Digital analysis of fundus hemorrhage patients_7599

By Leroy Harper,2014-10-30 18:21
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Digital analysis of fundus hemorrhage patients_7599

Digital analysis of fundus hemorrhage patients

     Key Words disease-bit

     Fundus hemorrhage, a wide range, but also complex, is clinical common and likely to cause blindness in fundus. With the absorption of slow and protracted course of

    treatment, complications and more pathological characteristics of a high rate of blindness. Must pass the fundus examination and fundus angiography, etc. in order to confirm the diagnosis. Fundus refers to the inner surface of the eye all the visible, mainly optic papilla, retina, retinal artery and vein, macular area and part of the choroid. This is a case of systemic in vivo only a relatively simple approach can be seen directly from here, the body's nerves and blood vessels. In front of the eye wall of the

    outer part of the cornea, which is the texture and transparent organization. There is also a transparent eyeball wall material, in front of a room of water, the middle lens, followed by the vitreous. Because of this feature of anatomy and physiology in clinical

    ophthalmoscope can be borrowed from the pupil to the inside, through a transparent organization, see the fundus bleeding patterns and changes. Or for fundus fluorescein angiography to determine whether retinal vascular leakage, for the diagnosis and

    treatment of disease-bit basis. Such eye, according to disease site, there are retinopathy, macular degeneration, optic neuropathy, systemic disease four groups. Have their own salient features and clinical manifestations are profile below.

     A hemorrhagic retinopathy

     Retinopathy is a common cause of retinal hemorrhage, these lesions around the main retinal vein inflammation, retinal vein occlusion, retinal hemangioma, the outer layer such as exudative retinitis. Retinal periphlebitis, more common in young males

    aged over 40 were rare disease, eyes often have the disease and the recurrence tendency. Since peripheral fundus lesions, tortuous veins to expand, and some showed beaded, wall panels with white sheath, accompanied by the formation of new blood

    vessels, about 26% of patients with final visual acuity less than 0.1. Retinal vein occlusion, often occurs in elderly or accompanied by high blood pressure, glaucoma patients is an important cause of blindness. Multi-block area in the central retinal vein

    Office, but may also occur branch of vein occlusion. Blocking reasons: lesion area in the vicinity of the retinal edema, exudation and hemorrhage. Bleeding for a long time can enter the vitreous body, often caused by a sudden vision impaired. Bleeding

    gradually absorbed restore some vision, but the repeated bleeding will lead to proliferation of connective tissue machine, the formation of proliferative retinopathy, machine-based organizations, leading to traction retinal detachment contraction at the

    same time can cause complicated cataract and secondary glaucoma, which Pathogenesis and vein pressure, blood viscosity increase caused by stagnation of blood flow and the wall itself lesions. Retinal vascular tumor, often accompanied by

    cerebellar vascular cyst, liver, kidney and other organs can also be victimized. The retina can be seen, large or small, red blood vessel tumor, patients are mostly young people. Eyes 50% of patients involved, 20% of the patients have a family trend. There are two expansion tortuous blood vessels connected with the optic nerve, followed by leaking and bleeding occurs. Outer exudative retinitis, is a chronic progressive retinal vascular abnormalities in patients with healthy men, mostly teenagers, monocular disease caused by expansion of a large number of yellow-white exudative capillaries

    and bleeding. Exudation is located in the outer retina, retinal blood vessels under the microscope, the retina, showing elevated status, often accompanied by cholesterol crystal calm. The formation of retinal tears and holes, multi-traction caused by trauma

    or vitreous, often accompanied by retinal hemorrhage, severe cases can cause vitreous hemorrhage, the patient more than 40 years of age or over, or accompanied by a high degree of myopia who tears may occur after the formation of retinal detachment.

     2-related macular degeneration hemorrhage

     Fundus-related macular degeneration caused by bleeding, the clinical is also very common. There are age-related macular degeneration, high myopia with macular

    hemorrhage, young adults hemorrhagic macular lesions, subretinal neovascular macular degeneration, central serous chorioretinopathy macular hemorrhage. Age-

    related macular degeneration occurred in more than 50 years of age or older, have

    involved eyes. Hemorrhagic macular degeneration often around the discoid lesions around the severe bleeding can invade the vitreous body. Due to subretinal neovascularization can be caused by repeated bleeding. Later absorbed into the blood, machine, partial left the white machine based on visual acuity of serious damage caused by plaque, bleeding period of the formation of blue gray eminence who should be the identification of choroidal malignant melanoma. Fundus fluorescein angiography, can provide useful information for differential diagnosis. In high myopia macular hemorrhage retinal degenerative changes are usually 40 to 50-year-old origin. The

