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2. Intro research methods

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2. Intro research methods

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     The Research Process

     Kenneth S. Law (ÂÞÊ?Ç?)

     Department of Management The Chinese University of Hong Kong Ïã?ÛÖÐÎÄ?óÑ??Üϵ mnlaw@cuhk.edu.hk

     http://kennethlaw.blog.chinahrd.net/

    http://kennethlaw.blog.chinahrd.net/space/viewspacepost.a spx?postid=4049&spaceid=2477

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Seminar Schedule

     Date Jun 1 Mon am Jun 1 Mon pm Jun 2 Tue am Jun 2 Tue pm ÐÇÆÚÈý Jun 4 Thu am Jun 4 Thu pm Jun 5 Fri am Jun 5 Fri pm Jun 6 Sat am Jun 6 Sat pm Topics ?ÆÑ?µÄÑÐ?? ÑÐ???ÅÂÛºÍÉè?Æ ?âÑ? µ??Ú?äºÍÖÐ?é?ä ÐÝÏ?Ò?Ìì Òò×Ó?ÖÎö ?á?????Ì??Ä? ÑÐ???ÖÎö?ãÃæµÄÎÊÌâ ?à?ã?ÎÏßÐÔÄ?ÐÍ Í?Ñ????æ?Á4(each 15-20 min) ×Ü?áÓë?ðÎÊ

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

     3

     Research Methods in Management

     How to read research papers? How to do research? Types of OB research papers qualitative quantitative

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Major Journals in Management

     Administrative Science Quarterly Academy of Management Review Academy of Management Journal Journal of Applied Psychology Strategic Management Journal Journal of International Business Studies Organizational Science Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Personnel Psychology Journal of Management Management Science

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     The Research Methods

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Research Methods in OB/HRM

     Theoretical pieces (ÂÛ) Content review (annual reviews, book chapters) Developmental review (AMR; ASQ; OS) Case studies (ASQ; OS) Empirical pieces (AMJ; JAP, ASQ; SMJ; JIBS) (ʵÕ?) field studies, field experiments; laboratory studies Meta analysis; Content analysis

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Empirical Methods

     1. Qualitative reviews 2. Qualitative studies

     Case studies Content analysis

     3. Experimental laboratory studies

     ANOVA; regression

     4. Quasi experiments 5. Correlational survey studies

     regression; SEM; HLM

     6. Meta analysis

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     1. Qualitative Reviews

     Content Review Theory building Hypotheses development

     Manor, B. (2002). International assignments for career building: A model of agency relationships and psychological contracts. Academy of Management Review, 27(3), 373-391.

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Abstract

     We present a theoretical model of international assignments in which we examine the alignment or nonalignment of the organization's and individual's expectations of an assignment and its effect on assignment success. We consider four basic configurations in our model ?C mutual loyalty, mutual transaction, agent opportunism, and principal opportunism ?C and present a matrix of organizationindividual alignment to help predict varying degrees of success in expatriate assignment and in repatriation. Finally, we apply this matrix as a framework for understanding changes in the employment contract over time.

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

     The Model (Agency Theory)

     Individual Relational

     Cell I: Mutual loyalty

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     Transactional

     Cell II: Agent opportunism

     Moderate organizational success in expatriation but failure in repatriation (P3) High individual success in expatriation but mixed success in repatriation (P4)

     Relational

     Organization

     High organizational success in expatriation and repatriation (P1) High individual success in expatriation and repatriation (P2)

     Transactional

     Cell III: Principal opportunism

     Moderate organizational success in expatriation and low success in repatriation (P5) Moderate individual success in expatriation but failure in repatriation (P6)

     Cell IV: Mutual transaction

     Moderate to high organizational success in expatriation and a better chance of organizational success in repatriation than that in the case of misalignment (P7) Moderate to high individual success in expatriation and a better chance of individual success in repatriation than that in the case of misalignment (P8)

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     2. Qualitative Studies

     Sutton, R.I. (1991). Maintaining norms about expressed emotions: The case of bill collectors. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(2), 245-269.

