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     The Old Man and the Sea is one of Hemingway's most enduring works. Told in language of great simplicity and power, it is the story of an old Cuban fisherman, down on his luck, and his supreme ordeal——a relentless, agonizing battle with a giant marlin

    far out in the Gulf Stream. Here Hemingway recasts, in strikingly contemporary style, the classic theme of courage in the face of defeat, of personal triumph won from los. Written in 1952, this hugely successfully novella confirmed his power and presence in the literary world and played a huge part in his winning the 1954 Nobel Prize for Literature

     The Old Man and the Sea is a novella (just over 100 pages in length) by Ernest Hemingway, written in Cuba in 1951 and published in 1952. It was the last major work of fiction to be produced by Hemingway and published in his lifetime. It is noteworthy in twentieth century fiction, reaffirming Hemingway's worldwide literary prominence as well as being a significant factor in his selection for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. Background and publication?Most people maintain that the years

    following Hemingway's publication of For Whom the Bell Tolls in 1940 until 1952 were the bleakest in his literary career. The novel Across the River and Into the Trees (1950) was almost unanimously disparaged by critics as self-parody. Evidently his participation as an Allied correspondent in World War II did not yield fruits equivalent to those wrought of his experiences in World War I (A Farewell to Arms, 1929) or the Spanish Civil War (For Whom the Bell Tolls). Inspiration for character?

    Gregorio Fuentes is one possible model for Hemingway's eponymous "Old Man. While

    Hemingway was living in Cuba beginning in 1940 with his third wife Martha Gellhorn, one of his favorite pastimes was to sail and fish in his boat, named the Pilar. General biographical consensus holds that the model for Santiago in The Old Man and the Sea was, at least in part, the Cuban fisherman Gregorio Fuentes. Fuentes, also known as Goyo to his friends, was born in 1897 on Lazaretto in the Canary Islands, migrated to Cuba when he was six years old and met Hemingway there in 1928. In the 1930s, Hemingway hired him to look after his boat. During Hemingway's Cuban years a strong friendship formed between Hemingway and Fuentes. For almost thirty years, Fuentes served as the captain of the Pilar; this included time during which Hemingway did not live in Cuba. Fuentes at times would admit that the story was not exactly about him. He related that the true inspiration of the old man and the boy did exist but they never knew who they were. The story goes that in the late 1940s, upon return from an early morning fishing trip, Fuentes and Hemingway saw a small rowboat 10 miles out to sea. Hemingway asked Fuentes to approach the vessel to see if they needed help. Inside the boat was an old man and a boy. As the vessels closed in the old man began yelling at them with insults

     including telling them to go to hell, indicating that they had scared away the fish. According to Fuentes, he and Hemingway looked at each other in surprise. Just the same, Hemingway asked Fuentes to lower them some food and drinks while the old man and boy glared at them. Without another word exchanged, the two boats parted ways. According to Fuentes, Hemingway began immediately to write in his notebook and later

    asked him to find the old man. According to Fuentes, he never was able to find the fisherman that had made such an impression on Hemingway. Fuentes recounts that this was the real origin of the lore. A few years after The Old Man and the Sea was published, residents of Cojimar believed that the old fisherman that Fuentes and Hemingway ran into at sea was a humble local fisherman they called el Viejo Miguel; some described his physical appearance as a wiry Spencer Tracy. Fuentes, suffering from cancer, died in 2002; he was 104 years old. Prior to his death, he donated Hemingway's Pilar to the Cuban government. Hemingway had initially planned to use Santiago's story, which became The Old Man and the Sea, as part of a random intimacy between mother and son and also the fact of relationships that cover most of the book relate to the Bible, which he referred to as "The Sea Book." (He also referred to the Bible as the "Sea of Knowledge" and other such things.) Some aspects of it did appear in the posthumously published Islands in the Stream. Positive feedback he received for On the Blue Water (Esquire, April 1936) led him to rewrite it as an independent work. The book is a novella because it has no chapters or parts and is slightly longer than a short story. The novella first appeared, in its 26,500-word entirety, as part of the September 1, 1952 edition of Life magazine. 5.3 million copies of that issue were sold within two days. The majority of concurrent criticism was positive, although some dissenting criticism has since emerged. The title was misprinted on the cover of an early edition as The Old Men and the Sea [edit] Plot summary The Old Man and the Sea recounts an epic battle between an old, experienced fisherman and a giant marlin said to be the largest catch of his life. It opens by explaining that the fisherman, who is named Santiago, has gone 84 days without catching any fish at all. He is apparently so unlucky that his young apprentice, Manolin, has been forbidden by his parents to sail with the old man and been ordered to fish with more successful fishermen. Still dedicated to the old man, however, the boy visits Santiago's shack each night, hauling back his fishing gear, feeding him and discussing American baseball most notably

