See China

By Vernon Warren,2014-05-27 16:20
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See China



     See China in the Light of Her Development

     ——Speech at the University of Cambridge Wen JiabaoPremier of the State Council

    of the People's Republic of China

     Vice Chancellor Alison Richard, Ladies and Gentlemen, It gives me great pleasure to come to Cambridge, a world-renowned university that I have long wanted to visit. Cambridge has produced many great scientists and thinkers Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin and Francis Bacon, to name but a few, and made important contribution to the progress of human civilization. This year marks the 800th anniversary of the university. Please accept my warm congratulations. This is my fourth visit to your country. Despite the great distance between China and Britain, the friendly exchanges between our peoples have been on the rise. The successful resolution of the question of Hong Kong and fruitful cooperation between our two countries in areas such as economy, trade, culture, education, science and technology have cemented the foundation of our comprehensive strategic partnership. Here, I wish to pay high tribute to all those who have been working tirelessly to promote friendly ties between our two countries. The title of my speech today is "See China in the Light of Her Development". My beloved motherland is a country both old and young. She is old, because she is a big Oriental country with a civilization stretching back several thousand years. With diligence and wisdom, the Chinese nation created a splendid civilization and made significant contributions to the progress of humanity. She is young, because the People's Republic is just 60 years old, and the country began reform and opening-up only 30 years ago. The Chinese people established the New China after unremitting struggles and ultimately found a development path suited to China's national conditions through painstaking efforts. This is the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Following this path, our ancient civilization has been rejuvenated. The key element of China's reform and opening-up is to free people's mind and the most fundamental and significant component is institutional innovation. Through economic reform, we have built a socialist market economy, where the market plays a primary role in allocating resources under government macro-regulation. We have carried out political reform, promoted democracy and improved the legal system. People are the masters of the country. We run the country according to law and endeavor to build a socialist country under the rule of law.

     The essence of China's reform and opening-up is to put people first and meet their ever growing material and cultural needs through releasing and developing productive forces. It aims to give everyone equal opportunities for all-round development. It aims to protect the democratic rights of the people and promote stability, harmony and prosperity across the land. And it aims to safeguard the dignity and freedom of everyone so that he or she may pursue happiness with ingenuity and hard work. Over the past three decades, more than 200 million Chinese have been lifted out of poverty, the average life expectancy has increased by 5 years, and the 83 million people with disabilities in China have received special care from the government and the society. All this points to the tremendous efforts China has made to protect human rights.

    We have introduced free nine-year compulsory education throughout the country, established the cooperative medical system in the rural areas and improved the social safety net. The age-old dream of the Chinese nation is being turned into reality a dream to see the young educated, the sick treated and the old cared for. I want to quote from a Tang Dynasty poem to describe what is happening in China, "From shore to shore it is wide at high tide, and before fair wind a sail is lifting." The Chinese people are working hard to modernize their country. This is a great practice in a large developing country both ancient and new. The Chinese people, with destiny in their own hands, are full of confidence in their future. My beloved motherland is a country that stood numerous vicissitudes but never gave up. Earlier in my career, I worked in northwest China for many years. There, in the boundless desert, grows a rare variety of tree called euphrates poplar. Rooted over 50 meters down the ground, they thrive in hostile environments, defying droughts, sandstorms and salinization. They are known as the "hero tree", because a euphrates poplar can live for a thousand years. Even after it dies, it stands upright for a thousand years, and even after it falls, it stays intact for another thousand years. I like euphrates poplar because they symbolize the resilience of the Chinese nation. Over the millennia, the Chinese nation has weathered numerous disasters, both natural and man-made, surmounted all kinds of difficulties and challenges, and made her way to where she proudly stands today. The long sufferings have only made her a nation of fortitude and perseverance. The experience of the Chinese nation attests to a truth: what a nation loses in times of disaster will be made up for by her progress. I am reminded of the experience that I had in Wenchuan, Sichuan Province after the devastating earthquake there last May. That earthquake shocked the whole world. It flattened Beichuan Middle School and claimed many young lives. But only 10 days after the earthquake, when I went there for the second time, I had before my eyes new classrooms built on debris by local villagers with planks. Once again, the campus echoed with the sound of students reading aloud. I wrote down 4 Chinese characters on the blackboard, meaning "A

