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68. Cuchulain is called the "Achilles of the Irish Saga" because a. he is the great warrior of the sage b. like Achilles, he was vulnerable and ...

TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORSGRADE FOUR (VII)

PART I WRITING 45 MIN.

SECTION A COMPOSITION 35 MIN.

     Writing on ANSWER SHEET ONE a composition of about 150 words on the

    following topic:

     Some parents are using money to encourage their children to study. Do you think it

    is a good phenomenon? You are to express your views on this issue.

     SHOULD CHILDREN BE MOTIVATED WITH MONEY

     You are to write in three paragraphs.

    In the first paragraph, state clearly your viewpoint on this issue.

    In the second paragraph, support your viewpoint with details or examples.

    In the last paragraph, bring what you have written to a natural conclusion with a

    summary or a suggestion.

SECTION B NOTE-WRITING 10 MIN.

PART II DICTATION 15 MIN.

     Listen to the following passage. Although the passage will be read to you four

    times. During the first reading, which will be read at normal speed, listen and try to

    understand the meaning. For the second the third readings, the passage will be read

    sentence by sentence, or phrase by phrase, with intervals of 15 seconds. The last

    reading will be read at normal speed again and during this time you should check

    your work. You will then be given 2 minutes to check through your work once more.

Please write the whole passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO.

PART III LISTENING COMPREHENSION 20MIN.

