out (in Chinese or in English ).

    1. water metabolism水分代谢

    Water metabolism (It) includes such processes as water absorption吸收 by plant,

    water transfer inside plant, water use in plant body, and water loss into environment out of plant body as well.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 它包括植物对水分的吸收!水分在植物体内的运输!水分在植物体内的利用!以

    及水分从植物体内散失到环境等过程。

    The definition above-mentioned is the term water metabolism or 水分代谢.

    2. free water 自由水

    The water, which is far away the colloidal particles胶体颗粒, is attracted weakly by colloidal particles and able to move freely, is termed as free water. The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 3. bound water束缚水

    The water, which is nearer to the colloidal particles胶体颗粒 is strongly attracted by colloidal particles and unable to move freely, is termed as bound water. The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 4. sol溶胶

    If the ratio 比率 of free water /bound water is higher, the colloidal solution胶体溶

    , which is liquid, is termed as sol.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 5. gel凝胶

    If the ratio of free water /bound water is lower, the colloidal system, which is

    semisolid, is termed as gel (colloidal particles form netlike structure).

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 6. diffusion扩散

    Diffusion, i.e. molecular diffusion, often called simply diffusion简单扩散, Itis a

    net transport净移动 of molecules from a region of higher concentration浓度 to one

    of lower concentration by random molecular motion随机的分子运动.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 7. passive process被动过程

    A passive process means that the process is completed without consuming消耗

    energy (e.g. ATP) produced from cell, but the completion of a passive process it

    indeed needs energy or driving force驱动力.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 8. Mass flow集流

    Mass flow, also called bulk flow, Itis the concerted 协同movement of groups of

    molecules en masse一同地, most often in response to a pressure gradient压力梯度.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 9. Aquaporin

    A quaporins水孔蛋白?Theyare integral内在 membrane proteins that form water-selective channels通道 across the membrane.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 10. chemical potential化学势

    Free energy ispossessed by 1 mol of any substance is defined as the chemical potential of the substance. It is expressed as the difference差值 between the

    chemical potential of a substance in a given state给定状态 and the chemical

potential of the same substance in a standard state标准状态.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 11. water potential水势

    From Physical Chemistry angle, free energy ispossessed by 1 mol of water is termed as the chemical potential of water, which can be abbreviated as water

    potential.

    From Plant Physiology angle, Water potential Itis defined as the difference in

    free energy per unit volume单位体积, between a water solution溶液 and pure water

    纯水.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 12. Osmosis渗透作用

    Osmosis Itis the diffusion扩散of a solvent溶剂(frequently water) through a semi-permeable membrane半透膜, from a solution溶液of low solute concentration溶质浓度 (high water potential水势) to a solution with high solute concentration (low water potential), up逆着 a solute concentration gradient梯度.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 13. semi-permeable membrane半透膜

    A semi-permeable membrane, also termed as a selectively-permeable membrane选择

    透性膜, a partially-permeable membrane部分透性膜or a differentially-permeable membrane差异透性膜, It is a membrane that will allow certain某些 molecules

    or ions to pass through it by diffusion and occasionally specialized ―facilitated

    diffusion促进扩散."

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 14. ideal semi-permeable membrane 理想的半透膜

    Ideal semi-permeable membrane It is a membrane that only allow a solvent溶剂

    to pass through it and not allow a solute溶质 to pass through it.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 15. plant cell water potential植物细胞水势

    Plant cell water potential (It) is defined as the chemical potential difference between a

    solution and pure water纯水 divided by the partial molal volume偏摩尔体积 of

    water.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 16. solute potential溶质势

    the solute potential溶质势, also called the osmotic potential渗透势, (It) represents

    the effect of dissolved solutes溶解的溶质 on water potential.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 17. turgor pressure膨压

    It isThe hydrostatic pressure 静水压力within cells is the pressure referred to as turgor pressure.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________.

18. Plasmolysis质壁分离

    Plasmolysis质壁分离(It) is the separation of plant cell protoplast原生质体

    (cytoplasm?) from the cell wall胞壁 as a result of water loss.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 19. deplasmolysis质壁分离复原

    Plasmolyzed cells质壁分离细胞 are transferred quickly from the salt or sugar solution to water or hypotonic solution 低渗溶液, these plasmolyzed cells gain water again, their protoplasts原生质体 are expanded outwards, and finally their volumes restore their original sizes, this phenomenon is termed as deplasmolysis质壁分离复

    .