    Santiago's idol, Joe DiMaggio. Santiago tells Manolin that on the next day, he will venture far out into the Gulf to fish, confident that his unlucky streak is near its end.

     Thus on the eighty-fifth day, Santiago sets out alone, taking his skiff far into the Gulf. He sets his lines and, by noon of the first day, a big fish that he is sure is a marlin takes his bait. Unable to pull in the great marlin, Santiago instead finds the fish pulling his skiff. Two days and two nights pass in this manner, during which the old man bears the tension of the line with his body. Though he is wounded by the struggle and in pain, Santiago expresses a compassionate appreciation for his adversary, often referring to him as a brother. He also determines that because of the fish's great dignity, no one will be worthy of eating the marlin. On the third day of the ordeal, the fish begins to circle the skiff, indicating his tiredness to the old man. Santiago, now completely worn out and almost in delirium, uses all the strength he has left in him to pull the fish onto its side and stab the marlin with a harpoon, thereby ending the long battle between the old man and the tenacious fish. Santiago straps the marlin to his skiff and heads home, thinking about the high price the fish will bring him at the market and how many people he will feed. While Santiago

    continues his journey back to the shore, sharks are attracted to the trail of blood left by the marlin in the water. The first, a great mako shark, Santiago kills with his harpoon, losing that weapon in the process. He makes a new harpoon by strapping his knife to the end of an oar to help ward off the next line of sharks; in total, five sharks are slain and many others are driven away. But by night, the sharks have almost devoured the marlin's entire carcass, leaving a skeleton consisting mostly of its backbone, its tail and its head, the latter still bearing the giant spear. The old man castigates himself for sacrificing the marlin. Finally reaching the shore before dawn on the next day, he struggles on the way to his shack, carrying the heavy mast on his shoulder. Once home, he slumps onto his bed and enters a very deep sleep. A group of fishermen gathers the next day around the boat where the fish's skeleton is still attached. One of the fishermen measures it to be eighteen feet from nose to tail. Tourists at the nearby café mistakenly take it for a shark. Manolin, worried

    during the old man's endeavor, cries upon finding him safe asleep. The boy brings him newspapers and coffee. When the old man wakes, they promise to fish together once again. Upon his return to sleep, Santiago dreams of lions on the African beach.

     The Old Man and the Sea is written according to a true fact. After the Second World War, Hemingway immigrated into Cuba; there he was acquainted with an old Cuban fisherman. In 1930, Hemingway came across a hurricane on a boat; fortunately the fisherman saved him, after that, they often went to fishing together. In 1936, the old fisherman caught a big fish. The fish was so big that it spent a long time to be brought back, after it was brought back; there was only a giant skeleton to be left. Hemingway was

     very interesting in this story, and he realized that it was an excellent novel material. In 1950, Hemingway began to writer this novel. In the early of 1951 it was finished, and there were just eight weeks spent in all. After a short time it was published. Hemingway himself accounted that this novel is his best work in his literary creation. When this work was finished, Hemingway was over 50 years old; He has experienced the two World Wars and witnessed the collapse and depravity of western traditional culture. Now he was an old man, just like Santiago. No matter how ambitious he was, he was old and not as strong as his youth. This was life, and nobody could change it. With this work Hemingway expressed his tragic thought through his seemly tough style. Chapter ? Analysis about The Old Man and the Sea As the quintessence of Hemingways works, The Old Man and the Sea has great influence in the world literary works. The figure of this work is the concentrate of Hemingways lifetime. Everything

    in the work means many things, and has its different symbolism. As we go deeper through the work, the tragic color of it becomes more obvious.