    1. A. This is predicted.

     B. This is impossible.

     C. This is arranged.

     D. This is definite.

    2. A. We got he last three seats.

     B. We got the best seats.

     C. We got the first three seats int he last row.

     D. Only we three got the seats.

    3. A. Do you know the way?

     B. Are you lost?

     C. Is this the way out?

     D. Are you about to leave?

    4. A. Marie did not agree to help David.

     B. Marie refused to marry David.

     C. Marie knocked david down with her hand.

     D. Marie did not let David touch her hand.

    5. A. Some people ought to take measures to control inflation.

     B. It is impossible to control inflation.

     C. Some experts think no way can be found to control inflation.

     D. It seems to some experts that inflation can certainly be controlled. 6. A. It should have been done earlier.

     B. It is better to do something than not to do it at all.

     C. It is too late to do anything.

     D. If it is too late, better never do anything. 7. A. She wasn’t born in India, was she?

     B. It doesn’t seem likely that she is an Indian.

     C. She seems Indian.

     D. We didn’t believe she was Indian.

    8. A. Peter had to stop his car.Peter hit the traffic light.

     B. Peter hit the traffic light.

     C. Peter had a traffic accident.

     D. Peter was given a parking ticket.

    9. A. The word was used perfectly.

     B. It was still a perfect composition for all the misused words.

     C. The composition had one misused word.

     D. The teacher did not accept the composition. 10. A. Dr. Porter had long dedided to stop doing his research.

     B. Dr. Porter continued to do the research.

     C. Dr. Porter was only too willing to stop his research.

     D. It took dr. Porter a long time to decide to give up the research. 11. A. Care of the post office.

     B. At her summer school.

     C. At her aunt’s address.

     D. At her aunt’s school.

    12. A. At a travel agency.

     B. At a hotel.

     C. At an airport.

     D. At a book-store.

    13. A. Less than 75 minutes.

     B. Two and a half hours.

     C. Two hours.

     D. More than 75 minutes.

14. A. Mary has forgotten about them.

     B. Peter will send them out soon.

     C. Peter mailed them.

     D. Peter already received them.

    15. A. Man and wife.

     B. Professor and undergraduate.

     C. Taxi-driver and passenger.

     D. Colleagues.

    16. A. Steve was too tired to study.

     B. Steve didn’t take her advice.

     C. Steve didn’t do well in any of his exams.

     D. Steve failed in his exam because he was depressed. 17. A. He doesn’t like either one.

     B. It’s a difficult decision.

     C. it makes no difference which one she wears.

     D. He has no idea.

    18. A. She is a secretary.

     B. She is a driver.

     C. She is a student.

     D. She is a clerk.

    19. A. 6,400 kilometers.

     B. 2,186 kilometers.

     C. 3,168 kilometers.

     D. 2,816 kilometers.

    20. A. Warm and dry.

     B. Dry but cold.

     C. Sunny and warm.

     D. Cold and wet.

    21. A. An international committee.

     B. The Red Cross in the city.

     C. Kabul.

     D. Pakistan.

    22. A. Because of serious casualties.

     B. Because of the lack of food.

     C. Because of the weather.

     D. Because of an unofficial ceasefire.

    23. A. There has beena rebellion by Indian peasants.

     B. There have been clashes between the Indian peasants.

     C. There has been fighting between government and military officials.

     D. There has been a lotof bombing over the area. 24. A. To move extra troops to suppress the rebels.

     B. To ask the rebels to solve their problem through talks.

     C. To send more military aircraft there.

     D. To call on the rebels to put down their arms.

25. A. Insufficient prison guards.

     B. dislike of prison officials.

     C. Rival gangs at the prison.

     D. An outbreak of fire.

    26. A. Their fight against the prison officials.

     B. Their attack on each other.

     C. Their use of guns.

     D. Their living conditions.

27. A. About 50 years.

     B. About 40 years.

     C. About 10 years.

     D. About 20 years.

    28. A. To compensate those who had been exposed to radiation.

     B. To investigate the spce agency.

     C. To announce the harmful effects of radiation.

     D. To stop doing experiments.

29. A. In Palestine.

     B. In Israel.

     C. In Tunis.

     D. In PLO headquarters.

    30. A. The questioning of Yasser Arafat.

     B. The discussion of the number of negotiators.

     C. The implementation of the agreement on Palestinian autonomy.

     D. The delay to the agreement on Palestinian autonomy.

    PART IV CLOZE 15 MIN.

    Decide which of the choices given below would correctly complete the passage if inserted in the corresponding blanks. Mark the correct choice for each blank on your answer sheet

PART V GRAMMAR & VOCABULARY 15MIN.

PART VI READING COMPREHENSION 30MIN.

SECTION A Reading Comprehension 25MIN.

     In this section there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each

    with four suggested answers marked a, b, c and d. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer,

     Mark your choice on your answer sheet.

TEXT A

     Yeats was beginning to use a vocabulary freshly minted from the treasury of Gaelic literature, and many of the shorter poems in The Countess Kathleen and Various Legends and Lyrics (1892) deal with a mythology Ireland had well nigh forgotten and England never known. For Arthur and his Round Table Yeats substituted the very different Conchubar and his Red Branch Warriors, and Finn and his Fenians. The Red Branch cycle of legends included Fergus, whom Ness had tricked out of his kingdom so that her son Conchubar could rule over Ulster in his stead, and in `Fergus and the Druid' Yeats makes him avid for dreaming wisdom.

    Fergus was the unwitting agent of the doom of the Sons of Usna, Naoise the lover of Deirdre and his brothers Ardan and Ainle, who had accompanied the lovers to Scotland when they fled from Conchubar's wrath, for Deirdre was Conchubar's intended bride. Fergus had persuaded them to return against the wishes of Deirdre and had been tricked out of acting as their safe conduct. He joined with Maeve,Queen of Connaught, after this, in her raid on Ulster, in which Cuchulain achieved his great fame as Ulster's champion. Cuchulain is the Achilles of the Irish Saga, and he appears throughout Yeats' plays and poems, as warrior, as husband of Emer, as lover of Eithne Inguba, and of Aoife, as the unknowing killer of his own son and finally as victim of the sea.

