An Introduction to New Zealand
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1. New Zealand has two main islands, North Island and South Island.
2. The capital of New Zealand is Wellington, which is situated in North Island.
3. New Zealand is just west of the International Date Line, so it is the first country to get the new day.
4. New Zealand is characterized by mountains, vocanic area and
5.Many of New Zealand’s plants and animals are unique.
6. The first European to visit New Zealand was a Dutchman Abel
Tasman, who reaches South Island in 1642.
7. The first English man to visit New Zealand was Captain James
Cook in 1769.
8. In 1840, the first official governor Wihiam Hobson signed a treaty
with Maori chiefs. It is the Treaty of Waitangi.
9. February 6 is celebrated as New Zealand National Day, or Waitangi
10. Maoritanga is Maori culture.
11. Bilingual schools were set up in the 1970s to encourage Maori culture revival.
12. New Zealand is a sovereign independent state, with a parliamentary government and a constitutional monarchy.
13. Queen Elizabeth II is the head of New Zealand, but she is represented by Governor-General in New Zealand.
14. General elections are held about every 3 years with two main parties National Party and Labor Party competing with each other. 15. The judiciary system includes High Court, district courts, the
Family Court and the Children and Young Persons Court. 16. Christianity is the most widespread religion and English and Maori are two official languages.
17. Tertiary education is university education.
18. New Zealand is one of the largest exporters of meat, diary
products and wool.
19. Marae is the focus of Maori Community Life.
Introduction to Canada
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•1. Canada is the world’s second largest country. It has a land area of
2about 10 million km.
•2. Canada’s largest city is Toronto.
•3. The two principal river systems are the Mackenzie and the St.
•4. The highest peak in Canada is Mount Logan.
•5. Canada is made up of 10 provinces and 2 territories: Northwest
territories and Yukon.
•6. The capital of Canada is Ottawa.
•7. The original people of Canada are Indians and Eskimo (Inuit).
•8. The history of white man in Canada actually began in 1497, when John Cabot , an Italian in the service of Henry VII of England, reached Newfound.
•9. Samuel de Champlain, known as the father of Canada, established his “hibitation” in what is now in Quebec city in 1608.
•10. Most of Canada’s French Canadians live in the province of
•11. The Quebec Act of 1774 granted the people of Quebec rights as French Canadians.
•12. The first British settlers in Canada were American refugees in the war of American Independence who called themselves Loyalists.
•13. Upper Canada (British) and Lower Canada (French) were created by an Act of 1791.
•14. Responsible self-government was suggested in Durham report in
•15. The Canadian Pacific Railway was completed in 1885.
•16. Canada’s National Day is July 1st.
•17. In 1867, Canada became a federal union and made a dominion by British North American Act.
•18. After the Statue of Westminster in 1931, Canada became a member of the Commonwealth Nations.
•19. The First Prime Minister of Canada was John Macdonald.
•20. Almost half of the land area of Canada is covered by forest.
Canada ranks third in the production of lumber and forest products in the world.
•21. Canada has one of the longest coastline of any country in the
•22. Canada’s fisheries are important sources of food for domestic use and for exports.
•23. The largest source of foreign investment in Canada comes from the United States.
•24. For decades, Canada has been shifting from a natural resource based economy to a service economy.
•25. Canada’s central bank is the Bank of Canada.
•26. The Queen of Britain is represented in Canada by Governor-General, who is appointed on the recommendation of Prime
•27. The Canadian Parliament has two houses: the Senate and the
House of Commons.
•28. A Lieutenant-Governor represents the Queen in each province of Canada.
•29. The largest province of Canada is Quebec.
•30. The two main federal parties in Canada are the Liberal Party and
the Progressive Party.
•31. The party which has the second highest number of members elected to the House of Commons forms the Official Opposition.
•32. A new language law, known as the “Charter of the French
Language in Quebec”, made French the official language of Quebec. •33. In 1867, the British Parliament passed the British North America Act , which created the Canadian Federation.
•34. Canada and some other Commonwealth countries recognize Britain’s monarch as Head of State.
•35. In 1969, the Official Language Act made both French and English
the official language of Canada.
•36. The Canadian Cabinet is made up of the Prime Minister and his
personally chosen ministers, and is responsible only to the House of Commons.
•37. The word “Inuit” means “the people” in their own language,
whereas “Eskimo” is an Indian word meaning “eaters of raw flesh”.
•38. Since Confederation in 1867, Canada’s immigration policy has shifted from free immigration to selected immigration, and then to
•39. The Canadian population is chiefly characterized by its linguistic
•40. Migration from other countries has always been an important source of Canadian population and growth.
•41. In 1971, the Canadian government adopted a policy of multiculturalism, recognizing that cultural pluralism within a bilingual framework was the essence of the Canadian identity. •42. In all areas, Canadian education is divided into three successive levels: elementary, secondary and post-secondary.
An Introduction to Australian
1. Australia is the world’s largest island and the smallest continent.
2. The total area of Australia is 7682300 square kilometers, which
ranks the sixth in area in the world.
3. Australia’s population is about 18 million.
4. Canberra, the Capital of Australia, is in the Australia Capital Territory.
5. Australia is made up of six states, five of them on the mainland, the
sixth is the island state of Tasmania.
6. The longest river in Australia is Murray.
7. The highest point in Australia is Mount Koscciusko at 2255 meters
above sea level.
