Core components, do not morpheme-yi-yi composition and
【Summary】 morpheme is an important structure in Chinese unit, and morpheme analysis in terms of justice studies at both the intensity and depth was inadequate. In this paper, "collection" as an example for the analysis of movements of morpheme-yi
made a new attempt. This article advocates the use of morpheme contexts (including the word-context and sentence context), the morpheme to do the movements of the semantic analysis, the real meaning of the semantic meaning spaces be summed up as core components of the formula S = + (other meaning components), the action justice is concerned, the core component is a specific action, do justice component is related with the movement of participants, time, premises, methods, results, etc., and specific discussion of the core components and other ingredients to obtain justice. End up with "revenue" semantics, meaning a total of 17 items.
Abstract title】 Chinese Philology
Key words movement of morpheme / semantic analysis / word-analysis / core
components / elements of other justice / righteousness item
Morpheme internally there is a big difference, morpheme freedom is different from different functions, semantics are different in nature, its semantic analysis of the ways and means of both may be different. This paper is intended to Modern Chinese "income" as an example to discuss the movement of morpheme's semantic analysis of issues. Was chosen "revenue" as the case is due to "revenue", the meaning of more complex and "revenue" in modern Chinese in the vast majority of meaning bits are obtained justice, has strong internal consistency. "Revenue" in the same place is often a sense not only can act as a word-morpheme, but also the separate words, in the analysis
process, this article will into words and not a word either case be considered together, unified analysis.
Corpus-based semantic analysis of this article carried out. Our Chinese Linguistics
at Peking University Research Center for Modern Chinese corpus containing 1000 cases of interception of the previous "revenue" of the sample sentence, which
"revenue" appears a total of 1069 times, to get rid of 8 table name objects "revenue"
(Note: Examples such as "gravel Tian Bao is not only income, production agricultural land than the local general is much higher," "one-year-old's income," "late-maturing
person, Miao long, low income," "revenue" for the harvest of crops meaning.), table
movement behavior of "revenue" of 1061, which are used for monosyllabic word 305, and the remaining are word-morpheme, its word-building in specific circumstances in
the table below: binary predicate joint formula: confiscation (87) , shelter (7), income (79), Transceivers (3), packing (60), convergence (3), absorption (45), recruitment (2), harvesting (37), watch (2), bribe (29) , the host (2), collection (28), incorporated (2), collect (26), contraction (2), receiving (29), close set (2), acceptance (24), close set (2),
acceptance ( 17), inspected (1), collection (17), receipt and payment (1), harvesting (15), imprisoned (1), collect (15), close grazing (1), acquisition (14), incorporating (1) the collection (12), close tuck (1), the balance of payments (11), recovered (1), adoption (8),
close Chol (1), extensive cultivation (1), eclectic (2)
Partial official: Harvest (27), receipt (3), harvest (12), income (10), radio cassette recorders (2), taxes (9), rush in the harvest (1), radio (8), wheat (1), effective ( 4),
recovery (1), revenue collection (4), receipt (1), autumn (3)
VO: receiving (21), rental income (2), call it a day (5), sailing (1), collection (5), closing (1), collection (5), taxes (1) charges (4), withdraw troops (1), wound up, (3),
income (3) (Note: In most cases, "income" is the formal side, refers to the production or commercial income, but in This corpus of relevant laws, there have been three cases of VO "income" means profit. For example:
(1) the ship ownership, refers to the owner of the ship to enjoy their ships according to the possession, use, benefits and punishment powers.
(2) The ownership of property refers to the owner to enjoy their property according to law, possession, use, benefits and dispose of their rights.
(3) ... ... can also be determined by law, by collectively owned units, the use of the state to protect its use, the right to return; the use of unit management, conservation, rational use of obligations. ), Income Team (1), corpses (2), received Tam (1), closing
down entirely (2)
Main predicate: hi numerous income (1), crop failure (1), just leave (1), and acting freely (1)
Shu complement formula: recovery (12), Shou Fu (1)
Unary predicate joint formula: Shrinkage (2)
Seen from the table, "revenue" constituted the main type of joint compound words, and "revenue" is primarily a binary predicate. Said, "revenue" is a verb, is the word on the terms of the structure of its. According to ZHU Yan (2004), compound words
prime number is described on the basis that the relationship between combined into words, movements in the words of morpheme structure predication relations is a kind of predicate that can take on the yuan. The following is a compound word out that the
relationship between elements based on the general and abstract out of word-building
framework (formative frame):
(1) a. receiving a-closed - Cargo
b. contraction (a-close) - and - (a-shrink)
In the framework of "revenue", "reduction" is a predicate, a "cargo" is the
argument. "Receipt" and "revenue" with two on the yuan, is a binary predicate, "shrink" and "revenue" with only one argument is a unary predicate. The following will be "revenue" to do a concrete analysis of the semantic.