66. Yeats differed from other poets in that he used

     a. Greek mythology b. the Arthurian legend

     c. Gaelic allusions d. the story of Fergus and Conchubar

    67. Fergus

     a. was deposed by Cuchulain b. was king of Ulster

     c. had unwittingly slain Usnan d. married the Queen of Connaught

    68. Cuchulain is called the "Achilles of the Irish Saga" because

     a. he is the great warrior of the sage

     b. like Achilles, he was vulnerable and died of an ankle wound

     c. Achilles dominated the Odyssey

    d. he appears in many of Yeats' plays and poems 69. According to the passage, all named below went to Scotland EXCEPT

    a. Fergus b. Deirdre c. Ainle d. Cuchulain

TEXT B

     Why does the Foundation concentrate its support on basic rather than applied research? Basic research is the very heart of science, and its cumulative product is the capital of scientific progress, a capital that must be constantly increased as the demands upon it rise. The goal of basic research is understanding, for its own sake. Understanding of the structure of the atom or the nerve cell, the explosion of a spiral nebula or the distribution of consmic dust, the causes of earthquakes and droughts, or of man as behaving creature and of the social forces that are created whenever two or more human beings come into contact with one another the scope is staggering, but the commitment to truth is the same. If the commitment were to a partical as result, conflicting evidence might be overlooked or, with the best will in the world, simply not appreciated. Moreover, the practical applications of basic

    research frequently cannot be anticipated. When Roentgen, the physicist, discovered X-rays, he had no idea of their usefulness to medicine.

     Applied research, undertaken to solve specific practical problems, has an immediate attractiveness because the results can be seen and enjoyed. For practical reasons, the sums spent on applied research in any country always far exceed those for basic research, and the proportions are more unequal in the less developed countries. Leaving aside the funds devoted to research by industry which is naturally far more concerned with applied aspects because these increase profits quickly the funds the U.S. Government allots to basic research currently amount to about 7 percent of its over-all research and development funds. Unless adequate safeguards are provided, applied research invariable tends to drive out basic. Then, as Dr. Waterman has pointed out, "Developments will inevitable by undertaken prematurely, career incentives will gravitate strongly toward applied science, and the opportunities for making major scientific discoveries will be lost. Unfortunately, pressures to emphasize new developments, without corresponding emphasis upon pure science ... tend to degrade the quality of the nation's technology in the long run, rather than to improve it."

70. The title below that best expresses the ideas of this passage is

     a. Basic Research vs. Applied Research

     b. Roentgen's Ignorance of X-rays

     c. The Attractiveness of Applied Research

     d. The Importance of Basic Research

    71. Industry is primarily interested in applied research because it

     a. provides better understanding

     b. is frowned upon by the Foundation

     c. offers immediate profit

     d. drives out basic research

    72. Basic research is vital because

     a. it leads to results that can be appreciated

     b. it is driven out by applied research

     c. it provides the basis for scientific progress

     d. its results cannot be anticipated

    73. The federal government

     a. encourages basic research

     b. devotes more than 90% of its research and development funds to applied

     research

     c. spends far more on applied research than on military problems

     d. opposes the Foundation's grants to basic research

     74. Less developed countries

     a. spend little on research

     b. devote a large portion of their budget to applied research

     c. realize that progress depends on basic research

     d. devote less than 7% of their scientific budget to basic research

TEXT C

     Animals perform many useful and entertaining jobs. Dogs are particularly valuable in guiding the

    blind, protecting property, finding lost people, and hunting criminals. Horses are used in guarding herds, carrying men in lands where there are no roads, and helping farmers work their land. Pigeons have long been used to carry messages. Wild animals from the jungles, forests and seas are very popular performers in circuses and moving pictures. People realize that, although animals may not have the same intelligence as human beings, they are smart enough to learn certain things.

     The first thing a dog is taught is to obey. It should not take too long for him to learn commands. Simple orders, such as "sit, lie down, stay there, come here," can even be taught by a child.

     Training a dog to be a watchdog often produces unexpected results. Some dogs quickly learn the difference between unwanted people and friends. This is because their masers welcome friends and invite them into their houses. However, some dogs will always attack the postman who comes to deliver letters. One explanation for this behavior is that, although the postman comes to the house often, he never enters the house. Therefore, the dog thinks the postman is someone who is not wanted, but keeps coming back anyway.

     Masters of dogs who attack postmen can easily show the dog that the postmen is a friend and that the dog does not need to treat him as an unwanted person. A dog is quite ready to do what his master wishes. And a dog is always happy when he is praised for understanding correctly.

