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By Shirley Adams,2014-05-28 14:27
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ppt (4)



     European Culture: an Introduction

     Division Three The Middle Ages

     Main Contents

     General Introduction Manor and Church Learning and Science Literature Art and Architecture

     I. General Introduction

     The middle ages In European history, the thousand-year period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century is called the Middle Ages. It is so called because it came between ancient times and modern times. ??Age of Faith??

     II. Manor and Church

     1. Feudalism The word ??feudalism?? was derived from the Latin ??feudum??, a grant of land

     a. Growth of Feudalism

     land + service peasants peasants protection

     large land owners


     free workers


     II. Manor and Church

     1. Feudalism In 732 Charles Martel , a Frankish ruler gave his soldiers estates known as fiefs as reward for their service. Soldiers(fiefs) lords(vassals) king nobles became independent rulers, they had rights to collect taxes make laws coin money raise armies Feudalism a form of local and decentralized government




     Wine press cottages




     Manor house meadows


     bread oven pastures

     c. Knighthood and Code of Chivalry

     Page (7) squire (14) knight (dubbing) Code of chivalry: To protect the weak To fight for the church To be loyal to his lord To respect women of noble birth

     2. The Church

     Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.

     Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.

     The power and Influence of the catholic church

     Three classes of people in western Europe under feudalism

     Clergy Lords


     3. The Crusades

     Reason : Process: First Crusade Second Crusade Third Crusade Fourth Crusade Fifth Crusade Sixth Crusade Seventh Crusade Eighth Crusade End: Significance: 1096?ª1099 1147 1149 1189 1192 1202 1204 1218 1221 1228 1229 1248 1254 1270

     III. Learning and Science

     1.Charlemagne and Carolingian Renaissance

     Charlemagne/Charles/ Charles the Great(742-814) He was crowned ?? Emperor of the Romans?? by the Pope in 800. Carolingian Renaissance

     III. Learning and Science

     2.Alfred the Great and Wessex Centre of Learning Alfred the Great (849-899), ruler of the AngloSaxon kingdom of Wessex made Wessex the AngloSaxon culture center

     III. Learning and Science

     3. St. Thomas Aquinas and Scholasticism

     St. Thomas Aquinas (12251274) Italian philosopher and theologian, the supreme figure in scholasticism. Summa Theologica

     III. Learning and Science

     3. Roger Bacon and Experimental Science

     Astrology (foretelling the future by study of the stars) Alchemy (converting base metals into gold) Roger Bacon (about 1220--1292) main work : the Opus maius encyclopedia of the sciences of his time.

     IV. Literature

     1. National Epics

     ??National epics?? refers to the epic written in vernacular languages that is, the languages of various national states that came into being in the Middle Ages. Beowulf (700-750 A.D.) Song of Roland ( about 12century A.D.)

     2. Dante Alighieri and The Divine Comedy 3. Geoffery Chaucer and The Canterbury Tales

     V. Art and Architecture

     1. Romanesque Romanesque art is predominantly religious. Architecture is characterized by massiveness, solidity, and monumentality with an overall blocky appearance. Sculpture and painting, primarily in churches, developed a wonderful unity with the architecture. Both arts are imbued with symbolism and allegory

     Romanesque Church

     V. Art and Architecture

     2. Gothic Gothic cathedrals soared high, their windows, arches and towers reaching heavenward, flinging their passion against the sky. They were decorated with beautiful stained glass windows and sculptures more lifelike than any since ancient Rome.


     1. The Middle Ages is also called the . A. ?? Age of Christianity?? B. ?? Age of literature?? C. ?? Age of Holy Spirit?? D. ?? Age of Faith?? 2. When was the Church divided into the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church? A. after 1066 B. after 1296 C. after 1054 D.after 476 3. According to the code of chivalry, which of the following is not pledged to do for a knight? A. to be loyal to his lord B. to fight for the church C. to obey without question the orders of the abbot D. to respect women of noble birth

     4. In 732, who gave his soldiers estates known as fiefs as a reward for their service? 732, A. Charles Martel, a Frankish ruler B. Charles I, a Turkish ruler C. Constantine I, a Frankish ruler D. St. Benedict, an Italian ruler St. 5. Under Feudalism, what were the three classes of people of western Europe?-- Europe?-- A. clergy , knights and serfs B. Pope , bishop and peasants C. clergy , lords and peasants D. knights , nobles and serfs 6. Which of the following about the knight or noble in the Middle Ages in Europe is NOT true? A. Almost all nobles were knights in the Medieval. Medieval. B. A noble began his education as a page at the age of seven. seven. C. As a knight , he was pledged to fight for the church. church. D. At about fourteen , the page became a knight. knight.

     7. By which year the Moslems had taken over the last Christian stronghold and won the crusades and ruled all the territory in Palestine that the crusaders had fought to control? A. 1270 B. 1254 C. 1096 D. 1291 8. Which of the following was crowned ?? Emperor of the Romans?? by the Romans?? Pope in 800? 800? A. St. Thomas Aquinas St. B. Charlemagne C. Constantine D. King James 9. Who was the ruler of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex and Anglocontributed greatly to the medieval European culture? A. Charles I B. Constantine I C. Alfred the Great D. Charles the Great 10. Who is the author of The Canterbury Tales? 10. Tales? A. Roger Bacon B. Dante Alighieri C. Chaucer D. St. Thomas Aquinas St.


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