     country will emerge stronger from adversities." I have been to Wenchuan seven times since the earthquake and witnessed countless touching scenes like this. I am deeply moved by the unyielding spirit of my people. This great national spirit is the source of strength which has enabled the Chinese nation to emerge from all the hardships stronger than before. With hard work over the past half century and more, China has achieved great progress. Its total economic output is now one of the largest in the world. However, we remain a developing country and we are keenly aware of the big gap that we have with the developed countries. There has been no fundamental change in our basic national condition: a big population, weak economic foundation and uneven development. China's per capita GDP ranks behind 100 countries in the world and is only about 1/18 that of Britain. Those of you who have been to China as tourists must have seen the modern cities, but our rural areas are still quite backward. To basically achieve modernization by the middle of this century, we must accomplish three major tasks: first, achieve industrialization, which Europe has long completed, while keeping abreast of the latest trends of the scientific and technological revolution; second, promote economic growth while ensuring social equity and justice; and third,

    pursue sustainable development at home while accepting our share of international responsibilities. The journey ahead will be long and arduous, but no amount of difficulty will stop the Chinese people from marching forward. Through persistent efforts, we will reach our goal. My beloved motherland is a country that values her traditions while opening her arms to the outside world. The traditional Chinese culture is rich, extensive and profound. Harmony, the supreme value cherished in ancient China, lies at the heart of the Chinese culture. The Book of History, an ancient classic in China for example, advocates amity among people and friendly exchanges among nations. The Chinese cultural tradition values peace as the most precious. This has nurtured the broad mind of the Chinese nation. The Chinese nation is generous and tolerant, just as Mother Earth cares for all living things. She is in constant pursuit of justice, just as the eternal movement of the Universe. In the 15th century, the famous Chinese navigator Zheng He led seven maritime expeditions to the Western Seas and reached over 30countries. He took with him Chinese tea, silk and porcelain and helped local people fight pirates as he sailed along. He was truly a messenger of love and friendship. The argument that a big power is bound to seek hegemony does not apply to China. Seeking hegemony goes against China's cultural tradition as well as the will of the Chinese people. China's development harms no one and threatens no one. We shall be a peace-loving country, a country that is eager to learn from and cooperate with others. We are committed to building

     a harmonious world. Different countries and nations need to respect, tolerate and learn from each other's culture. Today, 300 million Chinese are learning English and over one million of our young people are studying abroad. The cultures and arts of various parts of the world are featured daily on China's television, radio and print media. Had we not learned from others through exchanges and enriched ourselves by drawing on others' experience, we would not have enjoyed today's prosperity and progress. In the 21st century, economic globalization and the information network have linked us all together. Different cultures live together and influence each other. No culture can flourish in isolation. How much a country or a nation contributes to the culture of humanity is increasingly determined by her ability to absorb foreign cultures and renew herself. That is why China will remain open and receptive, value her own traditions while drawing on others' successful experience, and achieve economic prosperity and social progress in a civilized and harmonious way. Ladies and Gentlemen, I stress the importance of seeing China in the light of her development, because the world is changing and China is changing. China is no longer the closed and backward society it was 100 years ago, or the poor and ossified society 30 years ago. Thanks to reform and opening-up, China has taken on a new look. What the Beijing Olympic Games showcased is a colorful China, both ancient and modern. I therefore encourage you to visit China more often and see more places there. This way, you will better understand what the Chinese people are thinking and doing, and what they are interested in. You will get to know the true China, a country constantly developing and changing. You will also better appreciate how China has been tackling the ongoing global financial crisis. This unprecedented financial crisis has inflicted a severe impact on both China and Britain as well as other European countries. The crisis has

