By Josephine Murphy,2014-08-05 16:48
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     Test One

    ?. Match the words and expressions on the left with the explanations on the right: (5%)

     ( )1. indemnity A. the total annual income of a state

     ( )2. revenue B. compensation for loss

     ( )3. cost-effective C. an official group of persons who direct or supervise some

     activities of a firm

     ( )4. board D. producing the best result for the expenditure

     ( )5. consensus E. general agreement

    ?. Translate the following words and expressions: (10%)

     (?) From English into Chinese:

     6. economies of scale

     7. documentary collection

     8. Electronic Data Interchange

     9. insurance policy

     10. preferential customs tariff

     (?) From Chinese into English:






    ?. Make brief explanations of the following terms in English: (20%)

     16. clean bill of lading

     17. Incoterms

     18. balance of payments

     19. revolving credit

     20. MFN

    ?. Fill in each of the following blanks with an appropriate word from the list (You can only choose 10 from the following 12 words in the square): (10%)

     through between which parent how international

     The with domestic in into subsidiary

     Successful multinational corporations eventually must learn (21)________ to inter-relate their subsidiaries with the (22)________ company, how to delegate decision-making authority, and how to develop satisfactory methods of control and supervision. (23)________ most traditional organizational structure is the international division structure, in (24)________ communication (25)________ the parent company is channeled (26)________ an international division. In the global structure there is no international division for overseas activities; instead, the entire top management becomes involved (27)________ international as well as (28)________


    matters. The global approach unifies domestic and international divisions (29)________ one global division. It therefore eliminates the danger of competition (30)________ an international division and a domestic one.

    ?. Translate the following into English?(25%)






    ?. Translate the following into Chinese: (15%)

     36. The transferable credit is designed to meet the requirements of international trade. It enables a middleman who is receiving payment from a buyer under a documentary credit to transfer his claim under that credit to his own supplier.

     A transferable credit may only be transferred once. The second beneficiary may not further transfer it unless there is an express provision to this effect in the original credit. This limit

    on transferability is intended to prevent abuse. On the other hand, the first beneficiary can transfer fractions of the original credit to several suppliers, provided that partial shipments are allowed. The aggregate of these partial transfers constitutes one transfer.

    ?. Answer the following questions in English: (15%)

     37. What are the three major functions of the bill of lading?

     38. What doesinsurable interestmean? Why insurable interest is a very important

    principle of insurance?

     Test two

    ?.Match the words and expressions on the left with the explanations on the right?~5%?

     ~ ?1. assets A. working together

     ~ ?2. option B. organization structure

     ~ ?3. framework C. total resources of a business? as cash? accounts

     receivable? fixture? real estate? etc

     ~ ?4. collaboration D. power of being productive

     ~ ?5.productivity E. choice

    ?.Translate the following words and expressions?~10%?

     ~i?From English into Chinese?

     6. business line

     7. airway bill

     8. CFR

     9. counter trade

     10. offset

     ~ii?From Chinese into English?







    ?.Make brief explanations of the following terms and give the full name of the following

    abbreviation in English?~20%?

     16. barter

     17. clean-credit

     18. intermediate products

     19. confirming bank

     20. SDR

    ?.Fill in each of the following blanks with an appropriate word from the list~You can only

    choose 10 from the following 12 words in the square??~10%?

     devalued repaid performed traded made suffer

     interest rise standard decline valuable stable

     Money is a medium of exchange and as such is continuously being ~21?______ for

    countless commodities. It is highly desirable that the value of money should remain ~22?______

    over the years? otherwise its functions cannot be ~23?______ properly. This is particularly true of its use as a ~24?______ for deferred payments. For example? if money falls in value over the years? a person borrowing money is ~25? ______ better off because the money with which the person ~26? ______ later is less ~27? ______ than the money borrowed. The person from whom the money was borrowed receives back the devalued currency and has therefore lost on the

    transaction. To overcome this ~28? ______ in the value of money? interest rates ~29?______

    in such times? so that those who lend money receive in interest some of the capital losses they are

    inevitably going to ~30? ______ when repayment time comes.

    ?.Translate the following into English?~25%?






    ?.Translate the following into Chinese?~15%?

     36.The exporter is separated from the foreign consumer by a long chain of middlemen. One

    should ask which is the most effective medium in getting a specific message to the customer

    abroad. The exporter? instead of relying only on personal selling? resorts to promotion

    campaigns to stimulate demand.

     The exporter must select from a variety of possible advertising and publicity media which are

    available for export communications. The use of available media such as ads? export catalogues?

    trade fairs? even the size of the column? and the use of color are minutiae~细节? or technical

    details of export promotion.

