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Section 1 - The Linux Story

By Herbert Bradley,2014-05-27 15:44
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Section 1 - The Linux Story

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     Section 1: Understand the Linux Story

     Understand the Linux Story

     Objectives

     1. The History of Linux 2. Understand the Multiuser Environment 3. Perform a Simple Installation of SLED 10

     Objective 1: The History of Linux

     Section 1 ?C Understand the Linux Story

     The History of Linux

     Historical Development of UNIX

     At the end of the 1960's most systems were batch systems using punch cards or paper tape

     ?C Very inefficient since had to wait to see results

     Developers wanted a way to allow a number of users to work interactively with the system at the same time ? MULTICS was one of the first system to do this

     ?C Difficult to operate

     In 1969 Ken Thompson created UNIX, a better system

     ?C Dialog oriented operation ?C High functionality and structural simplicity

     The History of Linux

     Historical Development of UNIX

     First version of UNIX written in Assembler Language

     ?C Very machine dependent

     In 1971 rewritten in C language so machine independent ? System use spread rapidly since Bell Labs provided source code and documentation to universities at very little cost ? Many users and companies actively engaged in development due to

     ?C Simple operation ?C Availability of source code ?C Portability

     The History of Linux

     Historical Development of UNIX

     Numerous versions of UNIX became available

     ?C AIX from IBM, DEC, HP-UX from HP and BSD UNIX from University of California at Berkeley

     In 1983 AT&T started marketing UNIX System V

     ?C ?C ?C ?C Defined as the UNIX standard Licensing rules changed Long-lasting legal battles with BSD Prevented real standardization

     Modern UNIX can be based on System V or BSD ? Linux tries to combine best of both

     The History of Linux

     Historical Development of UNIX

     Linux is available on many different hardware platforms

     ?C ?C ?C ?C ?C ?C ?C Intel/AMD 32 bit Intel/AMD 64 bit PowerPC (Mac, RS/6000) SPARC (Sun) IBM pSeries IBM zSeries (S/390) Embedded

     The History of Linux

     Development of Linux

     In 1991 Linux Torvalds began to develop a UNIX-like operating system to run on a PC ? Developed a simple kernel and gave out the source code over the Internet ? Made source code available under the GPL

     ?C GPL = GNU General Public License ?C Allows anyone to read and edit the source code ?C If make changes, must make those changes available to others as well

     Developed into a project involving many people

     ?C Linus still controls kernel modifications

     The History of Linux

     Development of Linux

     Functions of the kernel include

     ?C ?C ?C ?C ?C ?C ?C ?C ?C Input and output control Device control Process management File management CPU allocation Non-Intel processor implementations Shell utilities Network services System binaries (many are GNU utilities from the FSF)

     Other system components are handled by other groups

     The History of Linux

     Differences Between SUSE Linux and SLED

     SLED 10 is based on SUSE Linux 10.x with this process

     ?C ?C ?C ?C SUSE Linux 10.x is released first Code is tested and patched Security and stability are improved SLED 10 is released

     SLED 10 has fewer packages

     ?C SUSE Linux 10 has about 3,500 ?C SLED 10 has about 1,000 ?C Most packages removed are desktop applications

     The History of Linux

     Differences Between SUSE Linux and SLED

     The History of Linux

     Differences Between SUSE Linux and SLED

     SLED 10 has much better and longer support

     ?C Has a guaranteed 7 years for patches and fixes ?C Has a range of support options

     SLED 10 is certified by many independent hardware and software vendors

     Objective 2: Understand the Multiuser Environment

     Section 1 ?C Understand the Linux Story

     The Multiuser Environment

     Overview

     UNIX was designed to be multiuser and multitasking ? A multiuser system enables a number of users to use the system at the same time ?

    A multitasking system allows users to run multiple programs at the same time

     ?C Only appears to be that way on a single processor system ?C Need a multiprocessor system to really do it

     The Multiuser Environment

     Overview

     UNIX implements preemptive multitasking

     ?C Each process has a maximum time in which to work before the kernel takes the processor away

     In other operating systems processor control must be released by the process

     ?C Can lead to one process hijacking the CPU ?C Other processes are blocked and can not run

     The kernel coordinates access to resources

     ?C If multiple processes want a resource only one can have it at a time ?C Complex task and no OS is perfect

     The Multiuser Environment

     Resource Conflicts

     The classic deadlock problem

     ?C Process A has resource 1 and is waiting for resource 2 ?C Process B has resource 2 and is waiting for resource 1

     Multithreading helps solve this problem

     ?C ?C ?C ?C An extension of multitasking A process has a number of independent parts called threads Increases the level of parallel processes Makes use of a multiprocessor system better as well

     The Multiuser Environment

     Resource Conflicts

     Objective 3: Perform a Simple Installation of SLED 10

     Section 1 ?C Understand the Linux Story

     Simple SLED 10 Installation

     Overview

     The process can be divided into the following steps

     ?C Pre-Installation Requirements and Guidelines ?C Installation Options ?C Basic Installation ?C Configuration

     Simple SLED 10 Installation

     Pre-Installation Requirements and Guidelines

     Minimum

     ?C 256 MB RAM ?C 500 MB hard disk space for software

     Recommended

     ?C 512 to 3 GB RAM ?C 4 GB hard disk space for software

     Simple SLED 10 Installation

     Pre-Installation Requirements and Guidelines

     After installation some configurations are hard to change so consider the following items before installing ? Hardware compatibility

