TESTING & SELECTION
Whereas recruitment encourages individuals to seek employment with a firm, the purpose of the selection process is to identify and employ the best-qualified individuals. Selection is the process of choosing from a group of applicants the individual best suited for a particular position and organization. A successful recruitment is crucial for successful selection. If recruitment efforts of firm fail to produce qualified applicants, the firm has no choice but to hire marginally qualified people. Some information for you guys. Do you know that: - Top performers contribute anywhere from 5 to 22 times more value to their company compare to mid-level or low performers? - A bad hire can affect the morale of the entire staff, especially in a position where teamwork is critical? - A selection failure can cost anywhere from 2 times to 5 times an employee??s annual salary?
The Selection Process (Generalized)
Eliminate those do not meet position??s requirements To see if there is an apparent match between the individual & the position To see if candidates possess required skills, knowledge (competencies) and attitudes that fit with job and company A goal-oriented conversation in which an interviewer & applicant exchange information Validations that provide additional insight into the information furnished by the applicant and allow verification of its accuracy Select those that match all the criteria
Preliminary Interview Review of Applications & Resumes Selection Test Employment Interview
Reference/ background checks Selection decision
Job offer is contingent on the applicant??s passing of this examination
1|P a g e
1. Reliability This refers to the consistency of scores obtained by the same person when retested with the identical tests or with alternative forms of the same test. It tells you if the test you used is measuring something consistently or not. Example: If a person scored 90 marks on an intelligent test on one day and scored 130 on the next
day, the test was not reliable. 2. Validity Validity tells you whether the test is measuring what it is suppose to measure. Test validity refers to the accuracy with which a test measures what it is supposed to measure.
WHY CAREFUL SELECTION IS IMPORTANT: e) Performance Your own performance depends on your subordinates. Employees with the right skills & attitudes will do a good job for you and company f) Cost It is costly & time consuming to recruit employees. The cost of hiring a manager will be even higher as it includes search fees, interview time, reference check & other expenses. g) Legal The fulfillment of the legal requirement which vary depending on countries.
For instance, you ask a candidate which apply for the position of clerk to undergo a typing test. How to help to ensure the validation of test?
Step 1: Analyze the job Specify human traits & skills that are needed by a job.
Step 2: Choose the tests Select the test which in your opinion will measure attributes/predictors that are important for job success
Example: Sales Executive Responsibilities: - Able to communicate with clients & production personnel - Able to prepare presentable reports & presentations - Able to handle pressure
The responsibilities require skills! These skills can predict success on the job.
These requirements hence become the ??predictors??!
Communication? Computer literacy skills such as the usage of words & powerpoint? Personality test?
2|P a g e
TYPE OF TESTS
There are many types of tests. However, we can concern with three main types of measure which can help us to measure the following abilities.
Mental or cognitive abilities
Physical or motor abilities
Main Types of tests
Personality & interest
Test of Mental Abilities These tests include those that measure general reasoning ability (intelligence) and tests of specific mental abilities like memory and inductive reasoning. Example: IQ TEST IQ test which test general intellectual abilities such as memory, vocabulary, verbal fluency and numerical ability. Please log in to try for a free IQ test on the internet. http://www.free-iqtest.net/
http://www.funeducation.com/Tests/IQTest/TakeTest.aspx Example: APTITUDE TEST Aptitude Test is an effective instrument to predict the work performance of a candidate. The test is beneficial in evaluating
the candidate??s ability and efficiency in acquiring knowledge relevant to the job. Aptitude means inherent or acquired ability which ease in learning or understanding. Similar to intelligence. The test measures a candidate??s ability to solve problems using logic, data interpretation and mathematical concepts. It is also used to test the candidate??s ability and understanding, as well as to evaluate their potential in executing basic administrative tasks such as planning and decisionmaking. Please log in to try for a free IQ test on the internet. http://www.funeducation.com/Tests/BusinessManagementAptitude/TakeTest.aspx
3|P a g e
Test of Physical Abilities Some test measure the applicant??s physical abilities, such as finger dexterity, speed of arm movement, and reaction time. These are test that measure physical abilities such as strength, body, coordination, and stamina. For example: Lifeguards and police officers Measuring Personality and Interest People??s mental and physical abilities are seldom enough to explain their job performance. Other factors such as motivation and interpersonal skills are also important. Employers often use personality and interest inventories to measure and predict such abilities. Example: Personality test Personality tests measure the basic concepts of an applicant??s personality such as introversion, stability and motivation. Please log in to try. http://www.41q.com/ Example: Interest inventories Interest inventories compare your interests with those of people in various occupations. These inventories have many uses. People are likely to do better in jobs that involve activities in which they are interested. Other test: Achievement Test Achievement test measure what a person has learnt. Most of the tests you take in school are achievement tests. They measure your ??job knowledge?? in areas like economics, marketing, or personnel. Work sample test This is another form of test. In work sampling technique, several tasks related to the job are chosen and applicants are tested on each. An observer records on a checklist how well the applicants perform. There are several advantages: - the technique measures actual on-the-job tasks - it is harder for applicants to fake answers - work samples are related to the job - it is fair to all applicants - these tests have better validity than most other tests in predicting performance
MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT CENTRE A management assessment centre is a two- to three day simulation exercise in which candidates perform realistic management tasks (like making presentations or problem solving) under the observation of experts who appraise each candidate??s leadership potential. Typical simulated exercises include:
4|P a g e
The in-basket exercise Candidates are given reports, memos, motes of incoming phone calls, letters, and other materials collected in the actual or computerized in-basket of the simulated job they are to take over. The candidate must take action on each item. Trained evaluators then review the candidate??s action. Leaderless group discussion Trainers give a leaderless group a discussion question and tell member??s to arrive at a group decision. They then evaluate each group member??s interpersonal skills, acceptance by the group, leadership ability and individual influence. Management games Participants solve realistic problems as members of simulated companies competing in a marketplace. They may have to decide, for instance, how to advertise and manufacture, and how much inventory to stock. The interview This interview between trainer(s) and each participant, to assess the latter??s interest, past performance, and motivation Objective test An assessment centre typically includes tests of personality, mental ability, interest and achievement Individual presentations Each participant is required to make assigned oral presentation. Trainers evaluate each participant??s communication skills and persuasiveness.