     Export communications are the same all the world over because people in every land respond

    to the same general kind of stimuli~刺激? and react to the same visual appeals and to the same economic motives. The exporter must create repeat effects and make use of promotion stunts~促

    销手段? in order to accomplish the desired result.

     Exporting has already made the promotion and marketing communications a “must”

    Without it? the goods cannot be put into the foreign market successfully.


?.Answer the following questions in English?~15%?

     37. What is a sight credit and a usance credit Name one difference between them.

     38. What is a multinational enterprise Name some of the identical features of MNEs.

     Test Three

    ?.Give the English equivalents to the following abbreviations:(10%)

    1. GNP

    2. C/O

    3. ISO

    4. ETD

    5. FOB

    ?.Put the following phrases into English:(9%)

    1. 互购

    2. 寄售协议书

    3. 营业执照

    4. 清洁提单

    5. 运费待收

    6. 友好协商

    ?.Fill in the blanks with the words or phrases from the box.(15%)

    in from at to

    for of with up

    1. Shippers are requested to note particularly the exceptions and conditions of this B/L with reference ________ the validity of the insurance upon their goods.

    2. Mr.Jones has consulted ________ his partners before he makes a counter-offer. 3. We wish to assure you ________ our best cooperation at all times. 4. Sales targets shall be arranged ________ accordance with the production objectives contained in the Joint Proforma.

    5. The leasing rate of the land shall be ________ a rate of Yuan 15 per square meter per year for a minimum period of ten years.

    6. The Customs Office exempts him ________ taxation for samples.

    restrictions due to submitted At any rate

    committed in dispute possession Up to date

    prior to With respect to hear cases in violation of

    7. You are ________ to open a sight L/C.

    8. The Arbitration Tribunal shall ________ in open sessions.

    9. ________ quality, nothing can be said against.

    10. We hope that the matter ________ will soon be settled.

    11. The commercial department places ________ on the sales of cigarettes and alcohol. 12. It is your side that acted ________ the agreement.

    13. ________, you have neither actively pushed the sales of our products, nor regularly forwarded us market report. How could we be satisfied with your work?

    14. Your claim, in our opinion, should be ________ to the insurance company as the liability rests with them.

    15. It is important that you time the shipment to arrive here ________ the expiration of the import



    ?. Reading Comprehension:(16%)

    A. Read the passage and answer the questions.

    1. Please choose a suitable title for the passage:________.

    A. Inspection Certificate B. Insurance

    C. Claims D. Disputes

    2. When should the Buyers make the claim?________.

    A. 30 days after shipment

    B.30 days after the arrival of the goods at destination

    C.60 days after shipment

    D.60 days after the arrival of the goods at destination

     Within 60 days after the arrival of the goods at destination, should the quality, specifications, or quantity be found not in conformity with the stipulations of the Contract, the Buyers shall, on the strength of the Inspection Certificate issued by the Commodity Inspection Organization(the inspection charges shall be borne by the Buyers), have the right to claim.

    B. Read the passage and answer the questions.

    3. What is this paragraph about? ________.

    A. Shipment B. Insurance

    C. Payment D. Letter of Credit

    4. According to the passage, which is not indicated?________.

    A. The L/C should reach the Buyers before 20th September.

    B. Both partial shipment and transshipment are allowed.

    C. The L/C remains valid 15 days after the date of shipment.

    D. This contract could be cancelled if the Sellers fail to effect shipment.

     By confirmed, irrevocable L/C without recourse in favour of CNCIEC Shanghai Branch for the total value of the contracted goods in Pounds sterling, payable at sight against presentation of shipping documents to the Bank of China in the port of loading. The L/C must reach the Sellers before 20th September and remain valid in China for 15 days after the date of shipment. Partial shipment and transshipment are allowed. In the event either the sellers fail to effect shipment or the Buyers fail to establish the L/C within the stipulate period, unless such failure is due to Force Majeure, the complaining party shall have the right to cancel this contract or lodge claim for direct losses sustained if any.

    C. Read this passage and decide whether these statements are true(T) or false(F). 5. The passage is about the problem of shipment.( )

    6. The shipment usually lasts more than three months.( )

    7. It is suggested to change another shipping company with a speedy service.( ) 8. The shipment used to be via Guangzhou and Hong Kong.( )

     There is another big problem which has to be solved. From Qingdao port your Corporation ships the goods mostly on transshipment vessels via Hong Kong and Singapore from where the goods arrive here in four/five months after shipment from Qingdao. A recent example is that a lot of 285 cartons were shipped for us on vessel “Yatlung” from Qingdao on 19th November, 2001 and actually the goods reached us by the end of April, 2002 which means five months after shipment was made. We enclose herewith copies of relevant documents showing this fact.