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Abstract

     A qualitative study of a bill-collection organization is used to identify norms about the emotions that collectors are expected to convey to debtors and the means used by the organization to maintain such norms, given that collectors' expressed emotions are simultaneously influenced by their inner feelings. The data indicate that collectors are selected, socialized, and rewarded for following the general norm of conveying urgency (high arousal with a hint of irritation) to debtors. Collectors are further socialized and rewarded to adjust their expressed emotions in response to variations in debtor demeanor. These contingent norms sometimes clash with collectors' feelings toward debtors. Bill collectors are taught to cope with such emotive dissonance by using cognitive appraisals that help them become emotionally detached from debtors and by releasing unpleasant feelings without communicating these emotions to debtors.

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     3. Laboratory designs

     Manipulation variables (independent variables) Outcome variables (dependent variables) Research question: How would a set of outcome variables change as a result of our manipulation of some causal variables? (causality) lightning and thundering Leadership style Employee performance

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Examples

     Allen, T.D., & Rush, M.C. (1998). The effects of organizational citizenship behavior on performance judgments: A field study and a laboratory experiment, Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(2), 247-260.

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Abstract

     The process of linking organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) with performance judgments was investigated in a field and a laboratory study. In the field study, managers rated the task performance and OCB of 148 subordinates. In the laboratory research, 136 students viewed and rated videotaped segments of teaching performance that demonstrated either high or low task performance and high or low OCB.

     OCB

     Overall evaluation

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Manipulation

     High OCB

     Results

     Low OCB

     Performance rating By students (X1) >>

     Performance rating By students (X2)

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Types of experimental designs

     1. Pre-experimental designs One group posttest design Pretest posttest design 2. Experimental designs Pretest posttest with control group Solomon four groups design 3. Quasi experiments Field experiments Time series designs

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Pre-experimental designs

     One group posttest e.g., A written test at the end of the training session, see if they learned the training materials X T1

     X represent treatment, T represent testing

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Pre-experimental designs

     One group pretest/posttest e.g., A written test before and after the training session to see if they learned the training materials e.g., Test if there is any change in performance of the trainees before and after the training

     T1

     X

     T2

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Experimental designs

     Pretest/posttest control-group design e.g. having one group of employees taking the training program in week 1. The second group, which will get the training after group one is used as the control group. Why do we need a control group if we have pretest and posttest already? What's wrong with just having posttest with control groups? Experimental group Control group T1 T1 X T2 T2

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Experimental designs

     Solomon four group design e.g. Giving pretest to only half of the training group which receive training in the first week. Also pretest is given only to half of the group waiting to be trained after group one. (assuming random assignment)

     Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4

     T1 T1

     X X

     T2 T2 T2 T2

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Solomon four group design

     separate trainees in two groups, one to be trained in March 15 (M group), one to be trained in April 15 (A group). test half of the employees in the M group and half of the employees in the A group on Mar 1. conduct the training program on Mar 15 to the M group. conduct the test again to every employee in both the A group and M group on Jan 31.

     Mar 1 Mar 15 Mar 31

     G1 G2 G3 G4

     T1 T1

     X X

     T2 T2 T2 T2

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     4. Quasi-experiment

     -

     Experimental design without real manipulations No randomization Hui, C., Lam, S.K., & Law, K.S. (2000). Instrumental values of organizational citizenship behavior for promotion: A field quasi-experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 822-828.

     -

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Employees promotion

     High OCB Antecedents Low OCB

     No promotion

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Quasi-experimental designs

     The time series design e.g., Measuring the training group a number of times before and after training a possible alternative if no control is available.

     T1 T2 T3 T4 X

     T5 T6 T7

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     5. Correlational surveys

     Predictor variables (independent variables) Criterion variables (dependent variables) Research question: How would a set of predictor variables affect a set of outcome variables? (causality)

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Examples

     Vancouver, J.B., Thompson, C.M. Tischner, E.C. & Putka, D.J. (2002). Two studies examining the negative effect of self-efficacy on performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 506-516. Dvir, T., Eden D., Avoilio, BJ., Shamir, B. (2002). Impact of transformational leadership on follower development and performance: A field experiment. Academy of Management Journal, 45(4), 735-744.

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Survey study rxy

     Self-efficacy Job performance Transformational leadership

     Job performance

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Research Methods in Business

     How to design your research? How to read research papers? Types of HR/OB research papers

     Qualitative Quantitative

     Laboratory studies vs. field studies

     When to use laboratory studies? When to use field studies?

