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IPEC Good Manufacturing Practices Audit Guideline

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IPEC-PQG Good Manufacturing Practices Audit Guideline FOR PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENTS 2008 In the pharmaceutical industry it is the responsibility of the drug product manufacturer to ensure the quality of all starting materials and other components contained in or used in the manufacture of the final product dosage form. Through auditing the producer of pharmaceutical excipients, a user is able to determine whether adequate controls are in place to ensure the producer is capable to manufacture a product of suitable quality. The IPEC-PQG Audit Guideline (the Audit Guideline) is therefore designed as a tool to assist in evaluating the manufacturing practices and quality systems of excipient manufacturers. It is also a helpful reference to assist excipient manufacturers in meeting appropriate good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements to assure consistent product quality. The Audit Guideline is applicable whenever an excipient manufacturer or subcontractor is audited. It is intended to have international application, bearing in mind that production of pharmaceutical excipients covers a diverse range of different industries and processes which often have uses other than pharmaceutical applications. Although the audit may include other areas such as delivery logistics and order processing, the Audit Guideline is intended only to cover aspects of GMP relating to excipient manufacture. For auditing of repackagers or distributors, see the IPEC Good Distribution Practices Audit Guideline for Pharmaceutical Excipients.

    The Joint

    IPEC-PQG

     Good Manufacturing

    Practices

     Audit Guideline

    FOR

    PHARMACEUTICAL

    EXCIPIENTS

    2008

Copyright ? 2008 The International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council

    Copyright? 2008 Pharmaceutical Quality Group

    IPEC Good Manufacturing Practices Audit Guideline for

    Pharmaceutical Excipients

I. Purpose and Scope

    In the pharmaceutical industry it is the responsibility of the drug product manufacturer to ensure the quality of all starting materials and other components contained in or used in the manufacture of the final product dosage form. Through auditing the producer of pharmaceutical excipients, a user is able to determine whether adequate controls are in place to ensure the producer is capable to manufacture a product of suitable quality. The IPEC-PQG Audit Guideline (the Audit Guideline) is therefore designed as a tool to assist in evaluating the manufacturing practices and quality systems of excipient manufacturers. It is also a helpful reference to assist excipient manufacturers in meeting appropriate good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements to assure consistent product quality.

    The Audit Guideline is applicable whenever an excipient manufacturer or subcontractor is audited. It is intended to have international application, bearing in mind that production of pharmaceutical excipients covers a diverse range of different industries and processes which often have uses other than pharmaceutical applications. Although the audit may include other areas such as delivery logistics and order processing, the Audit Guideline is intended only to cover aspects of GMP relating to excipient manufacture. For auditing of repackagers or distributors, see the IPEC Good Distribution Practices Audit Guideline for Pharmaceutical

    Excipients.

II. Content and Usage

    The Joint IPEC-PQG "Good Manufacturing Practices Guide for Pharmaceutical Excipients"?2006 was

    used as the basis to construct the questions or reminder phrases contained in the Audit Guideline, and should serve as the primary source for evaluating responses provided by the auditee. The auditors should be familiar with the introduction, definitions, and general guidance that are contained within the IPEC-PQG GMP Guide, and should refer to the guide if further details are needed.

    The Audit Guideline is intended to address the foundation of the requirements, and not all of the details, necessary to manufacture excipients in compliance with applicable GMPs. It may not include all of the appropriate questions or reminder phrases for a specific audit, nor may all of the points be appropriate to every audit. As an international document, it also cannot specify all national legal requirements, nor cover in detail the particular characteristics of every excipient. However, its use is intended for individuals experienced and competent in the area of auditing who should be diligent in selecting which areas of GMP are relevant to a particular audit and in determining the appropriateness of questions (and the answers provided) based on the characteristics of the excipient manufactured, the processes employed, and specific requirements of the excipient user.

