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Discrete Math2-Set Theory

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Discrete Math2-Set Theory

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     Set Theory

     Agenda

     Concepts Representations Properties of sets Operations Actually, you will see that logic and set theory are very closely related.

     Copyright 2007 @ by Xu Dezhi 2

     Sets

     Set = a collection of distinct unordered objects Members of a set are called elements How to determine a set Listing: Example: A = {1,3,5,7} = {7, 5, 3, 1, 3} Description Example: B = {x | x=2k+1, 0 < k < 30}

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     Set Theory

     x?ÊA x?A ??x is an element of A?? ??x is a member of A?? ??x is not an element of A?? ??A contains????

     A = {x1, x2, ??, xn}

     Order of elements is meaningless. It does not matter how often the same element is listed.

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     Set Equality

     Sets A and B are equal if and only if they contain exactly the same elements. Examples: A = {9, 2, 7, -3}, B = {7, 9, -3, 2} : A = B A = {dog, cat, horse}, B = {cat, horse, squirrel, dog} : A ?Ù B A = {dog, cat, horse}, B = {cat, horse, dog, dog} : A = B

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     Examples for Sets

     ??Standard?? Sets:

     Natural numbers: N = {0, 1, 2, 3, ??} Integers: Z = {??, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, ??} Positive Integers: Z+ = {1, 2, 3, 4, ??} Real Numbers: R = {47.3, -12, ?Ð, ??} Rational Numbers: Q = {1.5, 2.6, -3.8, 15, ??} (correct definition will follow)

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     Examples for Sets

     A=? A = {z} A = {{x, y}} Note: {x, y} ?ÊA, but {x, y} ?Ù {{x, y}} A = {x | P(x)} ??set of all x such that P(x)?? A = {x | x?ÊN ?Ä x > 7} = {8, 9, 10, ??} ??set builder notation??

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     ??empty set/null set?? Note: z?ÊA, but z ?Ù {z}

     A = {{b, c}, {c, x, d}}

     Examples for Sets

     We are now able to define the set of rational numbers Q: Q = {a/b

    | a?ÊZ ?Ä b?ÊZ+} or Q = {a/b | a?ÊZ ?Ä b?ÊZ ?Ä b?Ù0} And how about the set of real numbers R? R = {r | r is a real number} That is the best we can do.

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     Finite and infinite sets

     Finite sets Examples: A = {1, 2, 3, 4} B = {x | x is an integer, 1 < x < 4} Infinite sets Examples: Z = {integers} = {??, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3,??} S={x| x is a real number and 1 < x < 4} = [0, 4]

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     Some important sets

     The empty set ? = { } has no elements. Also called null set or void set. Universal set: the set of all elements about which we make assertions. Examples: U = {all natural numbers} U = {all real numbers} U = {x| x is a natural number and 1< x<10}

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     About Universe set

     When talking about a set, a universal set (universe of reference or universal discourse) needs to be specified. Even though a set is defined by the elements which it contains, those elements cannot be arbitrary. If arbitrary elements are allowed, paradoxes can result arising from self reference.

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     Russel??s Paradox(1902)

     We have several ways to express Russell paradox. Here, two of them are given. We also give a vivid example of Russell paradox. Way 1: If we allow arbitrary elements, we should also allow sets to be elements, and sets of sets, and so on. So it would be perfectly reasonable to consider the following set: S = the set containing all sets which do not contain themselves Claim: The set S cannot exist.

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     Russell Paradox

     Way 2: Two types of set Inclusive set //containing itself as its element Exclusive set // otherwise Let S be a set containing all exclusive sets, i.e. S={x|x?ÙS} Which type does S belong to??? Vivid E.g.: the barber??s worry.

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     Russel??s Paradox

     Proof: If it existed, it would either contain itself, or not. Let??s consider both cases:

     1.

     2.

