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Wide Area Measurement System

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Wide Area Measurement System

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     WIDE AREA MEASUREMENTS FOR IMPROVED PROTECTION OF POWER SYSTEMS SISTEMSKA MJERENJA ZA POBOLJSANJE ZASTITE

     Arun Phadke Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA

     Damir Novosel Quanta Technology Raleigh, NC

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     Topics covered:

     Wide Area measurements ~ History Modern WAMS and their architecture WAMS based Protection ~ issues Current applications of PMUs in the US/Canada Ideas for WAMS based protection systems System Integrity Protection Schemes A road map for future

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     GPS receiver PMU Signal conditioning unit User Interface

     (b)

     Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU)

     This is the basic instrument of modern wide area measurements.

     GPS receiver Analog Inputs Phase-locked oscillator

     Modems

     Anti-aliasing filters

     16-bit A/D conv

     Phasor microprocessor

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     Phasor measurement process

     ?È Xrms Input wires

     PMU Filters Sampled Data Phasor Estimator Phasor Xr + j Xi ?È = Xrms?Åj?È

     Phasor timetag (reporting instant)

     Positive sequence Voltages and Currents

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     WAMS Architecture

     ISO's PDC

     ISO??s WAN

     Utility's PDC

     Utility's PDC

     Utility??s WAN

     Utility??s WAN

     ????

     PMU PMU PMU

     ????

     PMU

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     Communications

     Early installations:

     Used available commercial communication media Telephone lines, leased or dial-up Company owned microwave system Analog modems on analog channels Direct digital where available

     Recent trends:

     Fiber-optic channels Dedicated where available Ethernet TCP or UDP

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     Communications Fiber-optic configurations

     Fiber bundle in ground wire Power line

     Fiber bundle on separate towers

     Fiber bundle wrapped around Phase conductor Transmission Tower Fiber bundle direct buried

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     Phasor Measurement Units in the US/Canada

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     Some Current Applications of WAMS in the US/Canada

     Application

     Analysis of system performance: post-disturbance; system oscillation modes (low frequency oscillations), Generator performance and Model validation, HVDC Model validation, Phase-angle alarm Dynamic data monitoring and analysis (angle, frequency, flows), Restoration: synch check and black start Situational Awareness for reducing blackouts, Increasing power transfers, Power system oscillation monitoring, Real-time grid control center applications, Intelligent System Integrity Protection Scheme (SIPS) Disturbance analysis, Dynamic analysis Post-mortem analysis, Data visualization using geographical maps Disturbance analysis State Estimation (SE), System harmonic monitoring Trending display of frequency, Phase angle monitoring State Estimation (SE) State Estimation Voltage & transient stability are being evaluated in conjunction w/ SE

     Utility

     BPA

     PG&E

     SCE

     AEP Entergy FP&L NYPA/NY ISO TVA Entergy, TVA, PG&E, Manitoba Hydro British Columbia Transmission

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     Ideas for WAMS based protection systems

     WAMS not to intervene directly in high speed protection WAMS may alter protection group settings Promising candidates belong to these classes: Back-up Stability related System Protection Some examples and suggestions

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     Adaptive adjustment of Security and Dependability

     From System Control Center

     System State Protection No 1 Or And Vote Protection No 3 Arbitration

    Arbitration Logic Protection No 2

     To Circuit Breakers

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     Monitoring vulnerability of relay settings

     Critical Relay locations

     Static: Load encroachment

     Dynamic: Swings

     How close? Revise settings?

     How close? Revise settings?

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     Adaptive Out-Of-State Relaying

     Georgia

     Out of step condition

     S-PMU Rela y

     S-PMU Relay

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     Adaptive Out-Of-State Relaying

     Pre-fault

     Post-fault

     Interval Prediction Observation Interval

     Adaptive Out-Of-State Relaying for meshed networks

     Two machine equivalent

     Time-series of swing curves and prediction

     PMU

     Observation window PMU data

     PMU

     ?Ä1 ?Ä2

     Time Observation Interval Prediction Interval

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     Supervision of back-up zones

     B A B B B B B

     Zone 3 picks-up at A

     Then at B Balanced Conditions? Any Zone-1 picked up?