III. Format

    This Audit Guideline is provided in two formats, either of which may be used by the auditor based on personal preference:

    ; Detailed questions arranged in the same sequence as in the GMP Guide. This format is useful as a

    training tool for personnel of both the auditing company and one being audited.

    ; Short "reminder" phrases arranged in the same sequence as in the GMP Guide, a format which generally

    is more useful during an audit.

    Copyright ? 2008 The International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council

    Copyright? 2008 Pharmaceutical Quality Group

     Page 2 of 38

IV. Acknowledgements

    This Guide was prepared by a team from The International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council (IPEC) and the Charted Quality Institute (CQI) Pharmaceutical Quality Group (PQG).

IPEC

    IPEC is an international industry association formed in 1991 by manufacturers and end-users of excipients. It is an association comprising three regional pharmaceutical excipient industry associations covering the United States, Europe and Japan (which are known respectively as IPEC-Americas, IPEC Europe and JPEC). IPEC’s objectives are to contribute to the development and harmonization of international excipient standards, the introduction of useful new excipients to the marketplace and the development of good manufacturing practice for excipients.

    IPEC first published its GMP Audit Guide for Bulk Pharmaceutical Excipients in 1995 and it was revised in 2004 to align it with the revised 2001 GMP guide.

For further information see www.ipec-europe.org

PQG

    The PQG was formed in 1977 to promote development of a consistent approach to pharmaceutical quality and good manufacturing practice. The group has since expanded and is now incorporated within the United Kingdom’s Charted Quality Institute.

    In 1990 the PQG published three codes of practice to cover pharmaceutical raw materials, printed and contact packaging materials. In 1995 the codes were revised and were integrated into ISO 9002:1994. The code for raw materials was revised and reissued as PS 9100:2002 Pharmaceutical Excipients, an application standard and GMP guide for pharmaceutical excipients.

For further information see www.pqg.org

    IPEC and PQG greatly appreciate and acknowledge the many hours of hard work the following individuals devoted to creating this Guideline and the generous support provided by their employers:

CORE REVISION TEAM

    IPEC-AMERICAS

     Dale Carter, Archer Daniels Midland Company

     Sidney A. Goode, Pharm.D., The Dow Chemical Company

     David B. Klug, sanofi aventis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

     Philip Merrell, Ph.D., Jost Chemical Company

     R. Christian Moreton, Ph.D., Finn Brit Associates

     David R. Schoneker, Colorcon Inc.

     Irwin B. Silverstein, Ph.D., IBS Consulting in Quality (committee consultant)

     Priscilla Zawislak, Hercules Inc.

    Copyright ? 2008 The International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council

    Copyright? 2008 Pharmaceutical Quality Group

     Page 3 of 38

IPEC EUROPE

     Kevin McGlue, CSci., CChem, MRSC, Colorcon Ltd

     Gianluca Minestrini, Ph.D., F. Hoffmann La Roche

     Iain Moore, Ph.D., CChem MRSC, MCQI, Croda Chemicals Europe Ltd

     Patricia Rafidison, RPh, Ph.D., Dow Corning

PQG

     Steve Moss Ph. D., MBA, CChem FRSC, MCQI, GlaxoSmithKline

    Copyright ? 2008 The International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council

    Copyright? 2008 Pharmaceutical Quality Group

     Page 4 of 38

    The International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council

    Pharmaceutical Quality Group

    JOINT GMP AUDIT GUIDELINE

    FOR

    PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENTS

    2008

    Format: Detailed Questions in Sequence of the IPEC-PQG GMP Guide

Copyright? 2008 The International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council & Copyright? 2008 Pharmaceutical Quality Group Page 5 of 38

    JOINT IPEC-PQG GMP AUDIT GUIDELINE FOR PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENTS

    GUIDELINE NOTES

    4 QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS - EXCIPIENT QUALITY SYSTEMS

    4.1 General Requirements

    4.2 Documentation Requirements

    4.2.1 General

    4.2.2 Quality Manual

    Is there a Quality Manual and if so, what is the current version of it? If not, is there a

    suitable alternative?

