Key to Exercises (Unit 4 Language)
Section A A Road to Vulgarity
Part one Paraphrase (略)
Part two Words and expressions
1. Learners employ various learning strategies to develop their interlanguages.
2. The different kinds of errors learners produce reflect different learning strategies.
3. Overgeneralization and transfer errors can also be seen as evidence of learning strategies.
4. The learner‟s grammar is likely to fossilize. Selinker suggested that only about five
percent of learners go on to develop the same mental grammar as native speakers. 5. The human mind is equipped with a faculty for learning language, referred to as a
Language Acquisition Device.
6. Motivation involves the attitudes and affective states that influence the degree of effort that learners make to learn an L2.
7. L1 transfer refers to the influence that the learner‟s L1 exerts over the acquisition of an L2.
8. L2 acquisition can be defined as the way in which people learn a language other than their mother tongue, inside or outside of a classroom.
9. There are many factors that account for why learners acquire an L2 in the way they do. One of the external factors is the input that learners receive, that is, the samples of language to which a learner is exposed.
10. A set of internal factors explain why learners vary in the rate they learn an L2 and how successful they ultimately are. I t has been suggested that people vary in their language aptitude, that is their natural disposition for learning an L2, some finding it easier than others.
Part three Translation the following passage into Chinese (参考答案)
Part four Proof-reading
Although it is nowhere explicitly stated in his paper,
it is evident that Selinker conceived ^ interlanguage as a 1.__of___ „dynamic system‟. He makes it clear that he regards the
„interlanguage system‟ as the product of ^psycholinguistic 2.__a___
process of interaction between two linguistic systems, those
^ the mother tongue and the target language. He furthermore 3.__of___ expounds at considerable length the notion ^ „fossilization‟ 4.__of___
which he characterizes as a „mechanism‟ whereby „speakers
^ a particular native language will keep certain linguistic 5.__of___ items, rules, subsystems in their interlanguage, no matter that 6._what____
amount of instruction they receive in the target language.‟
Selinker therefore clearly conceived of interlanguage ^ being 7.___as__ a continuum….
What is, with hindsight, strikingly absent in Selinker‟s original
formulation is the notion of the interlanguage continuum as having the property of increase complexity or elaboration. There is nothing 8._increasing__ in his original article what suggests that he saw the interlanguage 9.__which___ continuum as anything but a restructuring of the learner‟s system
from the native language to ^target language at the same level of complexity.
The Input Hypothesis claims that humans acquire
^ language in only one way--- by understanding messages, 1.___ a_ or by receiving „comprehensible input‟. We progress
along the natural order… by understanding input
^contains structures at our next “stage”----structures 2.__that___
what are a bit beyond our current level of competence. 3.__that___
(We move from i, our current level, to i+1, ^ next level 4._the____
along the natural order, by understanding input
containing i+1;) We are able to understand language
containing unacquired grammar with^ help of 5.__the___
context, what includes extra-linguistic information, 6.__which___ our knowledge of the world, and previously acquired
linguistic competence. The caretaker provides extra-linguistic context by limiting speech to the child to the „here and
now‟. The beginning-language teacher provides context
via visual aid (pictures and objects) and discussion of 7._aids____ familiar topics.
To be more precise, input is the essential environmental ingredient. The acquirer does not simply acquire what
he hears---- there is ^significant contribution of the internal 8.__a___ language processor. Nor all the input the acquirer hears i/s 9.__is___ processed for acquisition, and the LAD itself generates po/sible rules according to innate procedures. Moreover, not 10._impossible____ all comprehended input reaches the LAD.
Part five Reading comprehension
A: d b B: c d