8. The largest city in Australia is Sydney.
9. The Outback usually refers to the interior and the center of the Western Plateau and its northern plains.
10. The largest coral reef in the world is the Great Barrier Reef.
11. Lake Eyre is regarded as Australia’s largest lake.
12. Two thirds of the continent is hot and dry.
13. In Australia about half of the native animals are marsuipials.
14. Australia is a multicultural society.
15. Australia is a highly urbanized country, 80 % of Australians live in the coastal cities and towns.
16. Australia has ranked first in the world export of wool.
17. The sunniest city in Australia is Darwin, which lies in Queensland
18. Uluru probably attracts more overseas visitors than any other national scenic feature in Australia.
19. Two Territories in Australia include Northern Territory and
Australian Capital Territory.
20. The head of the Australian government is the Queen of England.
21. The history of Australia began with the arrival of Aborigines, who
began to settle in Australia between 500, 000 and 100, 000 years ago. 22. The land is the central in the life of the Aborigines. 23. Aboriginal art included rock painting and engraving, cave painting,
bark painting and carving.
24. It is assumed that the first Europeans who reached Australia’s shores were the Spanish and Portuguese.
25. James Cook finally put Australia on the map.
26. Today January 26, the date of the first European settlement in 1788, is still celebrated as Australia’s National Day.
27. William Dampier was the first English man to reach Australia. 28. Arthur Philip was the first Governor of the new colony. 29. The 1850s was the first goldrush in Australian history. 30. The three decades following the 1850s goldrushes were a period of great development in Australia.
31. By 1890s, more Australian writers and painters depicted Australia—especially the Australian bush.
32. The magazines like the Sydney Bulletin were very popular in the
33. Because most Australians were Australia-born by the end of 1890s, a spirit of nationalism began to develop.
34. Edmund Barton was the first Prime Minister of Australia. 35. The Commonwealth of Australia came into being in 1901.
36. In order to restrict the entry of non-whites, Australia passed Immigration Restriction Act in 1901.
37. Australia became well known as White Australia Policy because of
its discriminatory immigration policy.
38. To defend Britain to “our last man and our last shilling” was Australia’s determination in WWI.
39. The Australian-New Zealand force was called Anzacs, and April
25 is called Anzac Day in Australia.
40. Australia Labor Party became split during WWI because of the issue of conscription.
41. Australia was called “the lucky country” in the 1950s.
42. Multiculturalism was introduced by Whitlam government.
43. In 1984, “Advance Australia Fair” replaced “God Save the Queen”
as the national anthem.
44. The present PM of Australia is John Howard.
45. Generally the Australian federation has a three-tier system of
46. Australia is independent but still has constitutional links with
47. British monarch or The Queen is represented in Australia by the Governor-General.
48. Unlike Britain, Australia has a written constitution, which can be
changed only by referendum.
49. The Australian Federal Parliament is modeled on the Westminster system.
50. The Senate was given the function to represent the state. 51. The federal government is formed by the party or coalition of parties which has a majority of seats in the House of Representatives.
52. The members in a ministry in Australia must be Members of Parliament.
53. The Labor Party is the oldest of the Australian parties and has a
close relationship with trade unions.
54. The Liberal Party of Australia and the National Party of Australia are both conservative parties.
55. Since the 1970s, Australia has been moving towards a multicultural society.
56. For generations Aborigines were subjected to policies which segregated them on reserves and missions.
57. Australia’s first migrants were Aborigines.
58. When the Commonwealth of Australia came into being in 1901,
White Australia Policy was a cornerstone of the new nation’s policies.
59. The dual role of women as housewife and employee is seen as the
main reason why many women have not risen to the top of the professions as rapidly as men.
60. The dominant aspect of Aboriginal culture was the balance
between the people and the environment.
61. The Australian Republic Movement was launched in 1992. 62. The third wave of migration to Australia occurred after WWII.
An Introduction to Republic of Ireland
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1. Ireland has a beautiful nickname, Emerald Isle, because of its rich green countryside.
2. The Republic of Ireland is also called Eire, with its capital city of Dublin.
3. Historically Ireland has been free of ethnic conflicts because of its
. racial homogeneity
4. Ireland population is on decline during the past 100 years. 5. In 1921, Irish Free State was set up.
6. The most distinguished religion in Ireland is Catholicism.
7. The full name of IRA is Irish Republican Army.
8. Ireland has persued a foreign policy of neutrality and
9. The Act of Union of 1800 deprived Ireland of independent parliament.
10. Ireland became an EC member state in 1973. 11. The Republic of Ireland consist of 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland. 12. Oireachtas ;爱尔兰国家议会；is Irish Parliament, which consists of two Houses, Dail ;爱尔兰共和国众议院；and Seanad;爱尔兰
13. Teachtai dala’s (TDs爱尔兰共和国众议院议员) and Senators are
in service for 5 years.
14. Fianna Fail (Soldiers of Destiny) and Fine Gael (Irish Tribe)are
two major parties in Ireland , both are descended from Sinn Fein (We
15. Ireland is a free-market economy with a dominant private sector.
16. Unemployment is a chronic economic problem in Ireland, as seen
by both the government and trade unions.
17. Schooling is compulsory between the age of 6 and 15.
18. The chief language is English, but as a result of consciousness of its origin, Gaelic is also taught in school.
19. The oldest university in Ireland is the University of Dublin.
20. The most well-known Irish writer of the modern period is James