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    外研高中五册 Module5教学资源Section3Words and Expressions ;2点;

    Section 3; Words and Expressions from Module 5 The

    Great Sports Personality


    n. [U]

    1 (BrE) (NAmE track and field) sports that people compete in, such as running and jumping 2

    (NAmE) any sports that people compete in: students involved in all forms of college athletics




    1 [C+sing./pl. v.] (especially in compounds) a group of people who meet together regularly, for a

    particular activity, sport, etc.: a golf / tennis, etc. club a chess / film / movie, etc. club to join / belong to a club The club has / have voted to admit 50 new members. fan club, youth club 2

    [C] the building or rooms that a particular club uses: We had lunch at the golf club. the club bar

    country club, health club 3 [C+sing./pl. v.] (BrE) a professional sports organization that includes the players, managers, owners and members: Manchester United Football Club


    4 [C] a place where people, especially young people, go and listen to music, dance, etc.: a jazz

    club the club scene in Newcastle


    5 [C+sing./pl. v.] (especially in Britain) an organization and a place where people, usually men only, can meet together socially or stay: He’s a member of several London clubs.


    6 [C] an organization that sells books, CDs, etc. cheaply to its members: a music club


    7 [C] a heavy stick with one end thicker than the other, that is used as a weapon IN GOLF

    8 [C] = golf club


    9 clubs [pl., U] one of the four set of cards (called suits) in a pack/deck of cards. The clubs have a

    black design shaped like three black leaves on a short stem: the five / queen / ace of clubs

    10 [C] one card from the suit called clubs: I played a club.

    be in the club (BrE, informal) to be pregnant

    v. (-bb-)

    1 [vn] to hit a person or an animal with a heavy stick or similar object: The victim was clubbed to

    death with a baseball bat. 2 [v] go clubbing (BrE, informal) to spend time dancing and drinking in nightclubs

    club together (BrE) if two or more people club together, they each give an amount of money and the total is used to pay for sth.: We clubbed together to buy them a new television.



    外研高中五册 Module5教学资源Section3Words and Expressions ;2点;

    1 [U] a type of material that is made of string, thread or wire twisted or tied together, with small spaces in between: net curtains fishnet, netting 2 [C] (especially in compounds) a piece of net

    used for a particular purpose, such as catching fish or covering sth.: fishing nets a mosquito net

    (= used to protect you from mosquitoes) hairnet, safety net 3 the net [sing.] (in sports) the

    frame covered in net that forms the goal: to kick the ball into the back of the net 4 the net [sing.]

    (in tennis, etc.) the piece of net between the two players that the ball goes over: She hit her second

    serve straight into the net. 5 the Net (informal) = the Internet

    adj. (BrE also nett)

    1 [usually before n.] a net amount of money is the amount that remains when nothing more is to be taken away: a net profit of ?500 net income / earnings (= after tax has been paid) What do you earn net of tax? 2 [only before n.] the net weight of sth. is the weight without its container or the material it is wrapped in: 450 gms net weight 3 [only before n.] final, after all the important

    facts have been included: The net result is that small shopkeepers are being forced out of business. Canada is now a substantial net importer of medicines (= it imports more than it exports). a net gain


    a salary of $50 000 net Interest on the investment will be paid net (= tax will already have been taken away).

    v. (-tt-) [vn]

    1 to earn an amount of money as a profit after you have paid tax on it: The sale of paintings netted

    ?17 000. 2 to catch sth., especially fish, in a net 3 to catch sb. or obtain sth. in a skilful way: A

    swoop by customs officers netted a large quantity of drugs. 4 (especially BrE) to kick or hit a

    ball into the goal score: He has netted 21 goals so far this season. 5 to cover sth. with a net or

    nets: It is a good idea to net the strawberry plants.




    1 (BrE) (also field NAmE, BrE) [C] an area of ground specially prepared and marked for playing a sports game: a football / cricket / rugby pitch The rugby tour was a disaster both on and off the pitch. After the game fans invaded the pitch.