    Is there a Quality Policy or a similar statement of the intent to meet excipient GMP

    requirements?

    Has the manufacturer defined the point at which GMP should be applied and

    maintained?

    How is a commitment to applying the appropriate GMPs expressed?

    How does it explain which activities are covered by the GMPs and which are not?

    4.2.3 Control of Documents

    Is there a list of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for areas of the operation

    affecting quality?

    Does the document control system cover the complete written manufacturing instructions

    such as:

    ; the quality and identity of raw materials,

    ; equipment,

    ; manufacturing flow,

    ; operating parameters,

    ; in-process sampling and testing,

    ; equipment cleaning,

    ; packaging materials,

    ; labelling, and

    ; documentation of each significant step?

    How are current documents made readily available to employees? (Standard Operating

    Procedures (SOPs), manufacturing instructions and test methods)

    Is there an SOP for writing, handling and updating SOPs?

    What is the procedure for periodic review of SOPs? Does it include update and approval

    by responsible personnel and is training performed after updates?

    How is conformance to SOPs verified and documented?

    Copyright? 2008 The International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council & Copyright? 2008 Pharmaceutical Quality Group Page 6 of 38

    JOINT IPEC-PQG GMP AUDIT GUIDELINE FOR PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENTS

    GUIDELINE NOTES What is the system to assure that unneeded or obsolete documents are removed from use? Are only current versions of the documents being used?

    Are documents that impact product quality reviewed and approved by the quality unit or other designated qualified personnel independent from production?

    How are documents controlled (electronic and paper copies)? Are obsolete versions withdrawn from use? How are they identified? How are owners indicated?

    4.2.4 Control of Quality Records What is the system used to track, control, and maintain all records that relate to the requirements of the Quality System?

    How are unplanned process changes including critical process excursions documented? Where electronic signatures are being used, are they controlled to provide equivalent assurance to written signatures?

    Is the record retention policy justified and what is the rationale? Is this described in a written records retention policy?

    Is a copy of the product label retained with the batch record? Are the records legible, indelible, signed, dated and kept in a suitable environment to minimize deterioration or damage?

    4.3 Change Control Are there adequate written procedures for a change control system for those changes that

    may have an impact on the quality of the excipient or their conformance to GMP? Does it

    include review and approval of changes to raw materials, processes, documents, and equipment?

    Does a unit independent from production (e.g. the Quality Unit or Regulatory Affairs) have the responsibility and authority for the final approval of changes?

    If the company performs qualification and validation activities, does the change control system address the requirement to evaluate the impact of a change on these records?

    Does the change control system require consideration for notifying customers or

    regulatory authorities?

    How does the change control system link to any DMF or CEP submissions? Is a log of changes maintained?

    5. MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY

    5.1 Management Commitment

    Copyright? 2008 The International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council & Copyright? 2008 Pharmaceutical Quality Group Page 7 of 38

    JOINT IPEC-PQG GMP AUDIT GUIDELINE FOR PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENTS

    GUIDELINE NOTES How has Management demonstrated the importance of customer satisfaction and compliance? Is it documented in a formal statement such as a corporate Quality Policy?

    5.2 Customer Focus

     What is the policy for accommodating customer audits of the facility? How are customer requirements determined and translated into the Quality System?

    5.3 Quality Policy What evidence is there that all personnel are aware of the Policy? Does the policy support continual improvement of the quality management system?

    5.4 Planning 5.4.1 Quality Objectives

    What measurable objectives have been established for conformance to the Quality

    System and GMP requirements?

    5.4.2 Quality Management System Planning

    What process is there for identification of adequate resources needed for adherence to

    GMP?

    Is there any observable evidence that adequate resources have not been provided?

    5.5 Responsibility, Authority and Communication 5.5.1 Responsibility and Authority

    What means are used to show the independent reporting relationship between the

    Quality Unit and Production?

    Are there organization charts?

    Are there clearly written job descriptions?