     从《老人与海》论海明威的 ——————悲剧思想 ——————悲剧思想

     Acknowledgements? Here, I want to thank you all the people who help me in the writing of this paper, especially my supervisor Miss Li Hong, who gives me a lot of generous suggestions and advice, without her help I cant finish this paper completely.

    I am also grateful to my roommates for their many useful resources and materials. Due to their help, I can complete this paper smoothly. At the same time, I want to express my thank-you to my family and my friends for giving me much encouragement.

     Abstract?Ernest Hemingway stands out as one of the worlds prominent novelist.

    His work, The Old Man and the Sea, which is his climax of literary creation, is accounted as his best work in his lifetime. It is so successful that it has drawn different numerous criticisms. It is greatly acknowledged that the main theme of the work is grace under pressure. Through Hemingways Iceberg theory and the symbolism

    of the work, well find that this work is overwhelmed with two seemly contradictory aspects, an old mans estimable spirit but pitiable destiny, from which we can easily realize the tragic thought that the author expressed. So, with the help of the analysis of his The Old Man and the Sea, this paper will profoundly probe Hemingways tragic

    thought.

     Key Words: The Old Man and the Sea, Tragic Thought, Symbolism, Iceberg Theory

     要?海明威作为世界上享有盛名的小说家)他的作品《老人与海》被认为是他一生中

    的巅峰之作)也 是他一生中的最得意之作。《老人与海》作为一部成功之作)评论界对其各

    抒己见。“重压下的优雅”是文 章塑造的主要人物形象。本文透过海明威的“冰山理论”以

    及他在这部作品中所运用的象征手法)去发现这 部作品却充满着看似矛盾的两个方面)即一

    位老人的令人敬仰的精神和他可悲的命运。从这两个方面我们 会清楚的意识到这部作品所展

    现给人们的悲剧思想。所以本文将通过对海名威的《老人与海》分析来深层 次地探索这部作

    品的悲剧思想。 关键词? 老人与海, 悲剧思想, 象征手法, 冰山理论 Chapter?

    Introduction 1.1 Brief Introduction to The Old Man and the Sea As we know, Ernest Hemingway is a very prominent writer in the history of American literature. He is considered as one of the most influential part of the Lost Generation.(Hu Yintong

    2001:224) That name was created by Gertrude Stein. Lost Generation are those who

    are accounted to be cut off from American old values and yet unable to come to terms with the new era.(ChangYaoxin 1990:296) When the United States entered the Second World War, Hemingway covered the land fighting in Europe, where he was nicknamed Papa

    by the new generation of fighting men. Because of his excellent works and great

    devotion to the world literature, he is very influential in the world. The Old Man and the Sea is commonly considered as the climax of Hemingways literary creation,

    and Hemingway himself accounted it as his best work in his lifetime. It is certainly more superior to his other excellent works. With The Old Man and the Sea Hemingway quickly bounded into favor, and with it he won the 1953 Pulitzer Prize. In 1954, Hemingway received the Swedish Academys Nobel Prize for literature for his powerful

    style-forming mastery of the art of modern narration, as most recently evidenced in The Old Man and the Sea. 1.2 The Purpose of this Paper Because of what have been mentioned, The Old Man and the Sea has drawn numerous different criticisms. Different people have different comments. It is greatly accepted that the main theme of this work is: human being should be graceful under pressure which is the essence of Hemingways definition of guts, but some literary critics centre much around the image of the hero of this workSantiago, such as his mode of act, his inner heart, his value, etc. As one of the most perfect representative of Code Hero in Hemingway

    s works, the image of Santiago certainly should be paid attention to. In my paper, however, Santiago was discussed as an undoubted tragic figure, but his estimable pitiable spirit. And if we go deeper into this story, well learn the tragic thought

     Hemingway depicted to us in this work. So this paper was written for exploring

the tragic thought of this work through the analysis of it.

