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L10-approaches to organising people2

By Vernon Ruiz,2014-05-29 16:48
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L10-approaches to organising people2

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    pptÎĵµ?ÉÄÜÔÚWAP?Ëä?ÀÀÌåÑé???Ñ????ÒéÄúÓÅÏÈÑ?ÔñTXT???òÏÂÔØÔ?ÎÄ?þµ????ú?é????

     Approaches to organising people 2

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Planning Ahead ?ªQuestions

     What can be learned from classical management thinking? What insights come from behavioral management approaches? What are the foundations of modern management thinking?

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Study Question 1: What can be learned from classical management thinking?

     Classical approaches to management include:

     Scientific management Administrative principles Bureaucratic organization

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Figure 3.1 Major branches in the classical approach to management.

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Study Question 1: What can be learned from classical management thinking?

     Scientific management (Frederick Taylor)

     Develop rules of motion, standardized work implements, and proper working conditions for every job. Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job. Carefully train workers and provide proper incentives. Support workers by carefully planning their work and removing obstacles.

     Managing People and Organisations Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Scientific management (the Gilbreths)

     Motion study

     Science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical motions.

     Eliminating wasted motions improves performance.

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     ???û?ÍË?(Garl G.Barth 1860??1919) ÏíÀû???ÊÌØ(Henry?? L.Gantt 1861??1919) ?ª?û??À×Ë??ò?? (F.B.andL.M.G??gilbreths,1868??1924?? 1878??1972) ?þ?û?Ù????Ä?É?(Harrington Emerson 1853 ??1931) ĪÀïË????â?Ë(Morris L.Cooke,1872??1960)

     Managing People and Organisations Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Practical lessons from scientific management

     Make results-based compensation a performance incentive Carefully design jobs with efficient work methods Carefully select workers with the abilities to do these jobs Train workers to perform jobs to the best of their abilities Train supervisors to support workers so they can perform jobs to the best of their abilities

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) ?ª rules of management:

     Foresight ?ª to complete a plan of action for the future. Organization ?ª to provide and mobilize resources to implement the plan. Command ?ª to lead, select, and evaluate workers to get the best work toward the plan. Coordination ?ª to fit diverse efforts together and ensure information is shared and problems solved. Control ?ª to make sure things happen according to plan and to take necessary corrective action.

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) ?ª key principles of management:

     Scalar chain ?ª there should be a clear and unbroken line of communication from the top to the bottom of the organization. Unity of command ?ª each person should receive orders from only one boss. Unity of direction ?ª one person should be in charge of all activities with the same performance objective.

     Managing People and Organisations Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Administrative principles (Mary Parker Follett)

     Groups and human cooperation:

     Groups are mechanisms through which individuals can combine their talents for a greater good. Organizations are cooperating ??communities?? of managers and workers. Manager??s job is to help people in the organization cooperate and achieve an integration of interests.

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Administrative principles (Mary Parker Follett ÂêÀö?ÅÁ?Ë?Ü?ÀöÌØ-?Ü ÀíÑ?Ö?Ä????ÜÀíÑ?ÏÈÖª )

     Forward-looking management insights: Making every employee an owner creates a sense of collective responsibility (precursor of employee ownership, profit sharing, and gainsharing) Business problems involve a variety of inter-related factors (precursor of systems thinking) Private profits relative to public good (precursor of managerial ethics and social responsibility)

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Bureaucratic organization (Max Weber)

     Bureaucracy

     An ideal, intentionally rational, and very efficient form of organization. Based on principles of logic, order, and legitimate authority.

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Characteristics of bureaucratic organizations:

     Clear division of labor Clear hierarchy of authority Formal rules and procedures Impersonality Careers based on merit

     Possible disadvantages of bureaucracy:

     Excessive paperwork or ??red tape??(ÐÎÊ?Ö? Òå???ÙÁÅ×??ç) Slowness in handling problems Rigidity in the face of shifting needs Resistance to change Employee apathy??Àä Lectured by Tang Yalin Ä?µÄ??

     Managing People and Organisations

     Study Question 2: What insights come from the behavioral management approaches?