1. The term structure and the role of projection morpheme
Pragmatic meaning in the formation of the environment, but also in the pragmatic environment, evolving, and therefore meaning can and should use the environment in their analysis, this is our basic principle a semantic analysis (ZHU Yan, 2005). Verb in the Context of the greatest impact on the verb meaning is its subject and object roles (Note: In this paper, the role of the classification of verbs based on Yuan Yu Lin (2002), which contains the causal agent of the main roles, a sense of things caused by matter, principal, object roles include subject to do with things as a result, objects, the Department of thing.), while the object of the verb area as often as on the yuan (internal argument, Gu Yang, 1994), in particular, to determine the semantics of the verb plays a crucial, even decisive role. And the verb is similar, the actions of word-
morpheme should also put its use to analyze the environment, but also its main object should be fully examine the situation to determine its semantics. The difference is that the involvement of the role of the verb present in the syntactic structure, while the action involved in the role of word-morpheme word structures exist first and foremost,
we must by word-formation assays. For example, (1) "revenue", the role of the main objects are in the further analysis of word-morpheme relations between the predication
Morpheme word-building of the argument brought some were significantly brighter
(highlight), namely, the achievement of compound word formation surface morpheme, such as (1) "receipt" of "goods"; some were implicit (imply), that is, not compound words appear on the surface structure, such as (1a) (1b) in a. By Xian-liang's role is to
determine the semantic content, but the role has been implied in the term structure because no definite article, its content is uncertain, and this will definitely affect the semantics of the morpheme analysis. Thus, to rely solely on the word structure to
analyze the word-morpheme meaning in itself is not enough, when the term structure itself can not provide enough information about the role of morphemes, we should broaden the scope of the study beyond the term structure, into a larger context, the use
of the word sentence or even text where the information provided to carry out the analysis of word-morpheme meaning. The reason for this is that the implicit actions of the role of morpheme is often projected onto the sentence. For example:
(2a) in the "revenue", the implied role in the context of projection has been, (2b) in the "revenue" is projected into the empty areas of the main body (empty category), but
its general contents of tips based on context, by virtue of our the knowledge and experience fill out (such as meeting a "farmer"). In this corpus, the "collect" the role of the vast majority of cases have been projected in the sentence, there are a few exceptions, this is the extended meaning. Compound derived meaning the main mode icons are as follows:
Set up two morpheme to form compound words W, W is the original meaning of A, then B gives rise to A-yi-yi. As the original meaning in the word-morpheme A sense of
form, A and often there is a direct relationship. A, the B is formed on the basis, B may
not have direct relationship with. Therefore, to know the meaning of the morpheme, we should examine A-yi, yi A study of the context, rather than go to visit B-yi, research B-
defined context. Similarly, the study "revenue" justice should examine, such as (3a),
(4a), rather than (3b), (4b), because the "revenue" The role of the (3b), (4b) the lack of projection:
(3) a. Even his one "word" can be divided into five money to eight, each year it from an upper middle income二百八九十two silver!
b. levels of nutrition are often the family's economic income decision.
(4) a. there are a lot of buying clothes in the vicinity, and carrying a bamboo basket, between Yao Huan.
b. Chan bought the ground at the closure people, low prices.
There are other reasons, may cause movement morpheme is not the role of syntactic projection (Note: The word-building role of morpheme can be projected, with the
morpheme morpheme's role and the role of the word where the consistency of the. For
a is the word "Da Geng," the main role is morpheme "fight" the main role, but "playing" the role of more than one object b, b is a one dollar verb "Dageng" does not have a role only exists in our Among the experience, it is difficult in the context of some
The role of word-building morpheme can be projected, but also with the clarity of word-building related to the rationale, if the compound word-formation framework has
been unclear, the role of morphemes in the context of naturally difficult to be
projection. For example, "playing autumn wind" Although you can determine the VO compound words, can "play" and "Autumn" combined into words the rationale has been lost, "playing the autumn wind," the word-building framework has been difficult
to describe, it is by no means "a-play - autumn wind" , "Autumn" is not "playing the"
role "playing the autumn wind" argument lost, and therefore can not be found in the context of "playing the" role. ), But this corpus, the "revenue" does not happen, not
much to discuss here.
Identified in the context of "revenue" the role of the specific content, it can be "revenue" for further analysis and study.
2. Significance of the structure of
With regard to the meaning of the structure of their predecessors has been called "the core of the definition of Su Yi Su + limit" (Jiang Shaoyu, 1989), "distinctive Yi Su Yi Su + allegations" (Zhang Lian-rong, 2000), "meaning the value of difference + Main
admonition" (Wang Ning, 1988; 2002) and other references (Note: Wang Ning (1988; 2002), "meaning the value of difference + Main admonition" is just interpretation of the structure of language is not meaningful structure. but we believe that if the meaning of being expressed out of later, that it exists in the representation of words, phrases, sentences, etc. Among the various language units, then the interpretation of language structure can be seen as the structure of meaning.), the basic spirit of these types of references is the same, that is, the real meaning righteousness bit (content sense) structure as a kind of core components (kernel component, Jane for KC) and the other justice components (distinctive component, simple to make DC) structure, which we summarized as follows: real-yi-yi position = core elements + other meaning
elements, namely S = KC DC. In the action-yi, the movement behavior of the core
components, and motion behavior-related subject, object, time, premises, tools,
methods, reasons, the result meaning components of other fliers.