     Chapter? Literature Review Because of Hemingways unique writing style and The

    Old Man and the Seas well-known position in the world literary, the author and his this work have been attracting much comments. But different people have different comments and everyone has his or her own opinion: Hu Yintong said: The Hemingway

    s man was a mans man. He was a man involved in a great deal of drinking. He was a man who moved from one love affair to another, who participated in wild game hunting, who enjoyed buff fight, who was involved in all of the so-called manly activities which the typical American male did not participate in. Such a hero usually is an average man of decidedly masculine tastes, sensitive, and intelligent. What have

    been mentioned above is about Hemingways characters peculiarity. As the climax

    of Hemingways literary creation and his best work in his lifetime, The Old Man and the Sea enjoys high reputation in the world literary. Certainly the work itself has great profound meaning in many aspects. Hu Tiesheng once mentioned, The Old Man

    and the Sea has made the code hero to its climax. The old man got nothing for

    eight-four days, and adversity was the roadblock in front of him. At the very beginning of the work, the old man was put into a embarrassment. But instead of giving up, he encouraged himself to go far out the sea lonely, and just as he expected, he fished a giant marline he did not see ever. The next happened was his despairing struggle against the marline, this was another test the old man came across. And the climax of test is the old mans fight against the sharks. The old man suffered from all misfortunate, such as old age, poor strength, poorness, loneliness and so on. But what courageous is he did not lose heart, on the contrary, he showed readers his indomitable spirit. This code hero Hemingway depicted came from true life, and

    it is greatly related to Hemingways experiences. In some extent, the code hero

    is the portrayal of Hemingway himself. Through the portrayal of the old man, Hemingway told us that men are always struggle for their happiness, for things that is worthy working hard, but that is not certain to be successful; they obviously will come across misfortunate and failure. Although it is doomed, a man who has the ability to gain day-to-day achievement and knows how to keep win is not disappointed after suffering failure. Instead, they go on fighting, just like the old man. So the result is obvious: spiritual triumph is more important than physical success, which is also one of the Hemingways ethical principles. Another scholar Wu Ran thought that: This work

    concentrates all misfortunate and peoples

     view of adversity on the story of fishing. As a matter of fact, the tragedy of this story doesnt depend on the old mans sacrifice to fishing, but for that

    individual strength is doomed to fail.

     Chapter ? Writing Background of this Novel The Old Man and the Sea is written according to a true fact. After the Second World War, Hemingway immigrated into Cuba; there he was acquainted with an old Cuban fisherman. In 1930, Hemingway came across a hurricane on a boat; fortunately the fisherman saved him, after that, they often went to fishing together. In 1936, the old fisherman caught a big fish. The fish was so big that it spent a long time to be brought back, after it was brought back; there was only a giant skeleton to be left. Hemingway was very interesting in this story,

    and he realized that it was an excellent novel material. In 1950, Hemingway began to writer this novel. In the early of 1951 it was finished, and there were just eight weeks spent in all. After a short time it was published. Hemingway himself accounted that this novel is his best work in his literary creation. When this work was finished, Hemingway was over 50 years old; He has experienced the two World Wars and witnessed the collapse and depravity of western traditional culture. Now he was an old man, just like Santiago. No matter how ambitious he was, he was old and not as strong as his youth. This was life, and nobody could change it. With this work Hemingway expressed his tragic thought through his seemly tough style. Chapter ? Analysis

    about The Old Man and the Sea As the quintessence of Hemingways works, The Old Man

    and the Sea has great influence in the world literary works. The figure of this work is the concentrate of Hemingways lifetime. Everything in the work means many things, and has its different symbolism. As we go deeper through the work, the tragic color of it becomes more obvious. 4.1 Santiagos Estimable Spirit Santiago, the hero of

    The Old Man and the Sea, is a typical representative of The Image of the Code Hero,

    which is Hemingways works main theme. The clear sign of The Image of the Code

    Hero is: The world wants to strike down every one in the world, but most of them are staunch; and the world eagerly wants to kill the brave, the kindhearted and the merciful. The Code Hero is one who stands up to the hardship. (Hu Tiesheng 1994:84

    my translation) 4.1.1 Faithfulness In The Old Man and the Sea, the heroSantiago first is put in an embarrassing condition: He was an old man who in a skiff in the Gulf

    Stream and he had gone eightfour days without taking a fish.(Ernest Hemingway

    2005:1) But what the worst thing is his best company, the boy, leave him at his parents` order in another boat which took three good fish the first week. Although encounters so much adversity, Santiago doesnt lose heart, he has his own faith:

     He hasnt much faith. No, the old man said, but we have. Havent we?