    2 [sing., U] the degree or strength of a feeling or activity; the highest point of sth.: a frenetic pitch

    of activity Speculation has reached such a pitch that a decision will have to be made immediately.


    3 [sing., U] how high or low a sound is, especially a musical note: A basic sense of rhythm and

    pitch is essential in a music teacher.


    4 [C, usually sing.] talk or arguments used by a person trying to sell things or persuade people to do sth.: an aggressive sales pitch the candidate’s campaign pitch Each company was given ten

    minutes to make its pitch.


    5 [C] an act of throwing the ball; the way in which it is thrown


    外研高中五册 Module5教学资源Section3Words and Expressions ;2点;

    6 [U] a black sticky substance made from oil or coal, used on roofs or the wooden boards of a ship

    to stop water from coming through


    7 [C] (BrE) a place in a street or market where sb. sells things, or where a street entertainer usually



    8 [U] (technical) the movement of a ship up and down in the water or of an aircraft in the air OF ROOF

    9 [sing., U] (technical) the degree to which a roof slopes

    make a pitch for sb./sth. | make a pitch to sb. to make a determined effort to get sth. or to persuade sb. of sth.: He made a pitch to black voters in Alabama.



    1 [vn + adv. / prep.] to throw sb./sth. with force: The explosion pitched her violently into the air. (figurative) The new government has already been pitched into a crisis. IN SPORTS

    2 [v, vn] (in baseball) to throw the ball to the person who is batting , cricket 3 [+adv. / prep.] (of

    the ball in the games of cricket or golf) to hit the ground; to make the ball hit the ground: [v] The

    ball pitched a yard short. [also vn] 4 [vn, v] (in golf) to hit the ball in a high curve FALL

    5 [v + adv. / prep.] to fall heavily in a particular direction: With a cry she pitched forward.


    6 [v] to move up and down on the water or in the air: The sea was rough and the ship pitched and rolled all night.


    7 [vn + adv. / prep.] ~ sth. (at sth.) to set sth. at a particular level: They have pitched their prices

    too high. The test was pitched at too low a level for the students. TRY TO SELL

    8 [vn] ~ sth. (at sb.)| ~ sth. (as sth.) to aim or direct a product or service at a particular group of

    people: The new software is being pitched at banks. Orange juice is to be pitched as an athlete’s drink. 9 ~ (for sth.) to try to persuade sb. to buy sth., to give you sth. or to make a business deal

    with you: [vn] Representatives went to Japan to pitch the company’s newest products. [v] We

    were pitching against a much larger company for the contract.


    10 [vn] to produce a sound or piece of music at a particular level: You pitched that note a little flat.

    The song was pitched too low for my voice.


    11 [vn] to set up a tent or a camp for a short time: We could pitch our tent in that field. They pitched camp for the night near the river.

    pitch a story / line / yarn (to sb.) (informal) to tell sb. a story or make an excuse that is not true pitch in (with sb./sth.) (informal) to join in and help with an activity, by doing some of the work or by giving money, advice, etc.: Everyone pitched in with the work. Local companies pitched in with building materials and labour.

    pitch sth. in to give a particular amount of money in order to help with sth.: We all pitched in $10

    外研高中五册 Module5教学资源Section3Words and Expressions ;2点;

    to buy her a gift.

    pitch into sb. (informal) to attack or criticize sb.: She started pitching into me as soon as I arrived.

    pitch into sth. (informal) to start an activity with enthusiasm: [+ -ing] I rolled up my sleeves and pitched into cleaning the kitchen.

    pitch up (BrE, informal) to arrive somewhere, especially late or without planning: You can’t just

    pitch up and expect to get in without a ticket.




    1 [C] a rough path or road, usually one that has not been built but that has been made by people

    walking there: a muddy track through the forest


    2 [C, usually pl.] marks left by a person, an animal or a moving vehicle: We followed the bear’s

    tracks in the snow. tyre tracks


    3 [C, U] rails that a train moves along: railway / railroad tracks India has thousands of miles of track. 4 [C] (NAmE) a track with a number at a train station that a train arrives at or leaves from:

    The train for Chicago is on track 9.


