By Lois Knight,2014-05-27 15:30
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     Beijing Sport University Vera Lee and Ilan Bass


     Swimming Synchronised Swimming Diving Synchronised Diving Discussion: Swimsuit Technology


     F??d??ration Internationale de Natation (FINA)


     The aquatic sport of swimming involves competition amongst participants to be the fastest over a given distance under self propulsion. The different events include 25(8&U), 50, 100, 200, breaststroke, backstroke and butterfly, the 25(8&U), 50, 100, 200, 400, 500, 800, 1000, 1500, and 1650 free and the 100, 200, and 400 individual medley (IM, consisting of all strokes).

     General Terms

     lengths; laps butterfly backstroke breaststroke Freestyle front crawl I.M. (individual medley) goggles cap (lycra, latex) chlorine (fast)skin body suit drag

     General Terms

     starting block touch pad open-turn flipturn relay exchange; 1st,2nd,3rd leg, anchor swim off split time heat (heat declared winner)

     Mark Spitz

     Mark Spitz

     For most athletes winning four Olympic medals would fulfill their wildest dreams. Mark Spitz did just that in Mexico City in 1968, and went home with a heart full of disappointment. Spitz was no ordinary competitor; he was a swimmer of uncommon physical gifts.

     Trained from childhood by an exacting father who told him that swimming isn't everything, winning is. He'd come to Mexico City boldly predicting six gold medal victories. Instead he fell short of that goal. And in the finals of his best event?ªthe 200m butterfly?ªSpitz actually finished dead last.

     But instead of falling apart, Mark Spitz redoubled his ambitions. He arrived at the 1972 Munich Olympics with even heavier goals: to become the first athlete to win seven gold medals at one Olympiad. His first event that year was the same 200m butterfly which had bedeviled him four years earlier.

     Spitz swam with such power and grace that he finished two full seconds ahead of the silver medallist. Spitz then went on to claught victories in four more individual races plus a relay?ªsix gold medals in all.

     "The men's 4x100 medley relay??Each of the four men will swim the pool two lengths, up and back: backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, freestyle."

     Then his crowning moment came in the men's 4x100 relay. Spitz swam third, swimming the butterfly. While the team was swimming for another gold, Spitz was swimming for his seventh and the realization of his dream. Calling the race for ABC Keith Jackson:

     "And there's a close-up look at Mark Spitz, turning furiously through the water heading for the final twenty five meters and he will give the lead over to Jerry Heidenreich of Dallas, Texas who will swim the anchor leg or freestyle.

     So Mark Spitz has built the lead to about a body length and it's going to be a fight for second place, but Heidenreich has put'em all away in the anchor leg it's now a question of how much time it will take him.

     You're looking at a new record, no question about it. Mark Spitz has seven gold medals! He's won everything that he had hoped to win." Mark Spitz: one of the greatest performances in Olympic history.

     Synchronised Swimming


     Synchronized swimming is a hybrid form of swimming, dance and gymnastics, consisting of swimmers (either solos, duets, or teams) performing a synchronised routine of elaborate moves in the water, accompanied by music. Synchronized swimming demands advanced water skills, and requires great strength, endurance, flexibility, grace, artistry and precise timing, as well as exceptional breath control when upside down underwater.

     History (1)

     At the turn of the 20th century, synchronized swimming was known as Water Ballet. The first recorded competition was in 1891 in Berlin, Germany. While exclusively a sport performed by men in its first days, it quickly became a women's sport because the nature of the physical movements are more suitable to the female physique (i.e. center of gravity). In 1907, Australian Annette Kellerman popularized the sport when she performed in a glass tank as an underwater ballerina in New York.

     History (2)

     In 1933-1934 Katherine Curtis organized a show, "The Modern Mermaids," for the World Exhibition in Chicago, which the announcer introduced as "Synchronized Swimming." This was the first mentioning of the term synchronized swimming. But it was National AAU champion swimmer, Esther Williams, who popularized synchronized swimming through (often elaborately staged) scenes in Hollywood films such as Bathing Beauty (1944), Million Dollar Mermaid (1952), and Jupiter's

    Darling (1955). Although first demonstrated at the 1952 Olympic Games, synchronized swimming did not become an official Olympic sport until the 1984 Summer Olympic Games.

