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Ascension Parish Comprehensive Curriculum Assessment Documentation

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Ascension Parish Comprehensive Curriculum Assessment Documentation and Concept Correlation

Unit 5: Forces and Motion

Time Frame: Approximately 2 Weeks

Big Picture: (Taken from Unit Description and Student Understanding)

; A push or a pull (force) has an influence on an object.

; Friction determines the effect force has on the movement of an object.

; Simple machines help us to do work, and their impact and affects can be explored through investigations.

Activities Focus GLE’s Guiding Questions GLEs 23 Demonstrate how force is a push or a pull by

Activity 41: Tennis Concept 1: Force and Motion using students’ bodies, toy cars, or balls 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 23, Ball Roll (Comprehension) 24,26 22. Can students show how GQ 22, 23, 24 24 Explain how the amount and direction of force is a push or pull through Activity 42: Marble force exerted on an object (e.g., push, pull, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, use of objects? Race friction, gravity) determine how much the 9, 13, 23, 24, 26 GQ 22, 23, 24 object will move (Comprehension) 23. Can students explain the Activity 43: Magnetic 26 Explain the effect of varying amounts of effects of forces such as push, Lines 5, 8, 9, 24 force on the motion of an object pull, friction, gravity on an GQ 22 (Comprehension)

object based on the amount of Activity 44: Can you 32 Give examples of how energy can be used to 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 13, force exerted? Measure Force? move or lift objects (Comprehension) 24 GQ 22 33 Identify simple machines and tasks they 24. Can students explain how Activity 45: Rolling make possible (Knowledge) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, the force of gravity affects the Toy Race 9, 11, 12, 24, 26 speed and distance in which an GQ 23

object moves? Activity 46: Moving 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, Objects 9, 13, 24, 26 GQ 22, 23

Activity 47: 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 13,

rd3 Grade Science Unit 5: Forces and Motion

GQ 22, 23

Concept 2: Simple Machines

Note: Students will not see this th Grade. concept again until 6

25. Can students identify

simple machines and explain

how they specialize in reducing the amount of work required in

Machines 2, 5, 9, 11, 32, 24. Can students explain how GQ 25 33

the force of gravity affects the

speed and distance in which an object moves?

rd3 Grade Science Unit 5: Forces and Motion

Unit 5: Forces and Motions

Concept 1: Force and Motion

GLEs

1 Ask questions about objects and events in the environment (e.g., plants,

rocks, storms) (Comprehension)

2 Pose questions that can be answered by using students’ own observations,

scientific knowledge, and testable scientific investigations

(Comprehension)

3 Use observations to design and conduct simple investigations or

experiments to answer testable questions (Application)

4 Predict and anticipate possible outcomes (Synthesis)

5 Use a variety of methods and materials and multiple trials to investigate

ideas (observe, measure, accurately record data) (Analysis)

7 Measure and record length, temperature, mass, volume, and area in both

metric system and U.S. system units (Application)

8 Select and use developmentally appropriate equipment and tools (e.g.,

magnifying lenses, microscopes, graduated cylinders) and units of

measurement to observe and collect data (Comprehension)

9 Express data in a variety of ways by constructing illustrations, graphs,

charts, tables, concept maps, and oral and written explanations as

appropriate (Synthesis)

11 Use a variety of appropriate formats to describe procedures and to express

ideas about demonstrations or experiments (e.g., drawings, journals,

reports, presentations, exhibitions, portfolios) (Application)

13 Identify questions that need to be explained through further inquiry

(Comprehension)

23 Demonstrate how force is a push or a pull by using students’ bodies,

toy cars, or balls (Comprehension)

24 Explain how the amount and direction of force exerted on an object

(e.g., push, pull, friction, gravity) determine how much the object will

move (Comprehension)

26 Explain the effect of varying amounts of force on the motion of an

object (Comprehension)

Guiding Questions Assessment Ideas

22. Can students show how force is a ; Create a Rubric to check Force and

push or pull through use of objects? Motion Booklet

; Activity-Specific assessment-Activity 41

23. Can students explain the effects Create a rubric for Force and Motion

of a push or pull on an object based booklet

on the amount of force exerted? ; Activity-Specific Assessment-Activity 44

rd3 Grade Science Unit 5: Forces and Motion 73

; Activity-Specific Assessment Activity

24. Can students explain how the 45

force of gravity affects the speed and

distance in which an object moves?

Key Concepts

; Determine the amount and direction an object will move when a force acts upon it.

; Identify which type of energy moves or lifts objects.