    5 [C] a piece of ground with a special surface for people, cars, etc. to have races on: a running

    track a Formula One Grand Prix track (= for motor racing) DIRECTION / COURSE

    6 [C] the path or direction that sb./sth. is moving in: Police are on the track of (= searching for) the thieves. She is on the fast track to promotion (= will get it quickly). ON TAPE / CD

    7 [C] a piece of music or song on a record, tape or CD: a track from their latest album 8 [C] part

    of a tape or computer disk that music or information can be recorded on: a sixteen track recording studio She sang on the backing track.


    9 [C] a pole or rail that a curtain moves along


    10 [C] a continuous belt of metal plates around the wheels of a large vehicle such as a bulldozer

    that allows it to move over the ground

    back on track going in the right direction again after a mistake, failure, etc.: I tried to get my life back on track after my divorce.

    be on track to be doing the right thing in order to achieve a particular result: Curtis is on track for the gold medal.

    keep / lose track of sb./sth. to have/not have information about what is happening or where sb./sth.

    is: Bank statements help you keep track of where your money is going. I lost all track of time (=

    forgot what time it was).

    make tracks (informal) to leave a place, especially to go home: It’s getting late—I’d better make tracks.

    on the right / wrong track thinking or behaving in the right/wrong way: We haven’t found a cure

    外研高中五册 Module5教学资源Section3Words and Expressions ;2点;

    yetbut we are on the right track.

    stop / halt sb. in their tracks | stop / halt / freeze in your tracks to suddenly make sb. stop by frightening or surprising them; to suddenly stop because sth. has frightened or surprised you: The

    question stopped Alice in her tracks.



    1 to find sb./sth. by following the marks, signs, information, etc., that they have left behind them:

    [vn] hunters tracking and shooting bears [also v] 2 to follow the movements of sb./sth., especially by using special electronic equipment: [vn] We continued tracking the plane on our radar. [also v wh-] 3 to follow the progress or development of sb./sth.: [vn] The research

    project involves tracking the careers of 400 graduates. [also v wh-]


    4 [v + adv. / prep.] to move in relation to the thing that is being filmed: The camera eventually

    tracked away.


    5 [vn] (especially NAmE) to leave dirty marks behind you as you walk: Don’t track mud on my

    clean floor.

    track sb./sth. down to find sb./sth. after searching in several different places trace: The police

    have so far failed to track down the attacker. I finally tracked the reference down in a book of





    1 ~ (from sth.)| ~ (as sth.) to stop doing your job, especially because you have reached a particular

    age or because you are ill/sick; to tell sb. they must stop doing their job: [v] She was forced to

    retire early from teaching because of ill health. He is retiring next year after 30 years with the

    company. My dream is to retire to a villa in France. He has no plans to retire as editor of the

    magazine. The company’s official retiring age is 65. [vn] She was retired on medical grounds.


    2 ~ (from sth.) to stop competing during a game, race, etc., usually because you are injured: [v]

    She fell badly, spraining her ankle, and had to retire. [v-adj] He retired hurt in the first five

    minutes of the game.


    3 (formal) to leave a place, especially to go somewhere quieter or more private: The jury retired to

    consider the evidence. After dinner he likes to retire to his study. OF ARMY

    4 [v] (formal) to move back from a battle in order to organize your soldiers in a different way


    5 [v] (literary) to go to bed: I retired late that evening.


    6 [vn] to make a player or team have to stop their turn at batting: He retired twelve batters in a row.