     S contains itself as an element. Therefore, since the elements of

    S do not contain themselves as elements, it does not contain S. This contradicts the assumption, so that the first case cannot happen. S doesn??t contain itself. Therefore, since S contains all sets not containing themselves, it must contain S. This contradicts the assumption, so that the second case cannot happen.

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     As neither case can happen, S cannot exist.

     About Russel??s Paradox

     It is of paramount importance that when a set is specified by stating certain conditions, that it ought to exist as a set. The set could be empty, but that??s fine, as long as it actually exists. EG: The set of all pigs which can fly. The condition is not achievable so that this set is the empty set ?. It is still a set, however. To guarantee set existentiality, a universal set U should always be fixed.

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     About universal set

     Q: Is there a universe of reference in which the set of all sets not containing themselves is well-defined? A: Yes. In fact any universe. For example U ={ {1,2} , {1,2,{1,2}} , {1,2,{1,2},{3}} } Q: What is the set S of all sets not containing themselves in this case? A: S = U

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     Cantor paradox(1899)

     If arbitrary elements are allowed, another famous paradox can happen. Cantor Theorem |P(M)|>|M| Universal set U |P(U)|>|U|, according to the Theorem on cardinality of power set |P(U)|<|U|, too, because U is a universal set ???

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     Cardinality

     Cardinality of a set A (in symbols |A|) is the number of elements in A Examples: If A = {1, 2, 3} then |A| = 3 If B = {x | x is a natural number and 1< x< 9}, then |B| = 9 Infinite cardinality Countable (e.g., natural numbers, integers) Uncountable (e.g., real numbers)

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     Cardinality of Sets

     If a set S contains n distinct elements, n?ÊN, we call S a finite set with cardinality n. Examples: A = {Mercedes, BMW, Porsche}, |A| = 3 B = {1, {2, 3}, {4, 5}, 6} C=? D ={ x?ÊN | x ?Ü 7000 } E = { x?ÊN | x ?Ý 7000 }

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     |B| = 4 |C| = 0 |D| = 7001 E is infinite!

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     Subsets

     A is a subset of B if every element of A is also contained in B (in

    symbols A ? B) Equality: A = B if A ? B and B ? A, i.e., A = B whenever x ?Ê A, then x ?Ê B, and whenever x ?Ê B, then x ?Ê A A is a proper subset of B if A ? B but B ? A Observation: ? is a subset of every set Note: Every set representation can be transformed into an equivalent logical expression and vice versa.

     Copyright 2007 @ by Xu Dezhi 20

     Subsets

     A?B ??A is a subset of B?? A?B iff every element of A is also an element of B. We can completely formalize this: A ? B ? ?x (x?ÊA ?ú x?ÊB) Examples: A = {3, 9}, B = {5, 9, 1, 3}, A ? B ? True A = {3, 3, 3, 9}, B = {5, 9, 1, 3}, A ? B ? True A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {2, 3, 4}, A ? B ? false

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     Venn diagrams

     A Venn diagram provides a graphic view of sets Venn diagrams are useful in representing sets and set operations which can be easily and visually identified. Various sets are represented by circles inside a big rectangle representing the universal set.

     A

     U

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     Subsets

     Useful rules: A = B ? (A ? B) ?Ä (B ? A) (A ? B) ?Ä (B ? C) ? A ? C (next Venn Diagram)

     U B A C

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     Subsets

     Useful rules: ? ? A for any set A A ? A for any set A Proper subsets: A?B ??A is a proper subset of B?? A ? B ? ?x (x?ÊA ?ú x?ÊB) ?Ä ?x (x?ÊB ?Ä x?A) or A ? B ? ?x (x?ÊA ?ú x?ÊB) ?Ä ??x (x?ÊB ?ú x?ÊA)

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     Power set

     The power set of A is the set of all subsets of A, in symbols P(A), i.e. P(A)= {X | X ? A} Example: if A = {1, 2, 3}, then P(A) = {?, {1}, {2}, {3}, {1,2}, {1,3}, {2,3}, {1,2,3}} Theorem: If |A| = n, then |P(A)| = 2n. Read proof in textbook