    In view of the above, we request you to urge your corporation to ship the goods on direct


    vessels or ship the goods with such shipping companies who have a speedy service, so that dealers can repeat their orders after receipt of a consignment. „‟

     Test Four

    ?.Translate the following words and expressions(10%):

    1) From English into Chinese

    a. compound duties

    b.documentary collection

    c.sales confirmation

    d.preferred stock

    e.GDP per capita

    2) From Chinese into English






    ?.Match the words and expressions on the left with the explanations on the right.There are two additional choices on the right(5%):

    1) drawback ( ) a.duties imposed on goods imported and exported

    2) terms of trade ( ) b.the right to collect from an endorser a payment of loss

    3) title ( ) c.duties on imports that are refunded when reexported

    4) deposit ( ) d.right to the possession of a position or property

    5) hyperinflation ( ) e.the relation of export and import prices

     f.soaring of prices beyond control paid as part of the payment owed

    ?.Make brief explanations of the following terms in English(20%): trade

    2.transferable credit


    5.commercial invoice

    ?.Fill in each of the following blanks with an appropriate word from the list(10%):

    economic orders speculative protection

    risk insurable loss renewed

    transfer financial charged policy

    Perhaps the most common method of dealing with risk is to shift,or 1)______,the risk to an insurance company.An insurer (or insurance company) is a firm that agrees,for a fee,to assume 2)______ responsibility for losses that may result from a specific risk.

    The fee 3)______ by an insurance company is called a premium.A contract between an insurer and the person or firm whose risk is assumed is known as an insurance 4)______.Generally,an insurance policy is written for a period of one year.Then,if both parties are willing,it is 5)______ each year.It specifies exactly which risks are covered by the agreement,the dollar amounts the insurer will pay in case of a 6)______,and the amount of the premium.


    Insurance is thus the 7)______ against loss that the purchase of an insurance policy affords.Insurance companies will not,however,assume every kind of risk.A risk that insurance companies will assume is called an 8)______ risk.A risk that insurance companies will not assume is called an uninsurable risk.

    In general,pure risks are insurable,whereas 9)______ risks are uninsurable.An insurance company will protect a Ford Motor Company assembly plant against losses due to fire or hurricanes.It will not,however,protect Ford against losses resulting from a lack of sales 10)______ for automobiles.

    ?.Translate the following into Chinese(15%):

     How can more “Made in the U.S.A.”goods get into store shelves in China?Under current trade restrictions,imports from the United States have barely flowed into that nation.However,imports will flood in,if China,the largest emerging market in Asia,joins the World Trade Organization.Although U.S. exports to China have increased over the past decade,the yearly total is still only about $ 12 billion,a tiny piece of all U.S. exports.Meanwhile,the United States has been a very good market for China's goods:U.S.imports about $50 billion worth of goods from China every year,up from roughly $10 billion worth of yearly imports just a decade ago.

     If China joins the WTO,the level of U.S. exports to China will skyrocket because high tariffs and various other trade restrictions will be removed.Today tariffs on imports into China range as high as 120 percent.As part of its bid for WTO membership,China has agreed to cut the average tariff rate to 15 percent by the year 2000.In addition,WTO membership would put trade with China under a more standardized legal framework,giving exporters and importers alike more consistent treatment.

    Another benefit of China's proposed WTO membership is that U.S. companies would within a few years be allowed to deal directly with Chinese companies instead of going through a trading company.Just as important,U.S. manufacturers would finally be able to market directly to Chinese consumers.Such an import-friendly environment would be bound to open new trade opportunities for U.S. businesseswhich is why many U.S. officials favor WTO membership for China.

    ?.Translate the following into English(25%):










    ?.Answer the following questions in English(15%):

    1.Why and how are Incoterms used?Give two commonly used terms to illustrate.

    2.How is D/A different from D/P after sight?Which is safer for the exporter?








    a. protectionism

    b. insolvent

    c. make delivery

    d. CIF

    e. share-holder/shareholders


    (1) c (2) e (3) d (4) g (5) f


    (1)International trade refers to the exchange of goods and services produced in one country with those produced in another.(In the complex economic world,no country can be completely self-sufficient.)

    (2)Transferable credit:a letter of credit that can be transferred by the original beneficiary to one or more parties in making payment.

    (3)Insurance is a social device in which a group of individuals transfer risk,and it provides for payment of losses from funds contributed by all members who transferred risk. (4)MNC is a business organization which owns (whether wholly or partly),controls and manages assets,often including productive resources,in more than one country,through its member companies incorporated separately in each of these countries.