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     6. Meta Analysis

     Research question: Can we combine quantitative research in the past and summarize the research findings quantitatively?

     Judge, T., Heller, D., Mount, M. (2002). Five-Factor model of personality and job satisfaction: A metaanalysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 530541.

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Meta analysis

     Big-5 personality: individualism, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness to experiences Rxy is the correlation between agreeableness and job satisfaction

     Study 1 2 3 4 5 6

     N 150 247 386 124 278 450

     rxy .35 -.07 .17 .48 .02 .29

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     The Research Process

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Identifying Research Questions

     ??Æ?ÂÛÓëÔ?????ÃñΪ Utility Ô???ÆóÒµµÄ????Ô?

     Literature

     Research Questions

     Practitioners

     Rigor ºÏ×ÊÆóÒµÔ?????ÍÁ?? 59ËêÏÖÏó ??Ë?ÖÎ

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     The Research Process

     What is the research question?

     Is EQ really useful in predicting work outcomes? Would a firm using a strategic human resource management approach be more competitive? What are the factors affecting localization of expatriate position in the PRC? Can supervisors distinguish task performance from contextual performance in the PRC? What are the antecedents of contextual performance? Who would work in JVs in China and what are the factors leading to career success in foreign firms in the PRC?

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     What is a research question?

     My model has two variables. They are labeled as "knowledge sharing tendency" and "knowledge sharing behaviors". There are three independent variables: benevolence, expected return and trust. How do you like that? Benevolence Expected return Trust knowledge sharing tendency knowledge sharing behaviors

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     A conversation ??

     Professor: Why would you do this piece of research? Student:Because I have to publish a paper before I graduate. Professor :Then, why choose knowledge sharing? Student:I just learned about this topic. Professor:What results do you expect? Student:publish a paper in a respectable international journal.

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     A different view

     We do research because we want to know the answer of a question ?? Therefore, before we start a study, we must have a research question. We do not start with a topic, an area, or a phenomenon. We start the research process with a research question.

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     A different view

     With a research question, you would automatically ask for a theory. Based on your theory, you would automatically develop some hypotheses.

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     The research process

     Benevolence Expected return Trust knowledge sharing tendency knowledge sharing behaviors

     Are you interested in knowledge sharing intention or knowledge sharing behaviors?

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     The research process

     Benevolence Expected return Trust knowledge sharing tendency knowledge sharing behaviors

     How do you know that knowledge sharing intention is affected by benevolence, expected reciprocity and interpersonal trust? Why these three? Why three only? Why not emotions at the time of sharing? This is because ???? (a theory)

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     The research process

     Benevolence Expected return Trust knowledge sharing tendency knowledge sharing behaviors

     You need a theory on knowledge sharing intention because you can start researching this variable. Why would people share knowledge with other? (I do not need variables, I need an explanation, a perspective,

a theory)

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     The research process

     Benevolence Expected return Trust knowledge sharing tendency knowledge sharing behaviors

     (1) Some people have an in-born tendency to share with others. (2) Some people would expect reciprocal sharing in the future. (3) Some people use knowledge sharing as an instrumental means (i.e., to get something they want at the end) (4) ????

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Some questions

     1. Has anyone done anything on this topic before? (literature review) 2. Which one is the most important reason to explain knowledge sharing? (theory) 3. Are there established management theories that can explain the phenomenon? (theory) 4. Are these antecedents or causes? (theory) 5. Do you want to study all core antecedents at the same time? (coverage) 6. What is the most appropriate research design to answer my research question?

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     When to use which design?

     1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Qualitative reviews Qualitative studies Experimental laboratory studies Quasi experiments Correlational survey studies Meta analysis

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     Do Not start your research ????

     With some hypothesized relationships With a model Just because no one has done that before Only because you see a significant correlation in your dataset Without looking at the literature Without a research question If you do not find it interesting If you do not believe it is important

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     A suggested research procedure ??

     Starts with a research question Think about from what perspective you would address this issue Develop testable hypotheses based on your perspective to solve the research question What is the best method to test these hypotheses? Research design ????

     ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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     The End

ÄÏ???óÑ? Kenneth S. Law @ 2009

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