    not yet hit the bottom, and it is hard to predict what further damage it may cause. To work together and tide over the difficulties has become our top priority. I believe that closer cooperation is needed to meet the global crisis, and the level of cooperation hinges upon the level of mutual trust. The Chinese Government maintains that countries should: first and foremost, run their own affairs well and refrain from shifting troubles onto others; second, carry out cooperation with full sincerity and avoid pursuing one's own interests at the expense of others; and third, address both the symptoms and the root cause of the problem. A palliative approach will not work. We should not treat only the head when the head aches, and the foot when the foot hurts. As I reiterated at the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting in Davos, necessary reform of the international monetary and financial systems should be carried out to establish a new international financial order that is fair, equitable, inclusive and well-managed. We should create an institutional

     environment conducive to global economic growth. Let me talk briefly about how China has been responding to the crisis. The fallout of the financial crisis on China's real economy is becoming more evident. Since the third quarter of last year, our exports have declined sharply, economic growth has slowed down, and the pressure on employment has been rising. In the face of the grim situation, we have acted decisively. We have made timely adjustment to the direction of our macroeconomic policy, promptly introduced ten measures to expand domestic demand, and formulated a series of related policies. Together, they make up a systematic and comprehensive package plan aimed at promoting steady and relatively fast economic growth. Its main contents are: First, substantially increase government spending to boost domestic demand. The Chinese Government has announced a two-year investment program that will generate, through fiscal spending, a total investment of RMB 4 trillion nationwide, equivalent to 16% of China's GDP in 2007. The money will mainly go into government-subsidized housing, projects related to the well-being of rural residents, the construction of railway and other infrastructural projects, social development programs, environmental protection and post-earthquake recovery and reconstruction. The Chinese Government has introduced a massive tax-cut program, which will reduce the tax burdens on businesses and individuals by about RMB 500 billion each year. We have also cut interest rates by a large margin, increased liquidity in the banking system and adopted a range of financial measures. Second, implement a large-scale industrial restructuring and rejuvenation program. We are pushing forward industrial restructuring and upgrading across the board and formulating plans for the restructuring and revitalization of ten key industries, including automobiles and iron and steel. We will take economic and technological measures to boost energy conservation and reduce emissions, and promote merger and reorganization of enterprises to raise the level of industry concentration and the efficiency of resource allocation. We encourage and support the extensive application of new technologies, techniques, equipment and materials and the development of marketable products by enterprises. Third, make energetic efforts for progress and innovation in science and technology. Science and technology are of fundamental importance in overcoming the financial crisis. A major crisis is usually followed by a revolution

    in science and technology, and no economic recovery is possible without technological innovation. We are stepping up the implementation of the National Program for Medium- and Long-Term Scientific and Technological Development, with special emphasis on 16 major projects including core electronic devices, development and use of nuclear energy and advanced numerically controlled machine tools. We will strive to make breakthroughs in a host of core technologies and key generic technologies to support sustainable economic growth at a higher level. We will promote the development of high-tech industrial clusters and cultivate new economic growth areas. All in all, we will rely on major breakthroughs in science and technology to foster new social demand and bring about a new

     round of economic boom. Fourth, significantly raise the level of social security. We will continue to increase basic pension for enterprise retirees and upgrade the standard of unemployment insurance and workers' compensation. We will raise the level of basic cost of living allowances in both urban and rural areas and welfare allowances for those rural residents without family support. We are advancing the reform of the medical and health system and working to put in place a nationwide basic medical and health system covering both urban and rural areas within three years and achieve the goal of everyone having access to basic medical and health service. We give priority to education and are now working on the Guidelines of the National Program for Medium- and Long-Term Educational Reform and Development. We are following a more active employment policy with special emphasis on helping college graduates and migrant workers find jobs. We are endeavoring to create more jobs and lessen the impact of the financial crisis on employment. The aforementioned measures will help us boost domestic demand, readjust and reinvigorate industries, enhance the support of science and technology and strengthen social security all at the same time. They will stimulate consumption through increased investment, drive economic growth while improving people's livelihood and creating more jobs, and see us through current difficulties while also improving the long-term prospect of the Chinese economy. They will not only benefit China's development, but also bring enormous business opportunities to other countries, Britain included. This once-in-a-century financial crisis is truly thought-provoking. It reminds us of the need to have serious reflections on the existing economic systems and theories. For many years in the past, China practiced a highly centralized planned economy and regarded planning as being absolute. This hampered the development of productivity. The ongoing financial crisis has made it clear to us, however, that the market is not a cure-all, either. A totally laissez-faire approach will inevitably lead to economic disorder and unfair social distribution, and will eventually take its toll. A credible market-oriented reform should never set the market against government macro-regulation. The invisible hand of the market and the visible hand of government and social supervision should both act, and act vigorously. Only in this way can resources be distributed according to market rules and distributed in a reasonable, coordinated, balanced and sustainable manner. The international financial crisis once again shows how dangerous a market economy without regulation can be. Since the 1990s, some profit-driven financial institutions in economies lacking effective regulation have raised massive capital