    外研高中五册 Module5教学资源Section3Words and Expressions ;2点;

    1 [vn] to do sth., such as a piece of work, task or duty carry out: to perform an experiment / a

    miracle / a ceremony She performs an important role in our organization. This operation has never been performed in this country. A computer can perform many tasks at once. 2 to

    entertain an audience by playing a piece of music, acting in a play, etc.: [vn] to perform

    somersaults / magic tricks The play was first performed in 1987. I’d like to hear it performed live. [v] to perform on the flute I’m looking forward to seeing you perform. 3 [v] ~ (well /

    badly / poorly) to work or function well or badly: The engine seems to be performing well. The

    company has been performing poorly over the past year. If Owen performs (= performs well) then I believe England can win. She performed less well in the second test. see miracle background



    1 [C] the details of a person’s family, education, experience etc.: a person’s family / social /

    cultural / educational / class background The job would suit someone with a business background. In spite of their very different backgrounds, they immediately became friends. PAST

    2 [C, usually sing., U] the circumstances or past events which help explain why sth. is how it is; information about these: the historical background to the war background information / knowledge The elections are taking place against a background of violence. Can you give me more background on the company?


    3 [C, usually sing.] the part of a picture, photograph or view behind the main objects, people, etc.: a photograph with trees in the backgroundcompare foreground


    4 [sing.] a position in which people are not paying attention to sb./sth. or not as much attention as they are paying to sb./sth. else: He prefers to remain in the background and let his assistant talk to the press. A piano tinkled gently in the background. background music There was a lot of background noise (= that you could hear, but were not listening to).


    5 [C, usually sing.] a colour or design on which sth. is painted, drawn, etc.: The name of the

    company is written in red on a white background.

    in the background (computing) (of a computer program) not being used at the present time and appearing on the screen behind programs that are being used



    1 a type of product made by a particular company: Which brand of toothpaste do you use? (BrE)

    You pay less for the supermarket’s own brand. (NAmE) You pay less for the store brand. brand loyalty (= the tendency of customers to continue buying the same brand) Champagne houses owe their success to brand image. the leading brand of detergent 2 a particular type or kind

    of sth.: an unorthodox brand of humour I don’t think Bertha would appreciate your particular brand of sympathy. 3 a mark made with a piece of hot metal, especially on farm animals to show who owns them

    v. [often passive]

    1 ~ sb. (as) sth. to describe sb. as being sth. bad or unpleasant, especially unfairly: [vn] They were

    外研高中五册 Module5教学资源Section3Words and Expressions ;2点;

    branded as liars and cheats. [vn-n] The newspapers branded her a hypocrite. [also vn-adj]

    2 [vn] ~ sth. (with sth.) to mark an animal with a brand n. (3) to show who owns it advantage

    n. [C, U]

    1 ~ (over sb.) a thing that helps you to be better or more successful than other people: a big / great

    / definite advantage Being tall gave him an advantage over the other players. an unfair advantage (= sth. that benefits you, but not your opponents) She had the advantage of a good education. Is there any advantage in getting there early? You will be at an advantage (= have an advantage) if you have thought about the interview questions in advance. companies seeking competitive advantage over their trading rivals 2 a quality of sth. that makes it better or more

    useful: A small car has the added advantage of being cheaper to run. the advantages of living in a small town Each of these systems has its advantages and disadvantages. 3 (in tennis) the

    first point scored after a score of 40-40: Advantage Roddick.

    be / work to your advantage to give you an advantage; to change a situation in a way that gives you an advantage: It would be to your advantage to attend this meeting. Eventually, the new regulations will work to our advantage.

    take advantage of sth./sb. 1 to make use of sth. well; to make use of an opportunity: She took

    advantage of the children’s absence to tidy their rooms. We took full advantage of the hotel

    facilities. 2 to make use of sb./sth. in a way that is unfair or dishonest exploit: He took

    advantage of my generosity (= for example, by taking more than I had intended to give). to (good / best) advantage in a way that shows the best of sth.: The photograph showed him to

    advantage. May was the month to see the garden to best advantage.

    turn sth. to your advantage to use or change a bad situation so that it helps you: Every magician

    has a trick that goes wrong, but you can turn this to your advantage by pretending it was deliberate and making the audience laugh.

    v. [vn]

    (formal) to put sb. in a better position than other people or than they were in before guarantee


    1 a firm promise that you will do sth. or that sth. will happen assurance: to give a guarantee of

    good behaviour He gave me a guarantee that it would never happen again. They are demanding certain guarantees before they sign the treaty. 2 a written promise given by a

    company that sth. you buy will be replaced or repaired without payment if it goes wrong within a particular period warranty: We provide a 5-year guarantee against rust. The watch is still under guarantee. The television comes with a year’s guarantee. a money-back guarantee