; Identify which force causes an object to move.

; Identify the correct motion or position of an object based on previous movement patterns.

; See preface for specific key concepts identified by the assessment guide (science as inquiry).

Recommended Vocabulary

Pull Gravity Inclined plane Force Magnetic field Newton Height Push

Motion Force Weight Friction Gravity

Textbook Correlation

; p. F62-77

Instructional Activities

Activity 41: Tennis Ball Roll (GLEs: 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 23, 24, 26)

Materials List: per group - science learning logs, stopwatch or watch with second hand, tennis balls, yardsticks, meter sticks, Tennis Ball Race Data Sheet BLM, books, cardboard box top (copy paper box top works well)

Hold up a box top and a tennis ball, and point to a stack of four or five textbooks. Tell students that they will use these items to build an incline plane that will be used to roll a tennis ball. Create an incline plane using the box top and one book. Ask students if they can think of another name to describe this set-up. If students do not respond with the word ―ramp,‖ then lead the discussion to the word and some uses of ramps. Students will

then roll a tennis ball on an inclined plane, as described, to investigate the relationship between the height of the incline plane and the distance the tennis ball will roll. Caution students to try and release the ball with the same amount of force each time to avoid introducing additional variables into their experiment.

.

1. Students should first predict the optimum height of the ramp that will allow the

tennis ball to travel the greatest distance. Then in cooperative groups, students

will measure the distance the tennis ball travels from the end of the ramp until it

stops, using three different heights. Instruct students to try and release the ball rd3 Grade Science Unit 5: Forces and Motion 74

with the same amount of force each time. Demonstrate to the class how to

measure the height of the ramp.

2. Have students record data on the Tennis Ball Race Data Sheet BLM using both

metric and US systems.

3. Next, students should roll the ball keeping the same height, but trying to use more

force. They should run at least three trials and record data. Help students to see

the effect of a push and the amount of force and direction given to the tennis ball

upon release (when describing a push, relate the contrary, a pull). Explain to

students that a force is a push or pull. For example, the force of the wind pushes

sailboats and windmills and the force of a student’s arm can pull a wagon on the

sidewalk.

4. Discussion and science learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions)

questions include the following:

; When did the tennis ball roll the greatest distance with one book, two books,

or three books? Why do you think this was so?

; When the height was kept the same and different amounts of force were

applied to the tennis ball, which rolled the greatest distance? Why do you

think this was so?

; Describe the movement of the tennis ball using the terms push, force, and

B direction. a lActivity 42: Marble Race (CC Unit 3) (GLEs 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 8, 13, 23, 24, 26,) Safety lNote: All students should be made aware of the dangers of marbles on the floor when o

omoving around the room. They may also wear safety goggles if available. n Students will conduct a marble race on an inclined plane made with books and a ramp t(such as cardboard) to test which height of the ramp will allow the marble to travel the afastest. Make a finish line a few feet from the beginning of the racing point. Students p

ework in cooperative groups using a stopwatch or second hand on a watch, to time the dmarble. Students are to predict the optimum height of the ramp that will allow the marble to travel the greatest distance. Use a stopwatch (or a similar time recorder) to record omeasurements of time after each trial run. Have students record data on a given table or ndata sheet. A measurement of distance can be taken using both metric and US systems. t

oStudents are given a set of rules and a chart to complete after each trial. Help students to

see the effect of a push and the amount of force and direction given to the marble upon srelease (when describing a push, relate the contrary, a pull). This is a good opportunity tfor students to devise the conditions that will produce the best result. Have students rgenerate questions relating to designing an experiment to determine the best model and a

wdiscuss these as a class. Discussion questions include the following:

; When did the marble roll the fastestwith one book, two books, or three wbooks? In which trial did it roll the fastest? i; Why do you think the marble rolled the fastest in that case? t

h

trd3 Grade Science Unit 5: Forces and Motion 75 h

e

s

t

r

; Suppose you want the marble to roll more quickly. Name one thing you can

do to cause it to roll more quickly. Explain why this would cause the marble

to roll more quickly.

Activity-Specific Assessment

Have student complete the chart below.

Number of books (Height of the incline) How fast did your marble roll

to the finish line?

One Book

Two Books

Three Books

Short Answer Question: Which marble rolled the fastest and why do you think so?

Activity 43: Magnetic Lines (CC Unit 3) (GLEs: 5, 8, 9, 24)

Safety Note: Students should wear safety goggles to avoid getting iron filings in their eyes.