     Dogs can be taught to obey commands when the sound of a word is connected with a certain act. Two important factors in teaching a dog to obey commands are using the same word each time for the same act, and teaching only one act at a time. Dogs can learn not only to sit, lie down, come, and stay in place when their masters go away, but also to jump, carry, and fetch.

     After a dog learns to carry an object, he can learn to bring something back from a distance. A stick can be thrown far away, and the dog enjoys running after it, and searching for it until he finds it. After a lot of practice, the dog can retrieve a stick (or other object) even when he has not seen it thrown. To teach a dog this skill, the master makes a simple trail by walking some distance in a straight line. Then he leaves the stick at the end of the trail. The dog learns to follow the straight line at first. Then, later, he learns to follow more regular lines. Eventually, he can learn to follow an odor instead of looking for an object. With this skill he can be very useful in tracking down lost people or criminals.

     Dogs are extremely useful as companions for blind people. When a dog has been properly trained, he will always lead his blind master in the right direction and keep him out of danger. For example, seeing-eye dogs learn never to cross a busy road when cars are coming, even if their masters command them to do so.

75. A dog feels happiest if, after he has worked well,

     a. he gets a good piece of meat.

     b. he gets praise from his master.

     c. he is allowed to be by himself.

     d. he is taken for a walk.

    76 Some dogs may be suspicious of postmen because

     a. postmen carry large, suspicious looking bags.

     b. postmen wear uniforms.

     c. postmen never enter a house.

     d. postmen come to a house often.

    77. Dogs who accompany blind people must learn

     a. to obey all orders.

     b. to obey only safe orders.

     c. never to cross busy roads.

     d. to cross roads when commanded to do so.

TEXT D

     The first man who cooked his food, instead of eating it raw, lived so long ago that we have no idea who he was or where he lived. We do know, however, that for thousands of years, food was always eaten cold and raw. Perhaps the first cooked food was heated accidentally by a forest fire or by the molten lava from an erupting volcano. No doubt, when people first tasted food that had been cooked, they found it tasted better. However, even after this discovery, cooked food must have remained a rarity until man learned how to make and control fire.

     Early peoples who lived in hot regions could depend on the heat of the sun to cook their food. For example, in the desert areas of the southwestern United States, the Indians cooked their food by placing it on a flat stone in the hot sun. They cooked pieces of meat and thin cakes of corn meal in this fashion.

     We can surmise that the earliest kitchen utensil was a stick to which a piece of meat could be attached and held over a fire. Later this stick was replaced by an iron rod or spit which could be turned frequently to cook the meat on all sides.

     Cooking food in water was impossible before man learned to make water containers that could not be destroyed by fire. The first cooking pots were reed or grass baskets in which soups and stews could be cooked. As early as 1600 B.C., the Egyptians had learned to make more permanent cooking pots out of sandstone. Many years later, the Eskimos learned to make similar pans.

     The North American Indians adopted a different method of cooking their food. They placed their food in skin bags or birch bark kettles, then dropped hot stones in with the food. When the stones cooled off, the Indians replaced them with hot stones. The Indians continued to add fresh hot stones to the containers until the food was cooked.

     Records left by the ancient Egyptians show that they knew how to cook food in many ways. Their frescoes (wall-paintings) portray people baking, boiling, roasting, frying and stewing food. The Egyptians also knew how to preserve meat by smoking and salting it.

     The Bible tells us that the Jews were skilled cooks. The Book of Genesis, for instance, relates the story of Rebecca, who put food in a pan and placed it over burning charcoal. The Jews also knew the art of baking at an early point in their history. Carvings left by the ancient Jews show dough being put into a small round oven to be baked.

78. The first cooked food was probably cooked

     a. on a fireplace. b. by hot stones in a bag.

     c. by a forest fire or volcano. d. on a stick.

    79. The first cooking pots were made of

     a. metal. b. clay. c. reeds or grass. d. stone.

    80. Baking was probably known first to the

     a. Jews. b. Romans.

     c. Crusaders of Europe. d. people of the Middle Ages.

SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING 5MIN.