    1 to promise to do sth.; to promise sth. will happen: [vn] Basic human rights, including freedom of

    speech, are now guaranteed. [v (that)] We cannot guarantee (that) our flights will never be delayed. [vnn] The ticket will guarantee you free entry. [v to inf] We guarantee to deliver your goods within a week. 2 [vn] ~ sth. (against sth.) to give a written promise to replace or repair a product free if it goes wrong: This iron is guaranteed for a year against faulty workmanship.


    n. (formal)

    1 [U, C] the act or process of buying sth.: to make a purchase (= buy sth.) Keep your receipt as

    外研高中五册 Module5教学资源Section3Words and Expressions ;2点;

    proof of purchase. 2 [C] something that you have bought: major purchases, such as a new car

    If you are not satisfied with your purchase we will give you a full refund. 3 [U, sing.] (technical)

    a firm hold on sth. with the hands or feet, for example when you are climbing grip: She tried to

    get a purchase on the slippery rock.

    v. [vn]

    ~ sth. (from sb.) (formal) to buy sth.: The equipment can be purchased from your local supplier. They purchased the land for $1 million. Please ensure that you purchase your ticket in advance.

    (figurative) Victory was purchased (= achieved) at too great a price. specific


    1 detailed and exact precise: I gave you specific instructions. ‘I’d like your help tomorrow.’ ‘Can you be more specific (= tell me exactly what you want)?’ 2 [usually before n.] connected

    with one particular thing only particular: children’s television programmes aimed at a specific age group The money was collected for a specific purpose. children with specific learning difficulties (= in one area only) 3 ~ to sth. (formal) existing only in one place or limited to one thing peculiar: a belief that is specific to this part of Africa



    1 ~ (of sth.) a person, an object, an event, etc. that represents a more general quality or situation:

    White has always been a symbol of purity in Western cultures. Mandela became a symbol of the anti-apartheid struggle.

    2 ~ (for sth.) a sign, number, letter, etc. that has a fixed meaning, especially in science, mathematics and music: What is the chemical symbol for copper? A list of symbols used on the map is given in the index.



    POINTS / GOALS, etc.

    1 [C] the number of points, goals, etc. scored by each player or team in a game or competition: a

    high / low score What’s the score now? The final score was 4-3. I’ll keep (the) score. A

    penalty in the last minute of the game levelled the score 2-2. 2 [C] (especially NAmE) the

    number of points sb. gets for correct answers in a test: test scores an IQ score of 120 a perfect score


    3 [C] a written or printed version of a piece of music showing what each instrument is to play or

    what each voice is to sing: an orchestral score the score of Verdi’s ‘Requiem’

    4 [C] the music written for a film/movie or play: an award for best original score


    5 [C] (pl. score) a set or group of 20 or approximately 20: Several cabs and a score of cars were

    parked outside. Doyle’s success brought imitators by the score (= very many). the biblical age of three score years and ten (= 70)


    6 scores [pl.] very many: There were scores of boxes and crates, all waiting to be checked and loaded.


    外研高中五册 Module5教学资源Section3Words and Expressions ;2点;

    7 [C] a cut in a surface, made with a sharp tool


    8 the score [sing.] (informal) the real facts about the present situation: What’s the score? You

    don’t have to lie to me. I know the score.

    on that / this score as far as that/this is concerned: You don’t have to worry on that score.



    1 to win points, goals, etc. in a game or competition: [v] Fraser scored again in the second half. [vn] to score a goal / try / touchdown / victory 2 [v] to keep a record of the points, goals, etc. won in a game or competition: Who’s going to score? 3 to gain marks in a test or an exam: [vn]

    She scored 98% in the French test. [v] Girls usually score highly in language exams. 4 [vn] to

    give sth./sb. a particular number of points: The tests are scored by psychologists. Score each criterion on a scale of 1 to 5. a scoring system 5 [vn] to be worth a particular number of points: Each correct answer will score two points.