    with a leverage of dozens of times. While they reaped huge profits, the world was exposed to enormous risks. This fully demonstrates that a totally unregulated market economy cannot work. We must strike a balance between financial innovation and regulation, between the financial sector and real economy, and between savings and consumption. To effectively meet the crisis, we must fully recognize the role of morality. Nothing is greater than morality. It shines even more brightly than the sun. True economic theories will never

     come into conflict with the highest moral and ethical standards. Instead, they should stand for justice and integrity, and contribute in an equal way to the well-being of all people, including the most vulnerable ones. Adam Smith, known as the father of modern economics, held the view in The Theory of Moral Sentiments that if the fruits of a society's economic development cannot be shared by all, it is morally unsound and risky, as it is bound to jeopardize social stability. The loss of morality is an underlying cause for the current crisis. Some people have sacrificed principle and sought profits at the expense of public interests. They have crossed the moral baseline. We should call on all enterprises to take up their social responsibilities. Within the body of every businessman should flow the blood of morality. Ladies and Gentlemen, Britain is the last leg of my European trip. I have gained a deeper understanding of Europe through this visit. China-EU cooperation is now standing at a new historical starting point and I am all the more confident about the China-EU comprehensive strategic partnership. There are no outstanding issues left over from history or conflict of fundamental interests between the two sides. What we have is a solid foundation and a bright future for cooperation. As the first industrialized country, Britain has accumulated rich experience in economic development and environmental protection. We hope to learn from your experience and strengthen exchanges and cooperation with you. The future belongs to the younger generation. It is incumbent upon you to build an even more splendid future of China-Britain relations. Here and now, I cannot but mention Dr. Joseph Needham, a Cambridge alumnus who made important contribution to cultural exchanges between China and Britain. With his monumental masterpiece, Science and Civilization in China, he built a bridge between the two great civilizations of East and West. To honor tradition and innovation is the outstanding character of Cambridge. I hope more of you will turn your eyes to China, see my country in the light of her development, and act as ambassadors of China-Britain friendship. I believe that as long as you, the young people of China and Britain learn from each other and strive for progress hand in hand, you will add a brilliant new chapter to the annals of our relations. Thank you! 【中文译文】, 中文译文】, 尊敬的理查德校长; 女士们;先生们, 来到向往已久的剑桥

    大学;非常高兴。剑桥举世闻名;培养出牛顿、达尔文、培根等许多杰出的科学家、 思想家;