     ?C ?C ?C ?C Supports most enterprise desktop hardware Supports most hardware for desktops Laptops can be a problem To verify compatibility go to http://www.novell.com/partnerguide/section/481.html

     Simple SLED 10 Installation

     Pre-Installation Requirements and Guidelines

     File system types

     ?C Select the file system type for each partition ?C Default system is Reiser which is good for most partitions ?C More about this in the Administration course 3072

     Partitioning Scheme

     ?C Plan before implementing since harder to change later ?C Easier to configure software RAID or LVM during install

     Software Package Selection

     ?C For better security only install what is required

     Simple SLED 10 Installation

     Installation Options

     When boot get the welcome screen ? Must choose an option in 20 seconds or first entry is chosen and system boots from hard disk

     ?C To stop process just press any key

     The functions keys at the bottom are important

     ?C ?C ?C ?C ?C F1 to get help F2 for the Installation Language F3 to change display resolution F4 to choose an installation source F5 to load other drivers

     Simple SLED 10 Installation

     Installation Options

     The Welcome Screen

     Simple SLED 10 Installation

     Installation Options

     Boot from Hard Disk

     ?C Boots installed Operating System from hard disk

     Installation

     ?C Starts the normal GUI based install

     Installation ?C Local APIC Disabled

     ?C ?C ?C ?C APIC = Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller Each CPU is made of a core and a local APIC The APIC handles CPU specific interrupt configuration Can lead to problems

     Simple SLED 10 Installation

     Installation Options

     Installation ?C Local ACPI Disabled

     ?C ACPI = Advanced Configuration and Power Interface ?C Can lead to installation problems on older computers

     Installation ?C Safe Settings

     ?C Good for older computers with no power management or hard disk acceleration

     Rescue System

     ?C Starts a minimal Linux system (no GUI) from a DVD ?C Lets you repair the Linux installation on the hard disk

     Memory Test

     ?C Tests the RAM for physical errors until terminated

     Simple SLED 10 Installation

     Basic Installation

     YaST may ask for a language

     ?C If selected a language using F2 then this does not appear

     Read and Accept the License Agreement ? If already have Linux on the computer get the choices

     ?C New Installation ?C To do a new installation ?C Update ?C To update an existing system ?C Other button offers the choices ?C Repair Installed System ?C Boot installed system

     Simple SLED 10 Installation

     Basic Installation

     YaST now asks you to select a Time Zone ? YaST now displays information about your hardware and makes suggestions ? Can change the settings by selecting a headline link or using the Change button menu

     Simple SLED 10 Installation

     Basic Installation

     The Overview tab includes some other choices

     ?C Keyboard Layout ?C Identifies the layout of the keyboard ?C Partitioning ?C Create and change partition table ?C If a Windows partition exists it tries to resize it ?C Any existing Linux partition is overwritten ?C If have another OS and have free space YaST tries to install Linux in the free space for dual boot ?C Software ?C Select the software to be installed ?C Language ?C Select default language for the installation

     Simple SLED 10 Installation

     Basic Installation

     The Expert tab includes some other choices

     ?C System ?C Details about the hardware ?C Add-On Products ?C If have media with add-ons ?C Booting ?C Install and configure the GRUB boot loader ?C Time Zone ?C Select your time zone ?C Language ?C Select default language for the installation ?C Default Runlevel ?C Select default runlevel ?C Runlevels are different modes the server can run in

     Simpstle sled 10 Inallation

     Configuration

     If the installation was successful the computer reboots and YaST starts again so you can configure some basic settings ? During the configuration phase you configure the following:

     ?C ?C ?C ?C ?C Root Password Network Devices Services Users Hardware

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     Users

     ?C Authentication methods ?C Local ? User accounts managed locally using /etc/passwd ?C LDAP ? User accounts managed centrally by LDAP server ? Use in mixed UNIX and Windows environments ?C NIS ? User accounts managed centrally by NIS server ? Use in pure UNIX environments only ?C Windows Domain ? User accounts managed centrally by Windows or Samba servers

     Simple sled 10 Installation

     Configuration

     Users

     ?C If choose Local (/etc/passwd) get the following to create users ?C User's Full Name ?C Username ? Login name ? Must be unique ?C Password ? Case sensitive ? Enter twice for verification ? Get warnings if too simple or only lowercase

     Simple sled 10 Installation

     Configuration

     Users

     ?C Receive System Mail ?C User automatically receives email for root ?C Automatic login ?C Avoids login at system startup ?C Use only at your own desk ?C A security risk ?C After making all selections the information is written to disk

     Simple sled 10 Installation

     Configuration

     Hardware

     ?C Graphics Card ?C Configures the graphics card automatically ?C Printers ?C Detects local printers automatically ?C Sound Card ?C Configures the sound card automatically

     Simple sled 10 Installation

     Configuration

     Installation Completed

     ?C Clone this System for Autoyast ?C Activated by default ?C Autoyast is a tool to clone systems during installs ?C Finish ?C System is now ready to use

     Simple sled 10 Installation

     Exercise 1-1

     Install sled 10

     ?C Purpose is to show you how to install sled 10 using defaults when possible ?C In part III enter digitalairlines.com as the domain ?C In part IV use novell as the root password ?C In part V deactivate the firewall ?C In part VI create an account for geeko with novell as the password

     Estimated time: 45 minutes

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