    6 to succeed; to have an advantage: [vn] The army continued to score successes in the south. [v] She’s scored again with her latest blockbuster. Bicycles score over other forms of transport in



    7 [vn] [usually passive] ~ sth. (for sth.) to arrange a piece of music for one or more musical

    instruments or for voices: The piece is scored for violin, viola and cello. The director invited him

    to score the movie (= write the music for it).


    8 [vn] to make a cut or mark on a surface: Score the card first with a knife.


    9 [v] ~ (with sb.) (slang) (especially of a man) to have sex with a new partner: Did you score last



    10 [vn, v] (slang) to buy or get illegal drugs

    score a point / points (off / against / over sb.) = score off sb.

    score off sb. [no passive] (especially BrE) to show that you are better than sb., especially by

    making clever remarks, for example in an argument: He was always trying to score off his teachers.

    score sth. out / through to draw a line or lines through sth.: Her name had been scored out on the list.



    1 [only before n.] being or happening at the end of a series of events, actions, statements, etc.: his

    final act as party leader The referee blew the final whistle. The project is in its final stages.

    They find each other in the final chapter of the book. I’d like to return to the final point you

    made. 2 [only before n.] being the result of a particular process: the final product No one could have predicted the final outcome.


    1 [C] the last of a series of games or competitions in which the winner is decided: She reached the

    外研高中五册 Module5教学资源Section3Words and Expressions ;2点;

    final of the 100m hurdles. The players met in last year’s final. the 2006 World Cup Finals (= the last few games in the competition) They will now go through to the final. The winner of each contest goes through to the grand final. 2 finals [pl.] (BrE) the last exams taken by

    university students at the end of their final year: to sit / take your finals


    n. (pl. -ies)

    1 [U, C] the standard of sth. when it is compared to other things like it; how good or bad sth. is: to

    be of good / poor / top quality goods of a high quality high-quality goods a decline in water quality When costs are cut product quality suffers. Their quality of life improved dramatically when they moved to France. 2 [U] a high standard excellence: contemporary writers of quality

    We aim to provide quality at reasonable prices. Get it right, even if it takes time; it’s quality not quantity that matters.


    1 [only before n.] used especially by people trying to sell goods or services to say that sth. is of a high quality: We specialize in quality furniture. quality service at a competitive price 2 (BrE, slang) very good: ‘What was the film like?’ ‘Quality!’


    adj. [only before n.]

    1 happening at the end of a long process final: our ultimate goal / aim / objective / target We

    will accept ultimate responsibility for whatever happens. The ultimate decision lies with the parents.

    2 most extreme; best, worst, greatest, most important, etc.: This race will be the ultimate test of

    your skill. Silk sheets are the ultimate luxury. Nuclear weapons are the ultimate deterrent.

    3 from which sth. originally comes basic, fundamental: the ultimate truths of philosophy and

    science We could not trace the ultimate source of the rumours.

    n. [sing.]

    the ~ in sth. (informal) the best, most advanced, greatest, etc. of its kind: the ultimate in modern



    n. /prtest; NAmE pro/

    [U, C] ~ (against sth.) the expression of strong disagreement with or opposition to sth.; a statement or an action that shows this: The director resigned in protest at the decision. She accepted the charge without protest. The workers staged a protest against the proposed changes in their contracts. The building work will go ahead, despite protests from local residents. The riot began as a peaceful protest.

    under protest unwillingly and after expressing disagreement: She wrote a letter of apology but

    only under protest.

    v. /prtest; NAmE also pro/

    1 ~ (about / against / at sth.) to say or do sth. to show that you disagree with or disapprove of sth., especially publicly: [v] Students took to the streets to protest against the decision. The victim’s widow protested at the leniency of the sentence. There’s no use protesting, I won’t change my mind. [vn] (NAmE) They fully intend to protest the decision. 2 to say firmly that sth. is true,

    especially when you have been accused of sth. or when other people do not believe you: [vn] She

    has always protested her innocence. [v that] He protested that the journey was too far by car.

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