The core composition and ingredients do not sense the importance of place in the meaning is clearly not the same, the core composition and Yi's most fundamental attributes or generic linked structure is the meaning of the things, do justice component
is not. Thus in the dictionary definition, the other components can often sense does not appear, while the core elements must be present. For example (and added two pairs of horizontal line is the core component):
【】 ? Valley ravine. ( "Now Han" (Note: "now the Han" means the Commercial Press in 1996 "Modern Chinese Dictionary" (revised edition), the same below.))
】 【Booming prosperity. ( "Now Han")
The above interpretation is only the core components, there is no other meaning
Meaning, as other components can often does not appear, the structure of notional Sememe formula can be modified to: S = KC (DC). Semantic analysis process, and in fact it is to find the semantic of the KC and DC procedure. Below, with "revenue", the
analysis of specific discussion of justice in action morpheme acquisition of KC and DC.
3. "Revenue" of the core components of
The semantics of expressions in the dictionary, action verbs KC is often a predicate
of the verb word or a synonym, such as "fishing" in a sense entries interpreted as "from the water or other liquids to take things" ( "now the Han"), "taking" the "losers" of the upper term; "recycled" in a word sense interpretation of "taking items (multi-fingered scrap or second-hand) to recover the use of" ( "now Han"), "recovery"
is "recycling" a synonym. As a result, the process of looking for KC to find the verb can be transformed into the upper word or a synonym for process. Semantics in the structure, the synonymous relations and the relationship between the upper and lower is to use the sentence conditions, the relationship between the truth (truth-conditional
relation) to determine that, according to a two-way implication (bilateral implication)
to define the relationship between synonymous, according to a one-way implication
(unilateral implication) to define the relationship between the upper and lower (Lyons, 1968,1977; Palmer, 1981; Cruse, 1986). That is, in the context of x, if we can find x, the
upper word synonyms or y to replace x, and replace the pre-sentence (Note: works in
structural semantics, congruence between sentences. But the absolute congruence is only an ideal state, in fact the difference between formal sentence always bring meaning to the differences, including different lexical items x, y of the two sentences can only be about the relationship between such, it is impossible to achieve meaningful congruent. Therefore, this paper abandoned "=" and use "?".) or the relationship, then
y is x, the core component. The problem is, the real text sentences often come with specific conditions, such as special format, focus, stress, rhythm, context, etc. These factors will affect the conduct of the replacement, making sense of the word clearly has
a synonymous relationship between the upper and lower bits words, in terms of the sentence but can not be replaced. Therefore, the replacement shall be in an idealized, non-marking structure to. Shi Yu-zhi (2000) has proposed a non-marking structure
"AGENT + Action + Shou Shi," but the action participants are not limited to AGENT and Shoushi, but also can be a causal agent and results, caused by matter and results, principal and Department of things, this article advocates the role of the verb to
broaden the scope of the "causal agent + action + Shoushi" to "subject + action + object." In the replacement before the first instance the specific context of the sentence becomes independent of the specific context of the unmarked structure, "the main +
action + object," and then OK to replace. The following (5) are from the real transformation comes unmarked text structure can be used to replace the "revenue", the words are "close" to a sense of the core components: reposted elsewhere in the
paper for free download http : / /
As often as the main role of the extra-territorial argument verbs (external argument,
Gu Yang, 1994), the verb is far smaller than the object of semantic roles, which can often be used directly to replace the subject omitted "action + object" format, such as ( 5c).
Morpheme-defined core components of word-building can also be used to replace
law to it, but not a word prime and its main body, between subject and object is sometimes difficult to form a fluent in line with everyday language habits of unmarked small sentences, such as:
(6) a. * a six received more than 3000 yuan ( "revenue" from "income")
b. * income Jaxa City ( "revenue" from "recovery")
c. * national security authorities closed evidence ( "revenue" from "collection")
In order to address this difficulty, we relax the standard of unmarked structure, namely, looking for word-morpheme-defined core elements, the non-marking structure
is not required to be a qualified small sentence, it can be less fluent, is hardly in line with habits, as long as the main object with the corresponding on-line, or it can show
the main object morpheme word-building situation on the line. Thus, (6), the
"revenue", defined the core elements can be replaced, identified as "get", "back", "to
c. National security organs income (sets) ? national security organs of evidence brought together the evidence
By replacing, we corpus in the "revenue" to find the following core components: 1) received; 2) back; 3) did not pay; 4) acceptance; 5) to ... ... to come together; 6) takes to
be; 7 ) access; 8) amplifier; 9) lessons; 10) to stop; 11) excerpt; 12) contraction; 13), and tight; 14) arrested; 15) to withdraw. Semantic core components of the center of the core elements should be identified on the basis of justice do not take into account differences in composition, which are specially defined bit accurate, general semantic content.
4. "Revenue" component of other justice