    为人类文明进步作出了重要贡献。今年是剑桥建校???周年;我谨致以热烈祝贺, 这是我




    我向长期致力于中 英友好的朋友们表示崇高的敬意, 今天;我演讲的题目是,用发展的眼

    光看中国。 我深深爱着的祖国——古老而又年轻。 说她古老;她是一个有着数千年文明史

    的东方大国。中华民族以自己的勤劳和智慧;创造了灿烂的古代文 明;对人类发展作出过重大贡献。 说她年轻;新中国成立才??年;改革开放才??年。中国人民经过长期不懈的斗争建立了新中国;又经 过艰苦的探索;终于找到了适合国情的发展道路——中国特色社会主义道路;文明古国焕发了青春活力。 中国改革开放;最重要的是解放思想;最根本、最具有长远意义的是体制创新。我们推进经济体制改革; 建立了社会主义市场经济体制。在政府的宏观调控下;充分发挥市场对资源配置的基础性作用。我们深化 政治体制改革;把发展民主和完善法制结合起来;实行人民当家作主;依法治国;建设社会主义法治国家。 改革开放的实质;就是坚持以人为本;通过解放和发展生产力满足人们日益增长的物质文化需求;在公 的条件下促进人的全面发展?就是保障人民的民主权利;让国家政通人和、兴旺发达?就是维护人的尊严 和自由;让每个人的智慧和力量得以迸发;成功地追求自己的幸福生活。 ??年来;中国贫困人口减少了?亿多;人均寿命提高了)岁;????万残疾人得到政府和社会的特殊 关爱;这是中国保障人权的光辉业绩。九年免费义务教育的推行;农村合作医疗制度的建立;社会保障体 系的完善;使学有所教、病有所医、老有所养的理想;正在变为现实。 我愿借用两句唐诗形容中国的现状,“潮平两岸阔;风正一帆悬。”中国人正在努力实现现代化;这是一个 古而又新的发展中大国进行的一场伟大实践。掌握了自己命运的中国人民;对未来充满信心, 我深深爱着的祖国——历经磨难而又自强不息。 我年轻时曾长期工作在中国的西北地区。在那浩瀚的沙漠中;生长着一种稀有的树种;叫胡杨。它扎根地 下)?多米;抗干旱、斗风沙、耐盐碱;生命力极其顽强。它“生而一千年不死;死而一千年不倒;倒而一 千年不朽”;世人称为英雄树。我非常喜欢胡杨;它是中华民族坚韧不拔精神的象征。 千百年来;中华民族一次次战胜了天灾人祸;渡过了急流险滩;昂首挺胸地走到今天。深重的灾难;铸就 了她百折不挠、自强不息的品格。中华民族的历史证明了一个真理,一个民族在灾难中失去的;必将从民 族的进步中得到补偿。 此时此刻;我不禁想起在汶川地震灾区的亲身经历。去年)月;四川汶川发生震惊世界的特大地震;北川 中学被夷为平地;孩子伤亡惨重。可是;时隔??天;当我第二次来到这里时;乡亲们已在废墟上搭起了 板房教室;校园里又回荡着孩子们朗朗的读书声。当时我在黑板上;给同学们写下了“多难兴邦”几个字。 地震发生以来;我,次到汶川灾区;碰到这样感人的事迹不胜枚举。我为我们中华民族这种愈挫愈奋的精 神深深感动。这种伟大的精神;正是我们的民族饱经忧患而愈益坚强、生生不息的力量源泉。

     经过半个多世纪的艰苦奋斗;中国有了比较大的发展;经济总量跃居世界前列;但我们仍然是一个发展中 国家;同发达国家相比还有很大的差距。人口多;底子薄;发展不平衡;这种基本国情还没有从根本上得 到改变。中国的人均???水平;排在世界???位之后;仅为英国的?~??左右。到过中国旅游的朋 友;你们所看到的城市是现代的;而我们的农村还比较落后。 到本世纪中叶;中国要基本实现现代化;面临三大历史任务,既要努力实现欧洲早已完成的工业化;又要 追赶新科技革命的浪潮?既要不断提高经济发展水平;又要实现社会公平正义?既要实现国内的可持续发 展;又要承担相应的国际责任。中国要赶上发达国家水平;还有很长很长的路要走;还会遇到许多艰难险 阻。但是;任何困难都阻挡不住中国人民前进的步伐;只要我们坚持不懈地努力奋斗;中国现代化的目标 就一定能够实现。 深深爱着的祖国——珍视传统而又开放兼容。 中华传统文化底蕴深厚、博大精深。“和”在中国古代历史上被奉为最高价值;是中华文化的精髓。中国古 老的经典——《尚书》就提出“百姓昭明;协和万邦”的理想;主张人民和睦相处;国家友好往来。

     “和为贵”的文化传统;哺育了中华民族宽广博大的胸怀。我们的民族;既能像大地承载万物一样;宽厚包 容?又能像苍天刚健运行一样;彰显正义。 ?)世纪;中国著名航海家郑和七下西洋;到过三十几个国家。他带去了中国的茶叶、丝绸、瓷器;还帮 助沿途有的国家剿灭海盗;真正做到了播仁爱于友邦。 国强必霸;不适合中国。称霸;既有悖于我们的

