Marketing Research

By Carolyn Lee,2014-05-28 14:27
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Marketing Research




     Understand MIS and its main functions Define Marketing Research and outline its process Explain Sampling Plan and identify types of Sampling Methods Discuss Measurement Issues Design Data Collection Forms

     1.Marketing Information System (MIS)

     The Definition (P68) MIS consists of people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers. The main functions

     Assessing the information needs Developing information Distributing information

     1.Marketing Information System (MIS)

     Three major sources to obtain needed information

     Internal DataInternal databases Marketing IntelligencePublicly available

    information Marketing Research

     What is MIS?(PR63-64) MIS?(PR63-64)

     Developing information Internal data Information analysis

     Assessing information needs

     Distributing information

     Marketing intelligence

     Marketing research

     2.Marketing Research

     The Definition The process of systematically gathering, recording, and analysing data concerning a particular marketing problem. The Importance of Marketing Research (P71)

     Marketing Research Process (P71-83)

     1. Determine the Problem or Opportunity 2. Assess the Data Needs 3. Select the Research Design 4. Determine the Sampling Plan 5. Determine Measurement Issues 6. Design the Data Collection Forms 7. Prepare the Data 8. Analyse the Data 9. Present the Findings

     <1>Determine the Problem and Research Objectives

     Careful problem definition would have avoided the cost and delay of doing advertising research Three types of objectives: Exploratory Research(探索性调研)

    Descriptive Research(描述性调研) Causal Research (因果性调研)

     <2>Assess the Data Needs

     Translating the research objectives into specific information needs For example, Starbucks decided to conduct research on how consumers would react to the introduction of its VIA Ready Brew.

     <2>Assess the Data Needs

     The research might need the following information: The demographic, economic, and lifestyle characteristics of current Starbucks consumers; Consumer-usage patterns for Starbucks products: where they drink and when; Forecasts of sales of both new and current packages.

     <3>Select the Research Design

     Two types of data

     Primary Data(原始数据)Originated by the researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the research problem Secondary Data(二手数据)Collected for some

    purpose other than the problem at hand

     Primary /Secondary research

     Primary research or original information gathered for a specific purpose. Its source of data is known and data are current,but it is expensive to obtain.Gather it through questionnaire, interview, observation and experiment. Secondary research or information that already exists somewhere. It is usually faster and less expensive to obtain that primary research. But it might be outdated or inaccurate.Gather it through business information centre , the Internet and library.

     <3>Select the Research Design

     Qualitative Research (定性研究)An unstructured, exploratory research based on

    small samples that provides insights and understanding of the problem setting Quantitative research (定量研究)A research seeking to quantify the data and

    typically, applies some form of statistical analysis

     Qualitative Research


     Quantitative Research To quantify the data and generalize the results from the sample to the population of interest Large number of representative cases Structured Statistical Recommend a final course of action

     To gain a qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations Small number of nonrepresentative cases Unstructured Non-statistical Develop an initial understanding

     Sample Data collection Data analysis Outcome

     Qualitative Research Approaches

     Direct Approaches

     Focus groups(焦点小组) Depth interviews(深度访谈法)

     Indirect Approaches

     Projective techniques 投射法

     Quantitative Research Approaches

     Research Approaches

     Survey Experiment

     Contact Methods

     Mail Telephone Personal Online Fieldwork

     Sampling Plan

     Research Instruments

     Sampling unit Questionnaire Sample size Mechanical instruments Sampling procedure

     Other Research Approaches

     Group discussion Diary panels - sources of continuous data In-home scanning - hand-held light pen to scan barcodes In-store testing

     <4>Determine the Sampling Plan

     Three factors determining the sampling plan:

     Sampling Unit Sample Size Sampling Procedure

     Non- Probability /Probability Samples

     概率样本 Probability Sample 非概率样本 Non-probability Sample

     一个样本中每个个体都有既定的中选机会 A sample in which every element in the

    population has a known statistical likelihood of being selected. Any sample in which little or no attempt is made to get a representative cross-section of the population

     <4>Determine the Sampling Plan

     Types of Sampling Methods (P76-77)

     Convenience Sampling (方便抽样) 方便抽样) NonNon-probability SelfSelf-selected

    Sampling Sample Quota Sampling (配额抽样) 配额抽样) Judgment Sampling (判断抽样)

    断抽样) Probability Random Sampling Sample (随机抽样) 随机抽样) Stratified Random

    Sampling (分层随机抽样) 分层随机抽样)

     <5>Determine the Measurement Issues

     Design and use of questions and scales to gather the needed data associated with issues of research interest Research Approaches

     <6>Design the Data Collection Forms

     Questionnaires Design (P79-80) Using simple, direct, unbiased wording Arranging questions in a logic order Avoiding leading questions and doublebarrelled questions

     <6>Design the Data Collection Forms

     For example,

     "Do you think it is right to deprive your child of the opportunity to grow into a mature person through the experience of summer camping?" "Have you suffered from headaches or sickness lately?"

     <6>Design the Data Collection Forms

     Types of questions:

     Open-ended question Closed-ended question Scaled-response question

     Likert scale(李克特量表)

     strongly agree agree neither agree nor disagree disagree strongly


     <7>Prepare the Data <8>Analyse the Data <9>Present the Findings

     The information is presented in a marketing research report, which covers the research questions, objectives, the methodology, data sources, analysis findings, an interpretation of the information, recommendations and suggestions.

     3.When Should Marketing Research be Used?

     When alternative actions are available When there are potentially different payoffs from the different actions When there is uncertainty about which action to take When you are potentially willing to alter actions based on the research results When it is possible to collect the information When the cost of the research is less than the added benefit


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