    (Ernest Hemingway 2005:2) 4.1.2 Self-confidence Although he is old, and all misfortune comes to him, Santiago is self-confident. He doesnt give away; on the

    contrary, he is self-confident, just as Hemingway described: I am a strange old

    man. But are you strong enough now for a truly big fish? "I think so. And there

    are many tricks. (Ernest Hemingway 2005:4) 4.1.3 Ambitions As we read on, we

    ll be deeply impressed by the old mans ambitions: Fish, he said softly, aloud,

     Ill stay with you until I am dead.(Ernest Hemingway 2005:28) As the

    representative of Code Hero, Santiago is masculine, sensitive and intelligent

    those characteristics are Hemingway heroes have. 4.1.4 Masculinity In the work there are many evidences show that Santiago is a masculine man: they were strange shoulders,

    still powerful although very old, and the neck was still strong too and the creases did not show, so much when the old man was asleep and his head fallen forward. (Ernest

    Hemingway 2005:7) 4.1.5 Sensitivity The Hemingway man was a man `s man, (Hu Yintong

    2001:226) he is not only masculine but also sensitive. Santiago is one of those men, he likes birds and he is also very fond of flying fish as they were his principal friends on the ocean. He speaks to the creatures. He always think of the sea as

    La man which is what people call her in Spanish when they love her, (Ernest Hemingway

    200514) and he likes baseball. He enjoys the beautiful scene on the ocean. 4.1.6

    Intelligence At the same time, he is intelligent. This can be learned from his words: I may not be as strong as I think. The old man said, But I know many tricks

    and I have resolution (Ernest Hemingway 2005:10) Maybe if I can increase the

    tension just a little, it will hurt him and he will jump, he thought. Now that it is daylight let him jump and then he cannot go deep to die (Ernest Hemingway 2005:28)

    Even though eightfour days without a fish, loneliness, hunger, thirst and so on, all misfortunate comes to him, Santiago does not lose heart, he is determined to go far out the and finally he hooks a big fish that he ever did not see, and he killed it. With his faith he defeated different numerous sharks. From above, the image of the Code Hero stands up in face of us; he is self-con-

     fident, ambitious and indomitable. In our inner heart he is estimable. 4.2 Santiagos Pitiable Destiny The tragic ending is destined at the very beginning. After reading the story, we can easily know that Santiago gets nothing but a useless skeleton after a solitary, despairing struggle. From beginning of the work we can learn that the tragic destiny of the old man is foreshadowed. The first impression in front of us is his hardship: he is old, fishing alone in a skiff and without taking a fish for eightfour days. Because of his misfortune the boy has gone at his parents

    order in another boat that catches three good fishes the first week. And his sail

    is patched with flour sacks and, furled; it looked like the flag of permanent defeat.

    (Ernest Hemingway 2005: 1). And he is thin and gaunt; there are batches on his face, and deep-creased scars on his hands. They were as old as erosions in a fishless

    desert. (Ernest Hemingway 2005: 1) His wife has gone when he was young, just left him relics. He has no sons and daughters, making his life only by fishing. In his home, there is only one bed, one chair, one table, and a place on the dirt floor

    to kook with charcoal (Ernest Hemingway 2005:5). There was no net, no pot of yellow

    rice and fish, and his shirt had been patched so many times that it was like the sail and patches were faded to many different shades by the sun. (Ernest Hemingway 2005:

    7) He has suffered from failure, hunger, loneliness and being despised by other fishermen. All of these can remind us a sense of tragic sense He is alone so that he needs somebody to chat with. He needs help from others. When the fish moved steadily and traveled slowly on the calm water, Santiago cant raise it an inch. And there

    is nothing can be done except being towed by the giant fish. At that time, he hopes the boy would be there by his side. But he just can say it to himself aloud: I wish

    I had the boy. To help me and to see this. No one should be alone in their old

    age, he thought. But it is unavoidable. (Ernest Hemingway 2005:25) The boy isn

    t there, he has only himself and has to work back to the last line, in the dark or not in the dark, and cut it away and hook up the two reserve coils. The fish is so big that the old man is unable to control it. Blood runs down his cheek, his left hand cramps. Hungry, thirst, loneliness, tiredness, all these misfortune comes to him, but he has nothing to do except enduring. At last, when the sharks attack the fish, there is no weapon to use, and his body is still and sore, his wounds and

    all off the strained parts of his body hurt with the cold night. (Ernest Hemingway

    2005: 65) He is so tired that he doesnt want to struggle again, this can be proved:

    I hope I do not have to fight again, he thought. I hope so much I do not have to

    fight again. (Ernest Hemingway 2005: 65) Finally he has to acknowledge that he is beaten, just like he says: They beat me Manolin, he said. They truly beat me.