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     The Power Set

     2A or P(A) 2A = {X | X ? A} Examples: A = {x, y, z} 2A = {?, {x}, {y}, {z}, {x,y}, {x,z}, {y,z}, {x,y,z}} ? A=? 2A = {?} Note: |A| = 0, |2A| = 1

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     ??power set of A?? (contains all subsets of A)

     The Power Set

     Cardinality of power sets: | 2A | = 2|A| Imagine each element in A has an ??on/off?? switch Each possible switch configuration in A corresponds to one element in 2A

     A x y z 1 x y z 2 x y z 3 x y z 4 x y z 5 x y z 6 x y z 7 x y z 8 x y z

     For 3 elements in A, there are 2?Á2?Á2 = 8 ?Á ?Á elements in 2A

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     Set Operations

     Union: Elements in at least one of the two sets. A?ÈB = {x | x?ÊA ?Å x?ÊB} Example: A = {a, b}, B = {b, c, d} A?ÈB = {a, b, c, d} A?ÈB ?È U

     A

     B

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     Set Operations

     Intersection: Elements in exactly one of the two sets. A?ÉB = {x | x?ÊA ?Ä x?ÊB} Example: A = {a, b}, B = {b, c, d} A?ÉB = {b} U

     ?É A A?ÉB B

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     Set Operations

     Difference: Elements in first set but not second. Difference is also called the relative complement of B in A. A-B = {x | x?ÊA ?Ä x?B} Example A = {a, b}, B = {b, c, d} A-B = {a} A-B A U B

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     Set Operations

     Symmetric Difference: Elements in exactly one of the two sets. A?’B = { x | x?ÊA ?’ x?ÊB } = (A?CB) ?È (A?CB) Example: A = {a, b}, B = {b, c, d} A?’B = {a,c,d} A?’B U A B

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     Set Operations

     Complement: Elements not in the set (unary operator). Ac = { x | x ? A } Example: U = N, A = {250, 251, 252, ??} Ac = {0, 1, 2, ??, 248, 249} U Ac A

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     Disjoint Sets

     Disjoint: If A and B have no common elements, they are said to be disjoint. A ?ÉB = ?

     U A B

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     Examples for set operations

     If A={1, 4, 7, 10}, B={1, 2, 3, 4, 5} A ?È B =? A ?É B =? A ?C B =? B ?C A =? A ?’ B =?

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     Example for set operations

     If A={1, 4, 7, 10}, B={1, 2, 3, 4, 5} A ?È B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10} A ?É B = {1, 4} A ?C B = {7, 10} B ?C A = {2, 3, 5} A ?’ B = (A?ÈB) ?C (A?ÉB) = {2, 3, 5, 7, 10}

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     Properties of set operations (1)

     Theorem: Let U be a universal set, and A, B and C subsets of U. The following properties hold: a) Associativity: (A ?È B) ?È C = A ?È (B ?È C) (A ?É B) ?É C = A ?É (B ?ÉC) b) Commutativity: A?ÈB=B?ÈA A?ÉB=B?ÉA

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     Properties of set operations (2)

     c) Distributive laws: A?È(B?ÉC) = (A?ÈB)?É(A?ÈC) A?É(B?ÈC) = (A?ÉB)?È(A?ÉC) d) Identity laws: A?ÉU=A e) Complement laws: A?ÈAc = U A?ÉAc = ?

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     A?È? = A

     Properties of set operations (3)

     f) Idempotent laws: A?ÈA = A g) Bound laws: A?ÈU = U h) Absorption laws: A?È(A?ÉB) = A A?É(A?ÈB) = A

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     A?ÉA = A

     A?É? = ?