    elderly is often associated with multiple complications, resulting in a serious obstacle to vision. Suddenly, the old high myopic eyes are dark red or black shadow, and around the macula shows subretinal choroidal hemorrhage, Duocheng round, dark red. Macula can be seen round or irregular-shaped yellow-white atrophic plaques, borders

    clear, shrink plaque in or edges may have pigmentation. Young adults hemorrhagic macular disease, more common in young adults 20 to 40 years old, central vision loss, depending on the material deformation, vision center dark spots, fundus see macula isolated exudative chorioretinopathy, associated with retinal neovascularization and hemorrhage , leading to scar formation. Subretinal neovascularization-related macular

    degeneration can occur in addition to age-related macular degeneration, young adults

    bleeding-related macular degeneration, the stripes can be found in blood vessel-related

    macular degeneration and eye contusion damage to the macular region. Manifested as decreased visual acuity, metamorphopsia and central scotoma. Fundus showed retinal neovascularization can be seen blue and gray or gray patches, often accompanied by a ring bleeding. Central serous chorioretinopathy macular hemorrhage more common in young men, there is tendency of recurrence. Depending on material Hunmeng, eyes often appear a central circular light gray or yellow gray shadow, depending on

    material deformation occurs in some patients, such as the much smaller, as straight as a song, depending on the positive and negative slope and so on. Fundus findings showed diffuse retinal macular edema, its edges are round or oval-shaped anti-halo, as well as

    irregular yellow stripe Li Buqing. Accompanied by a small number of patients with flame-like or spotting. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://

     3 optic neuropathy bleeding

     Optic neuropathy caused by retinal hemorrhage are more common optic papillitis,

    optic disc vasculitis, ischemic optic neuropathy, optic papilla edema. Optic nerve papillitis, more common in young adults and children, and the majority of eyes with acute disease. Sharp depreciation of conscious vision, not even distinguish light and dark, often accompanied by pain the forehead, eyes, eye rotation tenderness and pain, like when traction, the retina can occur near the optic nerve head edema, bleeding or exudation, if the visual acuity was light perception has been the pupil scattered large, light responses disappear. Fundus optic papilla hyperemia, mild uplift, boundary ambiguity, physical depression disappeared, retinal vein dilation, visual field with central dark spot, next to the central dark spot, or concentric narrowing. Optic disc vasculitis, multiple monocular disease occur in the physical health of youth. More obvious symptoms, the early vision are mostly normal or slightly decreased, the course is longer, a slow, fundus shows optic nerve hyperemia, edema, blurred edges, the severity level ranging from varicose veins, in order to papilledema-based persons, that

    papilledema type; to retinal hemorrhage mainly those who, claiming that retinal vein occlusion model. Such as the invasion and macular lesions will inevitably give rise to different degrees of visual impairment. Secondary optic atrophy may be so severely affected vision. Common after-effects of the vein was sheath, the edge of the nipple

    inside and telangiectasia, macular pigment disorders, can be presented stains like urine, vision changes or may have a corresponding expansion of physiological blind spot. Ischemic optic neuropathy, and good hair in the 45 ~ 70 years old, the elderly, the incidence of two has. Disease or illness as before, when there are migraine headaches, eye pain, or supraorbital pain, but the eye movements without pain. Early there is a transient blurred vision, depending on the material deformation or discoloration, varying degrees of impaired vision, heavy can to light perception, a few patients have diplopia. It is characterized by sudden-onset visual impairment, quadrant visual field

    defect, pale optic nerve, post-papilledema gradually disappeared, while the fan-shaped

    limitations of shrinking. Changes in vision Duocheng semi-blind or quadrant defect, the

    defect often linked to physiological blind spot, not to the level of the midline, and become the center line as the boundary is straight, but also the optic nerve fiber bundle damage can occur, fundus shows papilledema, linear hemorrhage and soft of exudation. Optic nerve edema, mainly caused by increased intracranial pressure, the most common reason is that intracranial tumors, the incidence of edema and intracranial tumor location and growth rate of a certain relationship between the

    incidence is generally within the eyes of its vision in order to cycle of a temporary disorder characterized by an early vision is not affected, when the disease is the development of visual acuity gradually decreased. Due to increased intracranial

    pressure and headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, due to different causes and lesions and with proptosis, extraocular muscle paralysis or symptoms such as mydriasis. Optic fundus initially appear blurred boundaries, starting with the upper edge and lower

    edge of the beginning, and gradually spread to the nasal and temporal side of the optic nerve and see there is a gradual increase capillary proliferation, central retinal vein gradually thicker near the retina may have a potential bleeding .