     Human resource approaches include:

     Hawthorne studies Maslow??s theory of human needs McGregor??s Theory X and Theory Y Argyris??s theory of adult personality

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Figure 3.2 Foundations in the behavioral or human resource approaches to management

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Hawthorne studies

     Initial study examined how economic incentives and physical conditions affected worker output. No consistent relationship found. ??Psychological factors?? influenced results.

     Managing People and Organisations Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Hawthorne studies (cont.)

     Relay assembly test-room studies

     Manipulated physical work conditions to assess impact on output. Designed to minimize the ??psychological factors?? of previous experiment. Factors that accounted for increased productivity:

     Group atmosphere Participative supervision

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Study Question 2: What insights come from the behavioral management approaches?

     Hawthorne studies (cont.)

     Employee attitudes, interpersonal relations and group processes.

     Some things satisfied some workers but not others. People restricted

output to adhere to group norms.

     Lessons from the Hawthorne Studies:

     Social and human concerns are keys to productivity. Hawthorne effect ?ª people who are singled out for special attention perform as expected.

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Study Question 2: What insights come from the behavioral management approaches?

     Maslow??s theory of human needs

     A need is a physiological or psychological deficiency a person feels compelled to satisfy. Need levels:

     Physiological Safety Social Esteem Self-actualization

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Figure 3.3 Maslow??s hierarchy of human

     needs.

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Maslow??s theory of human needs

     Deficit principle

     A satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior.

     Progression principle

     A need becomes a motivator once the preceding lower-level need is satisfied.

     Both principles cease to operate at self-actualization level.

     Managing People and Organisations Lectured by Tang Yalin

     McGregor??s Theory X assumes that workers:

     Dislike work Lack ambition Are irresponsible Resist change Prefer to be led

     McGregor??s Theory Y assumes that workers are:

     Willing to work Capable of self control Willing to accept responsibility Imaginative and creative Capable of selfdirection

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Managing People and Organisations

     Implications of Theory X and Theory Y:

     Managers create self-fulfilling prophecies. Theory X managers create situations where workers become dependent and reluctant. Theory Y managers create situations where workers respond with initiative and high performance.

     Central to notions of empowerment and self-management.

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Argyris??s theory of adult personality?ËÀïË??????ª

     ÀïË?

     Classical management principles and practices inhibit worker maturation and are inconsistent with the mature adult personality. Management practices should accommodate the mature personality by:

     Increasing task responsibility Increasing task variety Using participative decision making

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Study Question 3: What are the foundations of modern management thinking?

     Foundations for continuing developments in management

     Systems view of organizations Contingency thinking Commitment to quality and performance Learning organizations

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Systems thinking

     System

     Collection of interrelated parts that function together to achieve a common purpose.

     Subsystem

     A smaller component of a larger system.

     Open systems

     Organizations that interact with their environments in the continual process of transforming resource inputs into outputs.

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Figure 3.4 Organizations as complex networks of interacting subsystems.

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Contingency thinking

     Tries to match managerial responses with problems and opportunities unique to different situations.

     Especially individual or environmental differences.

     No ??one best way?? to manage. Appropriate way to manage depends on the situation.

     Managing People and Organisations Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Quality and performance excellence

     Managers and workers in progressive organizations are quality conscious.

     Quality and competitive advantage are linked.

     Total quality management (TQM)

     Comprehensive approach to continuous quality improvement for a total organization. Creates context for the value chain.

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Quality and performance excellence

     ISO certification

     Global quality benchmark. Refine and upgrade quality to meet ISO standards

     Continuous improvement

     Continual search for new ways to improve quality Something always can and should be improved on

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Quality and performance excellence

     Quality circle

     Small groups of workers meeting regularly to discuss quality improvement ??Circle?? assumes responsibility for quality Can result in cost savings and improved quality, customer satisfaction, and morale

     Managing People and Organisations

     Lectured by Tang Yalin

     Learning organizations

     Organizations that are able to continually learn and adapt to new circumstances. Core ingredients include:

     Mental models Personal mastery Systems thinking Shared vision Team learning

     Managing People and Organisations Lectured by Tang Yalin

??TXTÓÉ??ÎÄ?â????ÏÂÔØ:http://www.mozhua.net/wenkubao

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