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     Properties of set operations (4)

     i) Double complementation /Involution law: (Ac)c = A j0/1 laws: ?c = U Uc = ?

     k) De Morgan??s laws: (A?ÈB)c = Ac?ÉBc (A?ÉB)c = Ac?ÈBc

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     Proof for set properties

     In fact, the logical identities create the set identities by applying the definitions of the various set operations. For example: (A?ÈB )?ÈC = A?È(B ?ÈC ) Proof : (A?ÈB )?ÈC = {x | x ?Ê A ?ÈB ?Å x ?Ê C } = {x | (x ?Ê A ?Å x ?Ê B ) ?Å x ?Ê C } = {x | x ?Ê A ?Å ( x ?Ê B ?Å x ?Ê C ) } = {x | x ?Ê A ?Å (x ?Ê B ?È C ) } = A?È(B ?ÈC ) Other identities are derived similarly.

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     (by def.) (by def.) (logic law) (by def.) (by def.)

     Proof for set properties

     It??s often simpler to understand an identity by drawing a Venn

    Diagram. For example: DeMorgan??s DeMorgan s first law

     A?ÈB = A?ÉB

     can be visualized as follows:

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     Visual DeMorgan

     A: B:

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     Visual DeMorgan

     A: B:

     A?ÈB :

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     Visual DeMorgan

     A: B:

     A?ÈB :

     A?ÈB:

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     Visual DeMorgan

     A: B:

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     Visual DeMorgan

     A: B:

     A:

     B:

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     Visual DeMorgan

     A: B:

     A:

     B:

     A?ÉB :

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     Visual DeMorgan

     A?ÈB =

     A?ÉB =

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     Using properties of set operations

     Table in textbook shows many useful equations. How can we prove

    A?È(B?ÉC) = (A?ÈB)?É(A?ÈC)? Method I: x?ÊA?È(B?ÉC)

     ? ?

     x?ÊA ?Å x?Ê(B?ÉC) x?ÊA ?Å (x?ÊB ?Ä x?ÊC) (x?ÊA ?Å x?ÊB) ?Ä (x?ÊA

    ?Å x?ÊC) x?Ê(A?ÈB) ?Ä x?Ê(A?ÈC) x?Ê(A?ÈB)?É(A?ÈC)

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     (distributive law for logical expressions)

     ?

     Using properties of set operations

     Method II: Membership table 1 means ??x is an element of this set?? 0 means ??x is not an element of this set??

     A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C B?ÉC ?É 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 A?È(B?ÉC) ?È ?É 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 A?ÈB ?È 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 A?ÈC ?È 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 (A?ÈB) ?É(A?ÈC) ?È ?È 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1

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     ordered n-tuple

     The ordered n-tuple (a1, a2, a3, ??, an) is an ordered collection of objects. Two ordered n-tuples (a1, a2, a3, ??, an) and (b1, b2, b3, ??, bn) are equal if and only if they contain exactly the same elements in the same order i.e. ai = bi for 1 ?Ü i ?Ü n

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     Cartesian Product

     The Cartesian product of two sets A and B is defined as: A?ÁB = {(a, b) | a?ÊA ?Ä b?ÊB} Example: A = {x, y}, B = {a, b, c} A?ÁB = {(x, a), (x, b), (x, c), (y, a), (y, b), (y, c)}

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     Cartesian Product

     Note that: A?Á? = ? ??ÁA = ? For non-empty sets A and B: A?ÙB ? A?ÁB?ÙB?ÁA |A?ÁB| = |A|?|B| The Cartesian product of two or more sets is defined as: A1?ÁA2?Á???ÁAn = {(a1, a2, ??, an) | ai?ÊAi for 1 ?Ü i ?Ü n}

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     Sequences and strings

     A sequence is an ordered list of numbers, usually defined according to a formula function. If s is a sequence {sn|n = 1, 2, 3,??}, s1 denotes the first element, s2 the second element, sn the nth element???? {n} is called the indexing set of the sequence. Usually the indexing set is N (natural numbers) or an infinite subset of N.