Most experts view assessment centres as an effective methods for selecting and promoting management candidates despite it involved high extra costs and take longer time. MINIATURE JOB TRAINING AND EVALUATION APPROACH In this approach, candidates are trained to perform a sample of the job??s tasks. Their performance is then measured. This approach assumes that people who demonstrate that they can learn and perform the sample tasks will be able to perform the job itself. This approach has several advantages: - It tests applicants with actual samples of the job rather than just with paper-and-pencil tests - It is ??content?? relevant - It may thus be more acceptable (and fair) to disadvantage applicants than most paper-and-pen tests Company that practice: Honda in United States hired the employees after seeing which of them did the best in the company miniature job training and evaluation program.
5|P a g e
OTHER SELECTION METHOD
Testing is only part of the selection process. Other tools may include verifying background information and reference check. EMPLOYEMENT INTERVIEW A goal-oriented conversation in which an interviewer and an applicant supposedly exchange information. Content of interview may include: - Occupational experience - Academic
achievement - Interpersonal skills - Personal qualities - Organizational fir (culture or value system) General Type of Interviews - Unstructured interview (interviewer asks probing, open-ended questions) - Structured interview (interviewer consistently presents the same series of job-related questions to each applicant for a particular job)
Structured Interview Typically contains four types of questions: a) Situational questions Pose a typical job situation to determine what the applicant did in a similar situation b) Job-knowledge questions Probe the applicant??s job related knowledge c) Job-sample simulation question Applicant is required to answer questions related to performance of a task d) Worker requirement simulation question Seek to determine if the applicants are willing to conform to requirements of job.
Methods of Interviewing One-on-One Interview Applicant meets one-on-one with an interviewer Group Interview A meeting in which several job applicants interact in the presence of one or more company representatives Board Interview A meeting in which several representatives of a company interview a candidate in one or more sessions Stress interview A form of interview that intentionally creates anxiety to determine how a job applicant will react in certain types of situations Potential Interviewing Problems Inappropriate questions Non-job related questions Premature Judgment Interviewers often make judgments about candidates in the first few minutes of the interview. When this occurs, a great deal of potentially valuable information is not considered. Interviewer Domination In interview, we are interested to know more about our candidate as well as providing information to clear whatever doubt the candidate might has. Inconsistent questions Make the judgment difficult and subject bias when the interviewer asks different candidate different questions. Halo Effect Interviewer often let only one or a few personal characteristics to influence their overall impression of candidates. Contrast effect A common mistake where an interviewer meets with several poorly qualified applicants and then confronts a mediocre candidate. By comparison, the last applicant may apper to be better qualified than he or
6|P a g e
she actually is Interviewers must understand and acknowledge their own prejudis and learn to deal with them. The only valid bias for an interviewer is to favor the best-qualified candidate for the open position. Even if an interviewer spent a week with a applicant, the sample of behavior might be too small to judge the candidate??s
qualifications properly. In addition, the candidate??s behavior during an interview is seldom typical or natural.
Background information and reference check Most employers check the job applicant??s background information and references. The objective is to verify the accuracy of factual information provided by the applicant and to uncover any missing information. If handed properly, the background check can be useful as it is inexpensive and straightforward way to verify factual information about the applicant. Medical Examination There are several reasons for having pre-employment medical exams: - Verify that the applicant meets the physical requirements of the positions, and discover any medical limitations that you should take into consideration - Establish a record and baseline of the applicant??s health for future insurance or compensation claims - By indentifying health problems, the examination can also reduce absenteeism and accidents and detect communicable disease that may be unknown to the applicant.
7|P a g e