    Where are the Quality Unit's authority and responsibilities clearly defined in writing?

    What documentation supports the Quality Unit’s independent authority to approve or

    reject procedures, specifications, and process changes that potentially impact product

    quality?

    What documentation shows the Quality Unit has independent authority to reject raw

    materials, packaging components and finished batches?

    When the responsibilities of the Quality Unit that have been delegated to other

    personnel, what controls have been put in place to ensure their proper implementation?

    What role does the Quality Unit play in investigating deviations, failures and

    complaints?

    Copyright? 2008 The International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council & Copyright? 2008 Pharmaceutical Quality Group Page 8 of 38

    JOINT IPEC-PQG GMP AUDIT GUIDELINE FOR PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENTS

    GUIDELINE NOTES

    How does the Quality Unit document their approval or rejection of new suppliers of

    quality critical materials and services?

    How does the Quality Unit exercise their responsibility for the review of appropriate

    manufacturing documentation and batch disposition decisions?

    5.5.2 Management Representative

    How often does the management representative report on the conformance of the

    Quality System to top management?

    5.5.3 Internal Communication

    How are GMP and regulatory requirements, quality policies, quality objectives and

    procedures communicated throughout the organization?

    How is top management informed of quality critical situations?

    5.6 Management Review 5.6.1 General

    Does top management hold periodic reviews to confirm continued conformance to the

    Quality System?

    How is top management involvement in the Review demonstrated?

    How are the opportunities for improvement and the need for changes captured,

    reviewed, implemented and recorded?

    5.6.2 Review Input

    Does the input to the management review include, for example, audit results, customer

    complaints and feedback, product conformity, process performance, status of

    corrective and preventive actions and relevant regulatory / legislation changes?

    5.6.3 Review Output

    Does the review output address resources needed for improvement of the Quality

    System and define actions to be taken?

    6 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    6.1 Provision of Resources Does there appear to be adequate resources to perform and supervise the operations necessary for producing, packaging, testing, storing and releasing excipients in compliance with applicable GMP requirements?

    6.2 Human Resources 6.2.1 General

    Copyright? 2008 The International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council & Copyright? 2008 Pharmaceutical Quality Group Page 9 of 38

    JOINT IPEC-PQG GMP AUDIT GUIDELINE FOR PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENTS

    GUIDELINE NOTES How are qualifications (training, experience and education) documented and related

    to the assigned tasks?

    If used, who reviews the qualifications of consultants and contractors to assure they

    have sufficient education, training, and experience to advise on the subject for which they are retained?

    Are consultants and contractors appropriately trained before being allowed into the

    facility?

    6.2.2 Competence, Awareness and Training

    Is there an SOP for identifying training needs and providing the necessary training on a regular basis?

    What are the qualifications for individuals performing GMP training? Are job-specific training requirements clearly defined? How does the training programme ensure that personnel understand that deviations from procedures may have an impact on the customer’s product quality?

    Is there personal hygiene training for personnel handling product so they understand

    the precautions necessary to prevent the contamination of the excipient? How is it

    documented?

    What records are kept to demonstrate that GMP training is conducted in a timely manner for new and temporary employees as well as consultants and contractors?

    What is the frequency of continuing GMP training and is it sufficient to ensure that employees remain familiar with applicable GMP requirements? How broadly is the

    training conducted within the site?

    How are training effectiveness and employee competency assessed? How are training and qualifications documented for each employee? How are changes in regulatory requirements monitored, interpreted, and communicated to employees?

    6.2.3 Personnel Hygiene How are personnel hygiene requirements and protective equipment specified and communicated to employees?

    Are personnel observed to comply with requirements for cleanliness, special clothing, protection, and hair coverings as required in the various manufacturing, packaging

    and testing areas? Is there appropriate signage for such requirements?

    Are personnel required to report any health conditions that may have an adverse effect

    on the product?

    Copyright? 2008 The International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council & Copyright? 2008 Pharmaceutical Quality Group Page 10 of 38

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