    文化传统;也违背中国人民意志。中国的发展不损害任何 人;也不威胁任何人。中国要做和平的大国、学习的大国、合作的大国;致力于建设一个和谐的世界。 不同国家、不同民族的文化;需要相互尊重、相互包容和相互学习。今天的中国;有?亿人在学英语;有 ???多万青年人在国外留学。我们的电视、广播、出版等新闻传媒;天天都在介绍世界各地的文化艺术。 正因为我们善于在交流中学习;在借鉴中收获;才有今天中国的繁荣和进步。 进入??世纪;经济全球化、信息网络化;已经把世界连成一体;文化的发展将不再是各自封闭的;而是 在相互影响中多元共存。一个国家、一个民族对人类文化贡献的大小;越来越取决于她吸收外来文化的能 力和自我更新的能力。中国将永远坚持开放兼容的方针;既珍视传统;又博采众长;用文明的方式、和谐 的方式实现经济繁荣和社会进步。 女士们;先生们, 之所以强调用发展的眼光看中国;就是因为世界在变;中国也在变。如今的中国;早已不是一百年前封 闭落后的旧中国;也不是??年前贫穷僵化的中国。经过改革开放;中国的面貌已焕然一新。北京奥运会 向世界展示的;就是这样一个古老、多彩和现代的中国。我希望朋友们;多到中国走一走、看一看;了解 今天的中国人究竟在想什么、做什么、关心什么。这样;有助于你们认识一个真实的、不断发展变化着的 中国;也有助于你们了解中国是如何应对当前这场全球性金融危机的。 在这场前所未有的世界金融危机中;中国和包括英国在内的欧洲都受到严重冲击。现在危机尚未见底;由 此可能带来的各种严重后果还难以预料。合作应对、共渡难关;是我们的首要任务。

     我认为;应对全球性危机;需要增进合作。有多大程度的相互信任;就可能有多大程度的合作。中国政府 主张,第一;要首先办好各国自己的事情;不把麻烦推给别人?第二;要精诚合作;不搞以邻为壑?第三; 要标本兼治;不能头疼医头、脚疼医脚。我在达沃斯会议上已重申;应该对国际货币金融体系进行必要的 改革;建立公平、公正、包容、有序的国际金融新秩序;努力营造有利于全球经济发展的制度环境。 这里我想谈一谈中国是如何应对这场金融危机的。 金融危机对中国实体经济的影响日益显现。从去年第三季度以来;出口大幅下滑;经济增速放缓;就业压 力加大。中国经济面临着严峻的局面。面对危机;我们果断决策;及时调整宏观经济政策取向;迅速出台 扩大国内需求的十项措施;陆续制定了一系列政策;形成了系统完整的促进经济平稳较快发展的一揽子计 划。主要包括以下几个方面, 是大规模增加政府支出扩大内需。中国政府推出了以财政支出带动社会投资;总额达(万亿元的两年计 划;规模相当于???,年中国???的??:。主要投向保障性安居工程、农村民生工程、铁路交通等 基础设施、社会事业、生态环保建设和地震灾后恢复重建。中国政府还推出了大规模的减税计划;一年可 减轻企业和居民负担约)???亿元。我们还大幅度降息和增加银行体系流动性;出台了一系列金融措施。 二是大范围实施产业调整振兴计划。我们全面推进产业结构调整和优化升级;制定汽车、钢铁等十个重点 产业的调整和振兴规划。我们采取经济和技术的措施;大力推进节能减排;推进企业兼并重组;提高产业 集中度和资源配置效率。我们鼓励和支持企业广泛应用新技术、新工艺、新设备、新材料;开发适销对 产品。 三是大力推进科技进步和创新。科技是克服金融危机的根本力量。每一场大的危机常常伴随一场新的科技 革命?每一次经济的复苏;都离不开技术创新。我们加快实施国家中长期科学和技术发展规划;特别是核 心电子器件、核能开发利用、高档数控机床等??个重大专项;突破一批核心技术和关键共性技术;为中 国经济在更高水平上实现可持续发展提供科技支撑。推动发展高新技术产业群;培育新的经济增长点。我 们就是要依靠科学技术的重大突破;创造新的社会需求;催生新一轮的经济繁荣。 四是大幅度提高社会保障水平。继续提高企业退休人员基本养老金;提高失业保险金和工伤保险金标准; 提高城乡低保、农村五保等保障水平。积极推进医药卫生体制改革;力争用三年时间基本建成覆盖全国城 乡的基本医疗卫生制度;初步实现人人享有基本医疗卫生服务。我们坚持优先发展教育;正在制定《国家 中长期教育改革和发展规划纲要》。我们实施更加积极的就业政策;重点解决高校毕