    (5)The commercial invoice is a business document which gives a general description of the quality and quantity of the goods and the unit and total price.


    (1)transfer (2)financial (3)charged (4)policy (5)renewed (6)loss (7)protection (8)insurable (9)speculative (10)orders ?.翻译(15)















    (1)Being a new,improved replacement of GATT,WTO is a permanent international organization,to which all the members of GATT have automatically become members.

    (2)The payment of many international transactions is made by draft.A draft is an order to a bank or a customer,which includes sight draft and usance draft.


    (3)The enquiry made by the buyer is to get information about the goods to be ordered.It is made without engagement to the enquirer.

    (4)Even in those circumstances,most firms prefer to pay a known premium for the transfer of risk,rather than face the uncertainty of carrying the risk of loss.

    (5)Although the day-to-day administration of MNCs may be delegated(decentralized) to their affiliates,major decisions such as corporate goals and new investment projects are made by the parent company.


     (1)The purpose of Incoterms is to 1)provide a set of international rules 2)for the interpretation of the most commonly used trade terms 3)in foreign trade.Thus,4)the uncertainties of different interpretations of such terms in different countries 5)can be avoided or 6)at least reduced to a considerable degree.Examples:7)FOB,short for Free On Board.It means that the exporter makes delivery of the goods on board the ship without the responsibility for the insurance cover and transportation.8)CIF,short for Cost,Insurance and Freight.It means that the exporter is responsible for the arrangement of insurance cover and transportation before delivering the goods.

    (2)9)In the case of documents against acceptance(D/A),10)documents are handed over to the importer 11)upon his acceptance of the bill of exchange drawn by the exporter.12)Payment will not be made until a later date.13)D/P after sight gives the importer a certain period after presentation of the documents,14)but documents are not released to him until he actually pays for the merchandise.15)D/P after sight is safer than D/A.

    ? . Translate the following sentences:(30%)

    1. 555 干电池是自 1964 年起在巴基斯坦以我方的名义注册的商标。

    2. 我们遗憾地通知?由于上述商品无货供应?我们无法向你报盘。

    3. 邮费先由小王代替小李预付?小李然后据实向小王偿付。

    4. 申诉人要求被诉人承担由于进行仲裁而引起的一切费用。

    5. 因此?我方不得不拒绝你方索赔。

    6. We believe you can commit yourselves in this transaction.

    7. The L/C should reach us before September 20, in order that we may effect shipment before the end of October.

    8. Please pay beneficiary face amount of drawings on a sight basis.

    9. This contention cannot survive analysis and is misconceived.

    10. The buyers accepted the Seller's New Shipment Arrangement but did not agree to increase the contracted prices.

    ? . Letter-writing:(20%)

    根据以下所给内容用完整的书信格式 ( 包括信头、信内地址、称呼、正文、结束语、

    信尾敬语和签名 ) 拟一封信?

    1. 我方?中国进出口公司 (China Import & Export Company 地址? 397 Tiantan Road,

    Beijing 电话? 86 10 6332548 ?传真? 86 10 6332549) 确认收到你方?美国 The Juster

    Trading Co.Ltd.( 地址? 35 South St. Minneapolis , Minn. USA

    ) 2002 2 20 要求订购茶叶的订单。

    2. 对所订之货?我们要求用不可撤消的即期信用证?于装运前一个月开到我方。请立



    3. 如对方公司对此货还有何要求?请参阅第 88 号目录并来函告知。


    4. 感谢贵方惠顾?希望上述货物能使对方满意。

    5. 写信日期为 2002 2 23

     Test Five

    I. Translate the following words and expressions~10%?

     1?From English into Chinese

     a.common pool

     b.Consignment Contract


     d.compensation trade positions

     2?From Chinese into English






    ?. Match the words and expressions on the left with the explanations on the right. There are

    two additional choices on the right~6%?

     1?primary commodities



     4?insurance policy


     6?tariff of the regular sums paid in order to be insured

     b.a document covering possible risks between the insurer and the insured

     c.those commodities not processed or only slightly processed? including farm produce and raw materials

     d.the irregular movement of prices? levels? etc. upwards downwards official schedule of customs duties imposed by a government on imports or exports

     f.the sending of money or the money sent

     g.a document for the general description of the goods and the price knowledge or skill? especially in a particular field ?. Make brief explanations of the following terms in English~24%?

     1.proximate cause

     2.irrevocable credit

     3.commercial invoice

     4.transfer of technology

     5.transportation deregulation government

    ?. Fill in each of the following blanks with an appropriate word from the list~10%?


    raisedoffsetcostlyreducing Despite the many benefits to trade? there are barriers to it. One


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