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 20. permanent wilting point永久萎蔫点

    At this point the water potential of the soil is so low that plants cannot regain turgor

    pressure even if all water loss through transpiration ceases. This means that the water

    potential of the soil (ψw) is less than or equal to the osmotic potential (ψs) of the

    plant.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 21. apoplast质外体

    The apoplast质外体 (It) is the continuous system of cell walls胞壁 and intercellular

    air spaces胞间气体间隙 in plant tissues组织.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 22. apoplast pathway质外体途径

    The pathway (is) that water moves through cell walls胞壁 and intercellular air spaces胞间气体间隙 is termed as apoplast pathway质外体途径.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 23. transmembrane pathway跨膜途径

    The pathway (is) that water moves across plasma membrane质膜 and tonoplast液泡

     twice from a cell to another cell termed as transmembrane pathway跨膜途径.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 24. symplast共质体

    The symplast共质体 (It) consists of the entire network整个网络 of cell protoplast

    原生质体 (cytoplasm?) interconnected by plasmodesmata胞间连丝.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 25. symplast pathway共质体途径

    The pathway (is) that water moves through from a cell to the next via plasmodesmata

    胞间连丝 termed as symplast pathway共质体途径.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 26. cellular pathway细胞途径

    (The pathway is) Transmembrane pathway and symplast pathway are collectively

    defined as cellular pathway细胞途径.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 27. Casparian strip凯氏带

    The Casparian strip凯氏带(It) is a band of the radial径向and transverse cell walls

    向细胞壁 in the endodermis内皮层 that is impregnated充满 with the waxlike象腊,

    hydrophobic疏水 substance suberin木栓.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 28. root pressure根压

    It is the osmotic pressure渗透压 within the cells of a root system that causes sap

     to rise through a plant stem to the leaves.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 29. bleeding伤流

     is cut off just above the soil, the stump树桩 If the stem of a young seedling

    will often exude渗出 sap汁液 from the cut xylem木质部 for many hours. This

    phenomenon is called bleeding, the sap exuded is called bleeding sap伤流液.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 30. guttation 吐水

    GuttationItis the appearance of drops of xylem sap木质部汁液 on the tips or

    edges of leaves of some vascular plants维管植物, such as grasses, in the morning

    or evening

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 31. transpirational pull蒸腾拉力

    Transpirational pull蒸腾拉力 (The pull) results ultimately from the evaporation蒸发

    of water from the surfaces of cells in the interior内部 of the leaves.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 32. Transpiration蒸腾作用

    Transpiration蒸腾作用(It) is the process by which water contained in liquid form inside plants is converted转化 to vapor form and released to the atmosphere. The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 33. evapotranspiration蒸发蒸腾/蒸散

    Evaporation蒸发(作用) from the surface of plants also occurs when transpiration

    腾作用happens. Thus it is difficult to separate the processes of evaporation and

    transpiration, so this transfer of water is sometimes simply termed evapotranspiration

    蒸发蒸腾/蒸散.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________.

34. Lenticular transpiration皮孔蒸腾

    Lenticular transpiration皮孔蒸腾(It) is that water inside plants dissipates耗散 into

    atmosphere via the lenticels皮孔in the stems and branches of woody plants

    本植物, about 0.1% of the total amount of transpiration. The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 35. Cuticular transpiration角质蒸腾

    Cuticular transpiration (It) is that water inside plants dissipates耗散 into atmosphere

    via the cuticle角质层 on the leaf surface, about 5%-10% of the total amount of transpiration.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 36. Stomatal transpiration气孔蒸腾

    Stomatal transpiration (It) is that water inside plants dissipates耗散 into atmosphere

    from the stomata气孔 in the leaf, about 90%-95% of the total amount of transpiration.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 37. Transpiration rate蒸腾速率

    In a given period, the amount of water transpired蒸腾 per unit leaf area. Unit is g?m-2?h-1, generally the amount of water transpired is 15(250 g in the day and 1(

    20 g at night.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 38. Transpiration ratio蒸腾比率

    The transpiration ratio Itis the ratio of weight of water transpired蒸腾 by a plant

    during its growing season to the weight of dry matter干物质 produced (usually

    exclusive of roots), i.e. a plant produce the grams of dry matter with 1kg of water

    consumed消耗.

    The transpiration ratio of wild plants is 1-8g, the transpiration of most of crops is

    2-10g.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 39. Transpiration coefficient蒸腾系数/water requirement需水量

    Transpiration coefficient蒸腾系数, also called water requirement需水量, (It) is the

    ratio of the weight of whole dry matter干物质 produced in a given period by weight of water transpired蒸腾, i.e. the amount of water is consumed with 1g dry matter produced.