    业生和农民工就业问 题。开辟就业岗位;缓解就业压力。 我们采取这些措施;把扩大国内需求、调整振兴产业、加强科技支撑、强化社会保障结合起来;把拉动经 济增长和改善民生、增加就业结合起来;把克服当前困难和促进长远发展结合起来。这样做;有利于中国 的发展;也将给包括英国在内的世界各国企业带来巨大的商机。 这场百年一遇的金融危机;留给世人的思考是沉重的。它警示人们;对现行的经济体制和经济理论;应该 进行深刻的反思。 国曾长期实行高度集中的计划经济;把计划看成是绝对的;束缚了生产力的发展。这场金融危机使我们 看到;市场也不是万能的;一味放任自由;势必引起经济秩序的混乱和社会分配的不公;最终受到惩罚。

     真正的市场化改革;决不会把市场机制与国家宏观调控对立起来。既要发挥市场这只看不见的手的作用; 又要发挥政府和社会监管这只看得见的手的作用。两手都要硬;两手同时发挥作用;才能实现按照市场规 律配置资源;也才能使资源配置合理、协调、平衡、可持续。 国际金融危机再次告诉人们;不受监管的市场经济是多么可怕。从上世纪:?年代以来;一些经济体疏于 监管;一些金融机构受利益驱动;利用数十倍的金融杠杆进行超额融资;在获取高额利润的同时;把巨大 的风险留给整个世界。这充分说明;不受管理的市场经济是注定行不通的。因此;必须处理好金融创新与 金融监管的关系、虚拟经济与实体经济的关系、储蓄与消费的关系。 有效应对这场危机;还必须高度重视道德的作用。道德是世界上最伟大的;道德的光芒甚至比阳光还要灿 烂。真正的经济学理论;决不会同最高的伦理道德准则产生冲突。经济学说应该代表公正和诚信;平等地 促进所有人;包括最弱势人群的福祉。被誉为现代经济学之父的亚当?斯密在《道德情操论》中指出,“如 果一个社会的经济发展成果不能真正分流到大众手中;那么它在道义上将是不得人心的;而且是有风险的; 因为它注定要威胁社会稳定。”道德缺失是导致这次金融危机的一个深层次原因。一些人见利忘义;损害公 利益;丧失了道德底线。我们应该倡导,企业要承担社会责任;企业家身上要流淌着道德的血液。 女士们;先生们, 英国是我这次欧洲之行的最后一站。这次访问;加深了我对欧洲的了解。中欧合作已经站在一个新的历史 起点上。我对中欧发展全面战略伙伴关系更加充满信心。我们之间不存在历史遗留问题;也不存在根本利 害冲突。中欧合作基础坚实;前景光明。英国是最早进入现代化的国家;你们在发展经济、保护环境等方 面;都有许多成功的经验。我们愿意向你们学习;加强交流与合作。 未来属于青年一代。中英关系的美好前景要靠青年去开拓。抚今追昔;我想起对中英文化交流作出重要贡 献的剑桥校友李约瑟博士。他的鸿篇巨著《中国科学技术史》;在东西方两大文明之间架起了一座桥梁。 继承传统、勇于创新;是剑桥大学的优秀品格。希望更多的剑桥人关注中国;用发展的眼光看中国;做中 英交流的友好使者。我相信;只要中英两国青年相互学习;携手共进;一定会谱写出中英关系的崭新篇章。 谢谢大家,


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