Magnetic lines of force are explored with magnets, iron filings, and a glass plate. (Can substitute steel wool (unsoaped) cut into pieces for the iron filings) Working in small groups, students sprinkle the iron filings around a bar magnet resting on a glass plate. (Option: Use construction paper moving the magnet underneath the paper using first the North Pole and then the South Pole.) Students are to determine where the lines of force are the strongest and weakest. Students are to discuss their findings with other groups. Using a second bar magnet, students will use like and unlike poles to show the magnetic field and describe how the lines of force are different when they are attracting or repelling. Drawing of magnetic lines will be recorded in journals and explained. Discussion questions include the following:

; How would you describe the patterns formed by the iron fillings?

; Where are the lines the closest together?

; Where are the lines farthest apart?

; What do the magnetic field lines show?

; How is the pattern different when the magnets are pushing and when they are

pulling on each other?

; Which part of the magnet do you think has the strongest magnetic pull?

Activity 44: Can you Measure Force? (GLEs 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 13, 24)

To explain gravity as a measurable force, group students and give each group a spring scale with a small plastic cup attached. Give them 10-15 pennies, nuts, bolts, marbles, or any other small weighted objects. Have them predict the gravitational pull (in Newtons) of 5, 10, then 15 objects. After recording predictions, the students will test predictions and record results by placing 5, 10, then 15 objects in the cup.

rd3 Grade Science Unit 5: Forces and Motion 76

Teacher hint: If spring scales are not available, you can make your own using two paper clips and a rubber band. Attach the clips to either end of the rubber band. Students can use a ruler to measure the length of the rubber band as it stretches. Be sure to explain that force is measurable in Newtons.

Activity 45: Rolling Toy Race (CC Unit 3) (GLEs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 24, 26)

Materials List: per group -Science Investigation Guidelines BLM (see Unit 1 Activity

7), Science Investigation Rubric BLM (see Unit 1 Activity 7), Rolling Toy Race Data

Sheet BLM, Vocabulary Self-Awareness Chart BLM, science learning logs, sandpaper,

rolling toy, aluminum foil, construction paper, a smooth surface, a small piece of carpet

Teacher Note: this activity may take two 45 minute instructional periods.

Begin a discussion about friction by asking the students what would cause a rolling ball

in an open field to stop. Lead students to conclude that friction would eventually stop the ball from rolling. Be sure students understand that friction exists between all moving objects. Explain that if there was no friction, a ball rolled along an open field would roll forever because there would be no force to slow the ball down. Have students identify some examples of friction.

To demonstrate one example of friction, have students rub their hands together and then ask them to describe how their hands feel. Explain to students that as the particles in your left hand rubbed against particles in your right hand, friction was created.

Have students generate questions in their science learning log (view literacy strategy

descriptions) about friction and how it affects motion. Students should also record the definition of friction (the force between two moving objects that tries to keep the objects from moving freely) on a vocabulary self-awareness (view literacy strategy descriptions)

chart which has been provided as a blackline master. See Vocabulary Self-Awareness BLM.

Instruct students to design (with teacher guidance) an investigation using rolling toys to test how friction affects the movement of objects. Students should use the Science Investigation Guidelines BLM as a guide when designing an investigation and the Science Investigation Rubric BLM to assess the activity. They should also make a list of

safety precautions to follow. The following is a suggested investigation:

1. Students will test rolling toys rolled from an inclined plane onto a variety of

materials to determine how friction affects their movement. Student groups will

test materials such as sandpaper, aluminum foil, construction paper, a smooth

surface, and carpet. Students are to test each toy on each material for a

predetermined amount of time, such as one two minute, including multiple trials.

rd3 Grade Science Unit 5: Forces and Motion 77

2. Students are to average the time of the multiple trails for use in determining the

friction winners on the Rolling Toy Race Data Sheet BLM. if students are not

familiar with finding the average of a set of data, the teacher may have to assists

3. Students are to provide a written or pictorial account of their procedure using the

Rolling Toy Race Data Sheet BLM and should predict the outcome of each test.

4. After observing the movement of the toys on the different materials, students will

rank materials from which is most effective for slowing the toy down (provides

the most friction) to least effective in slowing an object down (provides the least

friction). Students are to record their findings using the Rolling Toy Race Data

Sheet BLM.

A teacher-led discussion on friction should be incorporated with group presentations

of their results. Discussion and science learning log questions that could be used as

individual formative assessment include the following:

; Which material allowed the toy to move the fastest? Why? Can you explain

; Which material was best for slowing the toy down? Why? Can you explain

; Name some other materials that will cause the toy to travel at a slower speed.