     }

     Yes. If not Block Zone-3

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     Loss-of-Field Relaying

     System Control Center determines Th??v??nin

     X Strong system Loss of field trajectory R

     Weak system

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     Dynamic ACE for intelligent load shedding

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     System Integrity Protection Schemes (SIPS)

     Goal to prevent propagation of disturbances for severe system emergencies caused by un-planned operating conditions and ensure system security Last line of defense to improve system security and prevent disturbance propagation - Could help better utilize system margins Stabilize System for Equipment Outages, N-2 or beyond

     ?C Prevent overloading of the lines ?C Arrest voltage decline ?C Initiate pre-planned separation of the power system, etc.

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     SIPS Purpose

     Initiate pre-planned, automatic, and corrective actions

     ?C Arms for pre-defined outages ?C Activates pre-defined actions

     Load Logic: Select Initial Load Group according to 30 min. pointer then arm additional load groups as required to meet the required MW Equipment Out Of Service 'Contingency"

     Yes

     Import Levels<500 MW

     No Calculate Required Load Drop Yes

     SIPS design is based on studies of pre-defined system contingencies for variety of conditions

     Start

     No

     Required Loads> Total MW Loads Available

     Arm Selected Load Groups & Arm Genration

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     SIPS Design

     500kV Main Grid

     Scheme types

     ?C ?C ?C ?C Event-based Parameter-based Response-based Combination of the above

     Communication; Measured 500kV voltages

     MJ MJ MJ MJ

     Distributed vs. central schemes

     ?C Combined, scalable, multi-layer approach recommended

     27kV,154kV radial network

     Communication; Voltage collapse detection result

     Cost of different measures

     ?C Switching of shunt/FACTS devices, start of gas turbines, etc. preferable to system separation and load shedding

     LS

     Sub-Station 275,154/66

     LS

     Sub-Station 275,154/66

     MJ: Monitoring and Judging Unit LS: Load shedding Unit

     Requires coordination of SIPS in the grid

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     SIPS Ingredients

     Not intended to compensate for lack of other investments Clear understanding of the requirements and consequences Coordination with neighboring systems High performance equipment Emphasis on security vs. dependability Real-time measurements and reliable communications Designed for future expansions System testing

     61.5 61 60.5

     Source: Vahid Madani, System Frequency In Northern California August 10, 1996 Beginning At 15:46:41 PST

     PG&E

     Frequency (Hz)

     60 FREQ. 59

     59.5

     58.5 58 57.5 57 131 7.33 24.6 44.6 218 1169 1256 1342 1083 1429 304 910 391 477 737 564 650 823 996 56.5 -10

     Time (Seconds)

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     PACI RAS Islanding - Intertie Separation

     Automatically separates WECC Electrical Grid into two islands: N&S Separation by:

     ?C Tripping all intertie lines at CaliforniaOregon border ?C Initiating the NE/SE separation scheme when transfer is above 600 MW N-S

     British Columbia

     Alberta

     Washington

     Montana

     Oregon

     Idaho Wyoming

     RAS has provisions for:

     ?C Generator tripping in Pacific Northwest and California ?C Tripping pump and/or firm load in northern and southern California

     Nevada

     Utah

     Colorado

     Coordinated with other actions based on outage type and loading

     Arizona

     New Mexico

     PACI ?C AC Corridor, 500kV PDCI ?C DC Link, 1000kV

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     Source: Vahid Madani, PG&E

     Summary of SIPS schemes

     SIPS/RAS can minimize system impacts when systems are operated outside of reliability criteria Fast changing operating conditions in power systems (ever smaller security margins and capacity, aging infrastructure, etc.) Quickly changing enabling technologies for power system control and protection, e.g. communications, controllers, PMUs Advanced analytical techniques are available for various types of SIPS applications

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

     A road map for future

     Identifying critical relay elements affecting security Creating a future-proof plan WAMS architecture Matching communications to applications Phased Optimal placement of PMUs Determining critical system state at Control Center Implementation of pilot projects Gaining some experience from field installations

     8th Symposium on Power System Management Cavtat, November 9-12, 2008

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