    Wild plants: 125-1000g; most of crops: 100-500g

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 40. cavitation气穴现象 or embolism栓塞现象

    Once a gas bubble has formed within the water column under tension, it will expand

    because gases cannot resist tensile forces张力. This phenomenon of bubble formation is known as cavitation气穴现象 or embolism栓塞现象.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 41. critical period of water水分临界期

(It is ) The period that influences crop production greatly if it is short of water is

    termed as critical period of water水分临界期.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 42. Reasonable irrigation合理灌溉

    Reasonable irrigation合理灌溉 (It) means that the highest production is gotten with the minimum最小的 amount of water used.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 43. Irrigation灌溉

    Irrigation灌溉(It) is an artificial人工的 application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 44. Drip irrigation滴灌

    Drip irrigation滴灌, also known as trickle irrigation, functions as its name suggests. Water is delivered at or near the root zone of plants, drop by drop. The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 45. Surface irrigation 表灌

    In surface irrigation systems water moves over and across the land by simple gravity

    flow in order to wet it and to infiltrate渗透 into the soil.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________. 46. Sub-irrigation地下灌溉

    It is a method of artificially raising the water table地下水位?also called water level

    to allow the soil to be moistened变湿 from below the plants' root zone.

    The definition above-mentioned is the term _________________.

III. Fill in the Blank in Chinese or in English

    1. There are two kinds of water status状态 in plant body, i.e. ( ) and ( ).

    2. There are two kinds of colloidal status胶体状态 in plant body, i.e. ( ) and ( ).

    3. There are three types of methods of water absorption by plant cell, i.e. ( ), ( ) and ( ).

    4. Energy used in diffusion is ( ) or ( ). 5. Diffusion is rapid over ( ) distances.

    6. Pressure-driven压力驱动的 bulk flow of water is the predominant mechanism

    要的机制 responsible for ( ) distance transport of water in the xylem

    质部.

    7. There are two types of energy in any systems, they are termed as定义为

    ( ) and ( ).

    8. Permeability通透性 of semi-permeable membrane depends on the membrane and the solute溶质, as well as depends on solute ( ), ( ), and

( ), etc..

    9. The rate of osmosis depends on the ( ), ( ), and ( ) on both sides of the membrane, as well as depends on the permeability of the membrane to each solute.

    10. In nature, water flows always from a high place to low place, but in plant body water moves from a ( ) to ( ).

    11. Mature成熟 plant cells are a osmotic system渗透系统, because they have a large

    , the semi-permeable membrane半透膜 of a mature plant cell central vacuole液泡

    includes ( ), ( ) and ( ).

    12. Osmosis is a ( ) that a solvent溶剂moves across a semi-permeable

    membrane半透膜. Osmosis do not need input输入of energy, thus osmosis is a

    ( ).

    13. In simple diffusion简单扩散, the driving force is a ( ); in bulk flow, the driving force is a ( ); in osmosis, the driving force a ( ). 14. Components组分equation of water potential of plant cell, ψ =( ) w

    +( ) +( ) +( )

    15. The value of Ψp generally is positive正的, is ( ) at plasmolysis质壁分

    . ,and can be ( ) at intensive transpiration蒸腾作用

    16. Water potential formula often used常用公式: Ψw = ( ) +( )

    + ( ).

    17. Water potential formula of mature成熟plant cells: Ψw = ( )

    +( ).

    18. Water potential formula of immature cells未成熟细胞: Ψw = ( ).

    19. If the medium is hypotonic 低渗的 a ( ), with a higher

    ( ) than the cell the cell will gain water through osmosis渗透作用.

    20. If the medium is isotonic等渗的 a solution with exactly the same

    ( ) as the cell there will be no net movement of water across the cell membrane.

    21. If the medium is hypertonic高渗的 a ( ), with a lower ( )

    than the cell the cell will lose water by osmosis渗透作用.

    22. The whole plant can be divided into two parts, i.e. ( ) and ( ).

    23. There are three types of pathways by which water moves into the roots, i.e. ( ), ( ), and ( ).

    24. ( ) and ( ) are collectively defined as cellular pathway细胞

    途径.

    25. The cells with ( ) acts as the semipermeable membrane of root system. 26. The root pressures of most of plants range from ( ) to ( ) Mpa.

    27. The two evidences证据 for the existence存在 of root pressure根压:

    ( ) and ( ).

    28. There are three kinds of transpiration, i.e. ( ), ( ) and ( ).

    29. Cuticular transpiration and stomatal transpiration collectively also are termed as

( ).

    30. Young plants can dissipate耗散 water from the ( )whole plant surface exposing to air.

    31. There are three theories to explain the mechanism机制 of stomatal movement, i.e. ( ), ( ) and ( ), The core of which is that osmosis

    透作用 regulates guard cells.