; Name some other materials that will cause the toy to travel at a faster speed.

; Can students name some daily incidents in which friction could affect them?

Activity-Specific Assessment

Have student answer the following questions:

1. Which of the following materials would you choose to make your car move the quickest: sandpaper, construction paper, carpet, smooth floor? Why?

2. Which material would you choose to make your car move the slowest? Why?

Use a teacher-made rubric for to evaluate student responses to these questions.

Activity 46: Moving Objects (CC Unit 36) (GLEs 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 13, 24, 26)

Materials List: Moving Objects Data Sheet BLM, Vocabulary Self-Awareness Chart BLM, science learning log, identical masses such as washers or other similar weights, electronic balance (if available), small cup with handle, string, ruler, book or notebook

Lead a class discussion about force by using the following prompt. Suppose you pull an empty wagon down the street. Then a friend gets in the wagon, and you pull again. The second time, you have to pull a lot harder. Why? Lead students in this discussion to conclude that a force is a push or pull. Force should also be added to the students’

Vocabulary Self-Awareness (view literacy strategy descriptions) Chart BLM and their

vocabulary cards (view literacy strategy descriptions).

rd3 Grade Science Unit 5: Forces and Motion 78

To begin this activity, provide students with the Vocabulary Self-Awareness BLM. This

chart will be used to record information about vocabulary that is used throughout the unit. These vocabulary terms can then be made into vocabulary cards and used as study aids

for test and quizzes. Remind students to use the format below when creating their flashcards. Students should fill in this chart with definitions of these terms as they are discussed in the activities in this unit. Students should not define terms until it is discussed in the activities.

Example of information on vocabulary cards:

Vocabulary Word - incline plane

Definition - Is a flat surface set at an angle to another surface

Characteristics - to lean or slant, smooth surface

Examples - ramps used for things like: skateboarding and wheelchairs

Illustration have students draw pictures or cut illustrations from magazines

In this activity, students will explore, gather, and interpret data about the amount of force that is needed to move a book across a tabletop. Explain to students that scientists often organize their data into charts. Scientists then study the completed charts, looking for patterns and relationships. Explain to students that they have been recording data in charts provided by the teacher, but today they will be responsible for devising an appropriate chart for organizing their data. Students will then analyze the data and discuss any trends they see in the data. This activity should be done as a class demonstration so that students can focus on collecting their data.

1. Tie one end of a length of string to a light weight book or notebook and the other

end of the string to a cup. The string should be long enough to allow the book to

hang off the side of the tabletop. See illustration in step two.

2. Suspend the cup from the end of the table letting it hang off the table. Add

identical masses such as washers or other similar weights to the cup until the book

begins to move.

3. Using a measurement tool,

measure the distance the book

has moved each time a different

rd3 Grade Science Unit 5: Forces and Motion 79

amount of weight is added to the cup. Guide students in recording these

measurements using the Moving Objects Data Table BLM. Use the example

below as a guide, if needed, to assist students in designing their chart.

Trial # # of weights used Mass of weights Distance book moved

(optional)

4. As additional weights are added, have students record the amount of washers and

the measurement of the distance the book moved. Students can measure washers

using an electronic balance, if available. Compare the amount of washers needed

to the distance the book moved each time.

Ask students to predict the amount of washers it would take to make another book (that the teacher has chosen) move across the table. Students should compare at least three different books varying in mass. Ask the following:

; Which book required more force to make it move? Why?

; Which book required less force to make it move? Why?

; Why do some things require more force to move than others?

; Explain how the amount and direction of force exerted by the weights determined

how far the book(s) moved.

These questions and answers should also be recorded in the students’ science learning

logs (view literacy strategy descriptions).

Activity-Specific Assessment

Have student complete the chart.

Book 1

Number of Weights Distance Moved

Activity 47: Basketball Race (CC Unit 3) (GLEs 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 13, 23, 24, 26)

Students will test bowling balls (or a similar ball such as a basketball) to investigate how forces affect a moving object. Start a bowling ball moving across the floor. Have students predict what would happen if the ball was pushed using different amounts of force. Instruct one student at a time tap the ball with a yard or meter stick. Have students record observations on a data sheet. Try tapping it in different places, tapping it a different number of times in the same place, tapping it in front of the ball and then behind the ball, and tapping it with different strengths. Ask them:

; How has the motion of the ball changed?

rd3 Grade Science Unit 5: Forces and Motion 80

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