     General Terms

     nose clip tread water sculling boosts, rockets, thrusts hooks; twirls figures


     2 routines: Technical & Free routine Technical merit Artistic impression



     Introduction (1)

     Diving is the sport of jumping or falling into water from a platform or springboard, sometimes while performing acrobatics. Diving is an internationallyrecognized sport that is part of the Olympic Games. Diving is one of the most popular Olympic sports with spectators. Competitors possess many of the same characteristics as gymnasts and dancers, including strength, flexibility, kinaesthetic judgment and air awareness.

     Introduction (2)

     China came to prominence several decades ago when the sport was revolutionized by national coach Liang Boxi and after intense study of the dominant Louganis. China has lost few world titles since. The success of Greg Louganis has led to American strength in diving internationally. Other noted countries in the sport include Italy, Australia and Canada.


     3m springboard 10m platform (tower) synchronized diving

     Synchronized Diving


     Synchronized diving was adopted as an Olympic sport in 2000. Two divers form a team and perform dives simultaneously. The dives are usually identical; however, sometimes the dives may be opposites, in what is called a pinwheel.

     Types of Dives

     in the Forward Group (Group 1), the diver takes off facing forward and rotates forward in the Back Group (2), the diver takes off with their back to the water and rotates backward in the Reverse Group (3), the diver takes off facing forward and rotates backward in the Inward Group (4), the diver takes off with their back to the water and rotates forward any dive incorporating an axial twisting movement is in the Twist Group (5). any dive commencing from a handstand is in the Armstand Group (6). (Only on platform)

     Forward Group The diver faces the front of the board and rotates

    toward the water. Dives in this group vary from the simple front dive to the difficult forward four and one half somersault. Backward Group All dives in the backward group begin with the diver on the end of the board with back to the water. The direction of rotation is away from the board.

     Reverse Group Formerly called "gainers," these dives begin with the diver facing the front of the board and rotating toward the board. Inward Group Formerly called "cutaways." The diver stands on the end of the board with back to the water and rotates toward the board.

     Twisting Group Any dive that uses a twist (excluding armstands) is included in this group. There are four types: forward, backward, reverse and inward. Armstand Group Here the diver assumes a handstand position on the edge of the platform before executing the dive. This position is not used on the springboard.

     Positions of Dives

     straight - with no bend at the knees or hips (the hardest of the three) pike - with knees straight but a tight bend at the hips (the median in difficulty of the three.) The open pike is a variant where the arms are reached to the side, and the legs are brought straight out with a bend in the hips. tuck - body folded up in a tight ball, hands holding the shins and toes pointed.(the easiest of the three) free - it is a common misconception that the free position is any sequence of the three other positions, although the free position is only for twisting dives, implying that the diver may for example bend their legs or curve at the waist, and points will not be deducted for doing so.

     Judging a Dive

     height distance from springboard or platform body position (straight legs, pointed toes, etc.) speed of rotation angle of entry D.D.

     Belly Flop

     Commentary Expressions

     short of the vertical really went after the dive over-rotated benefit of the doubt hips come up really fast tight dive right over the board clean entry; heavy on the entry (first) by a long shot

     Diving Accident


     Today, we are going to discuss new technology in swimming. There are new so-called 'super-swim suits' which imitate a shark skin and enable to the water to flow over the body of the swimmer more easily. World Records have been falling fast. Do you think using this new technology contitutes cheating or should the swimmer be free to choose his or her own swim suit? Read the article I have given you and be prepared to discuss this topic in the next class.

     References and Links




    http://www.economist.com/sciencetechnology/displaystory.cfm?story_id=E1_TTVNJP RR

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/olympic_games/7944084.stm http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/swimming/8179689.stm http://news.bbc.co.uk/today/hi/today/newsid_8022000/8022077.stm


     Beijing Sport University Vera Lee and Ilan Bass


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