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     Examples of sequences

     Examples: 1. Let s = {sn} be the sequence defined by sn = 1/n , for n = 1, 2, 3,?? The first few elements of the sequence are: 1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, 1/6,?? 2. Let s = {sn} be the sequence defined by sn = n2 + 1, for n = 1, 2, 3,?? The first few elements of s are: 2, 5, 10, 17, 26, 37, 50,??

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     Increasing and decreasing

     For every n = 1, 2, 3,?? a sequence s = {sn} is said to be increasing if sn < sn+1 decreasing if sn > sn+1 Examples: Sn = 4 ?C 2n, n = 1,

    2, 3,?? is decreasing: 2, 0, -2, -4, -6,?? Sn = 2n -1, n = 1, 2, 3,?? is increasing: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, ??

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     Subsequences

     A subsequence of a sequence s = {sn} is a sequence t = {tn} that consists of certain elements of s retained in the original order they had in s Example: let s = {sn = n | n = 1, 2, 3,??} 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,?? Let t = {tn = 2n | n = 1, 2, 3,??} 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16,?? t is a subsequence of s

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     Sigma notation

     If {an} is a sequence, then the sum

     ?Æa

     k=1

     m

     k

     = a1 + a2 + ???? + am

     is called the ??sigma notation??, where the Greek letter ?? indicates a sum of terms from the sequence.

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     Pi notation

     If {an} is a sequence, then the product

     k =1

     ?? ak = a1 a2 ???? am

     m

     Greek letter ?? indicates a product of terms of the sequence.

     is called the ??pi notation??, where the

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     Strings

     Let A be a nonempty set. A string over A is a finite sequence of elements from A. Example: if A = {a, b, c} Then ?Á = bbaccc is a string over A Notation: bbaccc = b2ac3 The length of a string ?Á is the number of elements of ?Á and is denoted by |?Á|. If ?Á=b2ac3 then |?Á| = 6. The null string is the string with no elements and is denoted by the Greek letter ?Ë (lambda). It has length zero.

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     String operations

     Let X* = {all strings over X including ?Ë} Let X+ = X* - {?Ë}, the set of all non-null strings Concatenation of two strings ?Á and ? is the operation on strings consisting of writing ?Á followed by ? to produce a new string ?Á? Example: ?Á = bbaccc, ? = caaba ?Á? = bbaccccaaba = b2ac4a2ba |?Á?Â| = | ?Á| + |?Â|

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     Number systems

     Binary, hexadecimal and octal number systems. Binary digits: 0 and 1, called bits. Review of decimal system: Example: 45,238 is equal to 8 3 2 5 4 ones tens hundreds thousands ten thousands

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     8 x 1 =8 3 x 10 =30 2 x 100 =200 5 x 1000 =5000 4 x 10000 =40000

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     Binary number system

     From binary to decimal: The number 1101011 is equivalent to 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 one two four eight sixteen thirty-two sixty-four 1 x20 = 1 1x21 = 2 0x22 = 0 1x23 = 8 0x24 = 0 1x25 =32 1x26 = 64

     107 in decimal base

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     From decimal to binary

     The number 7310 is equivalent to 73 = 2 x 36 + remainder 1 36 = 2 x 18 + remainder 0 18 = 2 x 9 + remainder 0 9 = 2 x 4 + remainder 1 4 = 2 x 2 + remainder 0 2 = 2 x 1 + remainder 0 7310 = 10010012 Write the remainders in reverse order preceded by the quotient

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     Adding binary numbers

     Binary addition table ?’ 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 10

     Example: add 1001012 + 1100112

     1001012 1100112 10110002

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     Hexadecimal number system

     Decimal system

     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

     0

     1

     2

     3

     4

     5

     6

     7

     8

     9

     A

     B

     C

     D

     E

     F

     Hexadecimal system

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