     4 systemic bleeding lesion

     Systemic disease caused by retinal hemorrhage, a hypertensive retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy, renal retinopathy, retinopathy of toxemia of pregnancy and so on. Hypertensive retinopathy often accompanied by retinal arteriosclerosis, is one of a common cause of retinal hemorrhage. Often occurs in the elderly, of which about 70% of the patients is often associated with retinal changes. Fundus changes include changes in retinal artery, arteriovenous crossing changes, retinal hemorrhage exudative changes in hypertensive choroidal changes, and changes in optic papilla. The positive rate of fundus changes in the patient age, disease duration and blood pressure is closely related to the degree of control. When the chronic progressive deterioration of hypertension radical type of entry when the arterial wall can seriously damage the blood - retinal barrier is damaged, plasma and blood formed elements from the blood vessels into the retina, causing retinal edema, hemorrhage and exudation. Retinal

    edema after the pole instead. Retinal white mist appearance, some thinning of the

    artery and tortuous veins submerged. Retinal hemorrhage and blood pressure fluctuations related to a sudden sharp rise or fall can cause bleeding. Most of

    hemorrhage in the nerve fiber layer, was flame-like appearance, but also the deep

    round or punctate bleeding. The amount of bleeding for a long time to break through internal limiting membrane into the vitreous.

     Diabetic retinopathy is one of the important cause of blindness. The four major blinding eye disease in the developed countries accounted for an important position. Its occurrence and duration of diabetes and blood glucose control are closely related to the

    situation. 15 years after the onset of illness, almost 50% of patients have retinopathy.Because elderly patients with diabetes is often associated with hypertension or high blood lipids, a higher incidence of retinopathy and develop faster. Due to increased osmotic pressure within the retinal tissue, resulting in cell swelling, cell membrane damage, in particular the destruction of capillary walls pericyte loss, causing increased capillary permeability, venous expansion of hemorrhage, tumor, and microvascular leakage. Bleeding may occur in the retinal layers, the typical bleeding in the macula of the retina near the outer plexiform layer, round dot or round spot-like,

    the more blurred the boundary. Nephropathy retinopathy are acute glomerulonephritis or chronic glomerular nephritis and moderate sustained hypertension clinical manifestations. In addition to the protein found in urine, hematuria, urinary and renal tubular dysfunction, there are dizziness, fatigue, backache leg difficulties, loss of appetite, body swelling and other symptoms. Early fundus of the retina can be seen around the optic nerve head edema, retinal artery reflective enhanced strip bleeding lesions can be seen around, and have obvious borders cotton patches and harden and exudative changes, late papilledema obvious fundus strip bleeding except , the sheet still see them bleeding, the fundus may be pale due to anemia and was the state. Retinopathy of toxemia of pregnancy more common in the early maternal, amniotic twins more than the last 3 months of pregnancy. Mainly for high blood pressure,

    edema, proteinuria, and retinopathy. In addition to vision loss, flashes of light, depending on the object with dark spots or complex depending on outside, they can still have abdominal Mentong, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness symptoms, symptoms

    of severe convulsions can occur. Arterio-venous ratio of retinal fundus shows marked

    arteriosclerotic changes in retinal posterior pole, retinal edema, and see cotton wool exudate, can be presented Mans-like macular exudation. Duocheng flame-shaped

    retinal hemorrhage, severe central retinal artery spasm may occur, secondary optic papilla optic atrophy or acute ischemic changes, so that serious damage to vision, but also occurs serous retinal detachment.

     Because of organizational anatomical factors, choroidal hemorrhage Duocheng demarcated dark red patches. Deep retinal capillary bleeding from the deep, Chenganhongse circle or dot macular, retinal hemorrhage from the shallow superficial blood vessels, nerve fiber layer is located, it was bright red or flame-shaped strip.

    Internal limiting membrane and retinal nerve fiber layer hemorrhage, known as the pre-retinal hemorrhage. From the superficial capillaries or the capillaries around the optic nerve, showing the level of half-moon pocket on the face, irrespective of retinal

    hemorrhage, retinal internal limiting membrane, such as a breakthrough, then into the

    vitreous, the correct observation of retinal bleeding has not only helped the diagnosis of eye disease, and certain systemic diseases to assist the diagnosis and prognosis, may provide important information. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download


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