    (Ernest Hemingway 2005: 65) From this story we can easily find that the old man

    s failure is doomed. Though he killed

     marline, drove away the sharks, but at last, he just got a giant skeleton. A giant skeleton is useless. There is nothing left, fish trap, knife, killing lance, but a pitiable man. According to above we can easily get a result that though Santiago is old, lonely, he doesnt give up. He strives hardly. But the result is: he is defeated, just as he says: they truly beat me. This is the old mans tragic destiny. 4.3

    Writing Style It is known that Hemingway is famous for his writing style. In 1917, Hemingway worked as a cub reporter for the Kansas City Star. The newspapers style

    asked reporters to avoid the use of adjectives, especially such extravagant ones, as splendid, gorgeous, grand, magnificent, etc., and urged short sentences, short

    first paragraphs, and vigorous English . (Hu Yintong 2001:223) At this time

    Hemingway began to develop his own writing style which eventually became distinctive

    and which has influenced scores of contemporary writes. (Hu Yintong 2001:223) 4.3.1

    Simplicity of Hemingways Language in the Work Among all his works, The Old Man and the Sea is the most typical one to his unique language style. Its language is simple and natural, and has the effect of directness, clarity and freshness. This is because Hemingway always manages to choose words concrete, specific, more commonly found, more Anglo-Saxon, casual an conversational. He seldom uses adjectives, abstract nouns, and avoids complicated sentence. Lets look at some sentences from his The Old Man

    and the Sea: What do you have to eat? The boy asked, Do you want me to make

    the fire? No, I will make it late on. Or I may eat the rice cold.(Ernest Hemingway

    2005:5) 4.3.2 Suggestion and Connotation Though Hemingways words are simple and

    short, but lets be clear-headed, his style is never as natural as it seems to be. It can be proved by the follow sentences: You` re my alarm clock, the boy said.

    Age is my alarm clock„” I can remember it, the old man said. (Ernest Hemingway

    2005:5) The simple sentences and the repeated rhythms hit at the profundities that the surface of the language tries to ignore. Its simplicity is highly suggestive and connotative. This can be explained from Hemingways Iceberg Theory: If a writer

    of the prose knows enough about what he is writing about, he may omit things that he knows and the readers, if the writer is writing truly enough, will have a feeling of those things as strongly as though the writer had stated them, the dignity of movement of an iceberg is due to only one-eight of it being above water. Authors seldom express his feelings directly. He just tells about 1/8 of the iceberg above water, and readers can feel the suggestive and connotative meanings from 7/8 of .

     iceberg under water. As Hemingway said, I tried to make a real old man, a real sea and a real shark. But if I made a good man and true enough they may mean many things. In The Old Man and the Sea, fishing is the core of this novels action. But

    to Santiago, fishing is not as simple of contest in life, but his faith, his life

    s goal or other things, in a word, it has profound meaning. So the simplicity of this novel is highly suggestive and connotative. 4.4 Symbolism 4.4.1Definition of Symbolism From Oxford Dictionary, symbolism means: use of symbols to represent

things, esp. in art and literature. With symbolism, authors can tell readers about

    what they do not write down directly in their works, in turn, readers also can feel authors suggestive and connotative meanings from what the authors write down. According to symbolism, one thing may mean many things. In The Old Man and the Sea, symbolism is extensively used. 4.4.2 Symbolic Meanings for the Things in The Old Man and the Sea Hemingway once said, I tried to make a real old man, a real sea and

    real sharks, But if I made a good man and true enough they may mean many things.