    In this section there are six passages with multiple-choice questions. Skim or scan them as

    required and then mark your answer on your answer sheet.

TEXT E

    First read the following questions.

    81. This passage is a summary of

     a. opera in Italy b. the Camerata

     c. the development of opera d. Euridice

    82. According to this passage, modern opera began in the

     a. time of the ancient Greeks b. fifteenth century

     c. sixteenth century d. seventeenth century

    Now read Text E quickly and mark your answer on your answer sheet.

     Although stage plays have been set to music since the era of the ancient Greeks when the dramas of Sophocles and Aeschylus were accompanied by lyres and flutes, the usually accepted date for the beginning of opera as we know it is 1600. As part of the celebration of the marriage of King Henry IV of France to the Italian aristocrat Maria de Medici, the Florentine composer Jacopo Peri produced his famous Euridice, generally considered to be the first opera.Following his example, a group of Italian musicians called the Camerata began to revive the style of musical story that had been used in Greek tragedy.

TEXT F

    First read the following questions.

    83. It may be concluded that the purpose of this passage is to

     a. complain b. persuade c. entertain d. inform

    84. The proboscis is

     a. nectar b. a tube constructed of modified maxillae

     c. a kind of butterfly d. a kind of flower

    85. Which of the following have mandibles and maxillae that have been modified to

     sharp stylets?

     a. Grasshoppers b. Butterflies

    c. Mosquitoes d. Houseflies

Now read Text F quick and mark your answer on your answer sheet.

     Features of the mouth parts are very helpful in classifying the many kinds of insects. A majority of insects have biting mouth parts or mandibles as in grasshoppers and beetles. Behind the mandibles are the maxillae which serve to direct food into the mouth between the jaws. A labrum above and a labium below are similar to an upper and lower lip. In insects with sucking mouth parts, the madibles, maxillae, labrum, and labium are modified to provide a tube through which liquid can be drawn. In a butterfly or moth the coiled drinking tube is called the proboscis. Composed chiefly of modified maxillae fitted together, the proboscis can be extended to reach nectar deep in a flower. In a mosquito or an aphid, mandibles and maxillae are modified to sharp stylets with which the insect can drill through surfaces to reach juice. In a housefly, the expanding labium forms a spongelike mouth pad used to stamp over the surface of food.

TEXT G

First read the following questions.

    86. From his course description, we know that the class meets

     a. two hours a day b. three hours a week

     c. five hours a day d. five hours a week

    87. In order to take American English Phonetics it is necessary to

     a. take English 206 first

     b. know the material from English 205 or Linguistics 210

     c. have permission from Professor Ayers

     d. Pass an examination

    Now read Text G quickly and mark your answer on your answer sheet.

     American English Phonetics. Fall, 5 hours. Three lectures, two laboratory periods. Prerequisite:

    English 205, Linguistics 210 or equivalent. A study of American English pronunciation, designed for

    advanced international students. Professor Ayers.

TEXT H

    First read the following questions.

    88. The above argument would be more Persuasive if it were established that

     a. the majority of available jobs require unusually high levels of skill or

     experience or both

     b. unemployed persons tend to be geographically clustered in regions distant

     from available jobs

     c. most unemployed persons are back at work within six months

     d. most unemployed persons do not seek work until their unemployment benefits

     expire

    Now read Text H quickly and mark your answer on your answer sheet.

     The only unemployment problem we have is not that people can't find work, but that they won't work. Thousands of jobs go begging every day, but the unemployed are too lazy to go out and find them.

TEXT I

    First read the following questions.

    89. Which of the following most closely resembles the reasoning used in the

     argument above?

     a. Every time I drink coffee before going to bed, I have trouble falling

     asleep. I want to sleep well tonight, so I'm going to take a sleeping pill.

     b. All of the teenagers in my neighborhood have gotten tickets for speeding on

     Dole Road within the last year. I don't want to have to pay a fine, so I'm

     not going to speed on Dole Road.

     c. Everyone else got transferred out of our department within three years

     after starting work here. I don't want to work in another department, so

     I'm going to start working harder.

     d. The other punch press operators on my shift each were seriously injured on

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