1 Introduction to Research

By Frederick Daniels,2014-05-28 14:36
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1 Introduction to Research




     Accounting Program 1: Introduction to Research

     What is Research?

     Re + search = research Various definitions by various authors A process of searching for answers (i.e. process of discovery)

     What do you want to know? How do know?

     Zainol Bidin Semester 2010/2011


     What is Research?

     A structured, organized, and systematic process Scientific

     Following certain rules, norms, conventions and traditions

     Zainol Bidin Semester 2010/2011


     Qualities of a Good Researcher

     Persistence Personal integrity Tolerance for ambiguity Interaction with others Pride in doing quality work Ethics observant

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     Purposes of Research


     Involves a new issue and little has been written about it Goal: To formulate more precise questions that future research can answer It addresses the ??What?? question

     What is ??Organizational Misbehavior??? Conceptualization ?C dimensions, elements, categories

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     Purpose of Research


     Describing some phenomena Presenting a picture of the specific details of a situation, social setting, or relationship Focuses on ??How?? and ??Who?? questions

     How does organizational misbehavior happen? Who is involved? Groups and/or individuals? Where does it happen? When it can happen?

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     Purpose of Research


     When the issue is already known and has been scientifically described Focus on the ??Why?? question Concerns:

     Identify the reason why the phenomenon occurs Find out relationships Examine differences

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     Purpose of Research

     To explain ??something?? is to examine its ??causes?? or factors that influence it If we are able to explain ??something,?? then we are able to predict that ??something?? will happen And hence we are able to control ??something?? from happening by managing its ??causes??

     Zainol Bidin Semester 2010/2011


     Purposes of Research

     Say, organizational misbehavior is explained (or caused) by pay and disciplinary procedure To control misbehavior, organizations should do two things:

     Increase pay Improve disciplinary procedure

     Prescriptive role of a researcher

     Zainol Bidin Semester 2010/2011


     Uses of Research

     Detached, scientific, and academic- oriented Activist, pragmatic, and reform-oriented

     Basic Research

     Advances fundamental knowledge about the social world Focus on refuting or supporting theories Source of most new scientific ideas Can be exploratory, descriptive, or explanatory But, explanatory is more common

     Applied Research

     Tries to solve specific policy problems or help practitioners to accomplish tasks ?Theory is less central ?Frequently a descriptive research ?Main strength: Immediate practical use ?Types: Action-oriented research and evaluation research

     Neuman, 1994

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     Basic Research

     Attempts to provide answers to questions:

     Is executive success correlated with high need for achievement? Are members of highly cohesive work groups more satisfied than members of less cohesive work groups? Does personality affect career choice?

     Zainol Bidin Semester 2010/2011


     Types of Research

     Quantitative research

     Testing a theory To do this, data need to be collected from a sample Make conclusions (whether the theory is supported or rejected) from the data collected and analyzed Deductive approach

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     Types of Research

     nAch theory ?C This theory says that a person??s motivation to work is determined by his/her need for achievement

     A person high in need for achievement will be more motivated than a person low in need for achievement Thus, collect data on ??level of need for achievement?? and ??level of work motivation?? Correlate the two, and decide whether theory is confirmed or disconfirmed

     Zainol Bidin Semester 2010/2011


     Types of Research

     Qualitative research

     Developing a theory To do this, data are collected and analyzed The data will reveal what theory will be emerging ??Theory is grounded in data?? Inductive approach

     Zainol Bidin Semester 2010/2011



     Quantitative o Numbers o Point of view of researcher o Researcher distant o Theory testing o Static o Structured o Generalization o Hard, reliable data o Macro o Behavior o Artificial setting o Words o Points of view of participants o Researcher close o Theory emergent o Process o Unstructured o Contextual understanding o Rich, deep data o Micro o Meaning o Natural setting

     Zainol Bidin Semester 2010/2011

     Source: Bryman, A. (2001: 285) 15


     Methods Associated with a Paradigm

     Quantitative ?C Namely two main designs:

     Experiments ?C true and quasi experiments Surveys ?C cross-sectional and longitudinal studies cross-

     Qualitative ?C Various designs:

     Ethnographies ?C study involving an intact cultural group in a natural setting during a prolonged period of time Grounded theory ?C focus on deriving a theory Case studies ?C exploring a single entity or phenomenon (??the case??) bounded by time and activity Phenomenological studies ?C human experiences are examined through detailed descriptions of the people being studied

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