    32. There are three transpiration index指标: i.e. ( ), ( ), and ( ) or water requirement.

    transpiration rate蒸腾速率, transpiration ratio比率, transpiration coefficient系数

    33. In fact, the relation of between transpiration ratio蒸腾比率and transpiration

    coefficient蒸腾系数 (or water requirement) is ( ) each other. 34. There are two pathways of water transfer in stems and leaves: i.e. via

    ( ) and via ( ).

    35. The main controversy over cohesiontension theory of sap ascent is ( ) or ( ).

    36. Physiological index生理指标includes leaf ( ); cell ( ); ( ); stomatal ( )

IV. True ( ? ) or False ( × )

    1. There is no obvious boundary界线 between free water and bound water. ( ? )

     between free water and bound water. ( × ) 1. There is obvious boundary界线

    2. The result of diffusion is complete mixing or a state of dynamic equilibrium动态平

    , in other words, the substances (solute溶质 and solvent溶剂) in the system are

    distributed evenly. ( )

    2. The result of diffusion is complete mixing or a state of dynamic equilibrium动态平

    , in other words, the substances (solute溶质 and solvent溶剂) in the system are

    distributed unevenly. ( )

    3. In fact, the chemical potential of a substance is a quantitative expression定量表达

    of the free energy associated with the substance. ( ) 3. In fact, the chemical potential of a substance is a qualitative expression定性表达

    of the free energy associated with the substance. ( ) 4. Typically, pure water纯水 at standard temperature温度 and pressure压力 (or

    other suitable reference condition参照条件) is defined as having a water potential of 0. ( )

    4. Typically, pure water纯水 at standard temperature温度 and pressure压力 (or

    other suitable reference condition参照条件) is defined as having a water potential of 1. ( )

    5. Note that the water potential of pure water is not zero. ( ) 5. Note that the water potential of pure water is zero. ( ) 6. The water potential of pure water is the highest, the water potential of a solution

     absolutely is a negative负的. ( )

    6. The water potential of pure water is the highest, the water potential of a solution

     absolutely is a positive正的. ( )

    7. In simple diffusion简单扩散, substances move down顺着 a concentration

gradient浓度梯度. ( )

    7. In simple diffusion简单扩散, substances move up逆着 a concentration gradient浓度梯度. ( )

    8. In pressure-driven bulk flow, substances move down a pressure gradient压力梯度.

     ) (

    8. In pressure-driven bulk flow, substances move against a pressure gradient压力梯度.

    ( )

    9. In osmosis, both types of gradients influence transport, i.e. substances move down a

    water potential gradient水势梯度. ( )

    9. In osmosis, both types of gradients influence transport, i.e. substances move up a

    water potential gradient水势梯度. ( )

    10. Solutes reduce the free energy of water by diluting稀释 the water. ( )

    10. Solutes reduce the free energy of water by reducing减少 the water. ( )

    11. Positive pressure potential正压 raise the water potential; negative pressure potential负压 reduce it. ( )

    11. Positive pressure potential正压 reduce the water potential; negative pressure potential负压 raise it.

    12. In hypotonic低渗的solution, the volume体积 of plant cells gets larger. ( ) 12. In hypotonic低渗的solution, the volume体积 of plant cells gets smaller. ( ) 13. in isotonic等渗的 solution, the volume体积 of plant cells keeps the original size. ( )

    13. in isotonic等渗的 solution, the volume体积 of plant cells gets smaller. ( ) 14. in hypertonic高渗的solution, the volume体积 of plant cells gets small, leading to plasmolysis质壁分离. ( )

    14. in hypertonic高渗的solution, the volume体积 of plant cells gets larger, leading to deplasmolysis质壁分离复原. ( )

    15. The direction of intercellular胞间的 water movement is from higher water potential to lower water potential. ( )

    15. The direction of intercellular胞间的 water movement is from lower water potential to higher water potential. ( )

    16. There are three types of pathways by which water moves into the roots. ( )

    16. There are two types of pathways by which water moves into the roots. ( )

    17. Because there is no protoplast barrier原生质体阻挡, the rate of water movement in the apoplast pathway is very fast. ( )

    17. Because there is protoplast barrier原生质体阻挡, the rate of water movement in the apoplast pathway is very fast. ( )

    18. Because there is protoplast barrier原生质体阻挡, the rate of water movement in the transmembrane pathway is slower. ( )

    18. Because there is no protoplast barrier原生质体阻挡, the rate of water movement in the transmembrane pathway is faster. ( )

    19. Because there is protoplast barrier原生质体阻挡, the rate protoplast of water movement in the symplast pathway is slower. ( ) 19. Because there is no protoplast barrier原生质体阻挡, the rate protoplast of water movement in the symplast pathway is faster. ( )

Report this document

For any questions or suggestions please email
cust-service@docsford.com