    As a matter of fact, everything in The Old Man and the Sea has its symbolic meaning. The old man is the symbol of the whole human being; he is also the symbol of the strength of the human being. Ocean, marline, sharks, flying fish and so on symbolize the nature. In some extent, ocean means complicated society, marline means lifes ideal and goal,

    sharks symbolize evil and misfortune. Fishing symbolize lifes travel, the boy and

    the lions which the old man dreams not only mean the strength and youth, but also courage and hope. Before Santiago going far out the sea he no longer dreams of storms,

    nor of women, nor of great occurrences, nor of great fish, nor fights, nor contests of strength, nor of his wife. He only dreams of places now and of the lions on the beach.(Ernest Hemingway, 2005:11) At that time the old man needs courage and strength, so he dreams of lions. On the ocean he wishes the boy were beside him for several times and he dreams of lions more than one time, this symbolize his expectation for help, youth and strength as he is aware of his loneliness and old age. His patched sail looks like the flag of permanent defeat that symbolizes that the old is doomed to fail The struggle between the old man and the sea is the conflict between man and the cruel society. His words But a man is not made for defeat. A man can be

    destroyed but not defeated, (Ernest Hemingway 2005:57) means human being `s

    indomitable spirit. The spirit is estimable. But individual strength is not enough to struggle against the nature; individual hard work is doomed to be a failure, which is pitiable. This is the root of the old mans tragic destiny. 4.5 Hemingways Tragic

    Thought

     4.5.1 From His Life Environment Actually, Ernest Hemingways tragic thought

    shaped in his early time. He has experienced the two World Wars which brought about destruction of monetary, inflation, taxes, and chaotic industrial output. As the representative of the Lost Generation, Hemingway was totally frustrated by the two World Wars, and he found that the old values had gone. He felt depressed, just as his contemporaries. So in his works, death and War comprise a major part of his subject matter, from his In Our Time to Across the River and into the Trees. And most of his works are immersed in tragic color. 4.5.2 From The Old Man and the Sea In his The Old Man and the Sea, the old fisherman first was put in a lonely circumstance: he had no mates, no relatives, his only company, and the boy left him because of his adversity. When he struggled against the big fish, when a swarm of sharks attacked his result-of-battle, nobody helped him out but himself. From what the author described, it is can easy to get a result that at the time the author himself felt lonely and tired. In order to express his own feeling, Hemingway concentrates all

    misfortunate and peoples view of adversity on the story of fishing. As a matter of fact, the tragedy of the story doesnt depend on the old mans sacrifice to fishing,

    (Wu Ran 1989:61, my translation) but for that individual strength is doomed to fail. This is the main theme in Hemingways literary creation. When this work was finished,

    Hemingway was over 50 years old, just as the old man in the story; his youth has gone, no matter how he strives objectively, in his work, he just unfolds us his sense of tiredness, and he expresses his tragic thought through his tough style. The whole story is covered with satirical rhyme: the powerful man in the story is just an old man, and eight-four days struggle just is a giant skeleton. Finally Hemingway

    visualizes that courage and stamina shouldnt be a sense of spirit, or in other words,

    hard-works repay shouldnt be a meaningless skeleton. Mans misfortune and tragedy

    may depend on that: while you know that the winner gets nothing, but you insist on striving. Chapter ? Conclusion The Old Man and the Se comes around at the end of Hemingways writing career. With its vivid characteristics, its simple language, and the profound implicating it carries, it stands out as one of the excellent books Hemingways former stature as the worlds prominent novelist after Hemingways

    unsuccessful novel Across the River and into the Trees. From The Old Man and the Sea it can be learnt that the old man, in the face of misfortune, is determined to go far out the sea and hooks a big fish. With his indomitable spirit and despairing

    courage he killed the marline and defeated a swarm of sharks. Here, Hemingway depicted us an indomitable hero whose spirit and courage is estimable. But the work

    s simplicity is highly suggestive and connotative, individual strength is weak, no matter how hard one strives, whatever how indomitable you are. Individual hard work is doomed to fail.

     Through his style of symbolism, Iceberg theory, and contradiction Hemingway described us an alone and old mans tragic destiny. So as we go deeper into the story, we can find that, in fact, this work is overwhelmed with tragic thought. References Baker Caros, 1992, The Lost Generation [M]. Changsha: Human Peoples Publishing House.

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     About the author Ernest Miller Hemingway (1899-1960) was born in Oak Park, Illinois. His father was a successful physician with a relish for hunting and fishing. His mother was musical and sternly religious. He spent his boyhood shuttling with his family between a comfortable Chicago suburb and a remnant of the earlier frontier in the back-woods of Michigan. After high school, he eagerly sought to enlist in the

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