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Unit 4 Science and Technology

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Unit 4 Science and Technology

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     高等院校研究生英语系列教材

     综合教程, 综合教程,下:

     INTEGRATED COURSE

     Unit 4

     Science and Technology

     2

     Content

     Starting out Reading Focus Reading More Practical Translation Focused Writing Final Project

     Starting out

     Task 1

     Work in groups and solve the following crossword puzzle involving words describing things that have emerged in recent years with the improvement of science and technology, e.g. email, surfing the Net, search engine, cell phone, etc.

     Down 1. keyboard characters used in combination to produce whimsical symbols representing a range of emotions, also known as smiley 3. online romance 6. teenagers who spend too much time in front of the screen (television or computer screens) 7. a knowledgeable and experienced Internet user 8. move information or programs from a computer network to a small computer 11. an activity performed on Internet forums or chat rooms that involves wandering the website, reading posts and never actually posting anything 12. the user (or employee) of the forum which is granted access to the posts for the purpose of moderating discussion on the Internet 14. someone who has just started doing something, especially using the Internet or computers 18. China and India will soon have far larger numbers of (s) than any Western nation.

     Across 2. a science which involves developing and making extremely small but very powerful machines 4. to post a reply in order to raise the threads profile by

    returning it to the top of the list of active threads 5. to produce an exact copy of an animal or a plant from its cells 9. someone who secretly uses or changes the information in other peoples computer systems 10. GM food refers to modified food which is not affected by particular diseases or harmful insects. 13. A potato is someone who spends most of their time surfing the net. 15. email messages that a computer user has not asked for and does not want to read, for example from someone who is advertising something 16. a business that sells products or services on the Internet, instead of in a shop 17. a virtual pet in the form of an interactive program 19. the opposite of cyberspace or the virtual world of the Internet 20. education via the Internet; e-education

     1E

     M O

     2N

     A

     N

     O

     T I C

     E

     3C

     H

     N

     O

     L

     O

     G

     Y

     Y

     4B

     U

     M

     P

     6S 9H

     5C 7K 8D

     L

     O N

     N

     E R L O

     10G

     A

     C R

     K

     E

     R

     N O W B I

     16E

     O W N L O T A D

     18N 19M 13M 12M

     E

     N

     E E

     T

     I

     C

     A

     11L

     L

     Y

     V U S E

     14N

     U R M K I T N G

     O D

     N

     15S

     E R

     17C

     P

     A G

     I

     L

     E R A

     W Y B I E R P

     E R

     E T I Z

     A

     T O R

     S

     P

     A

     C

     E

     20W

     E N

     B

     U

     C

     A

     T

     I

     O

     N

     The Internet is without any doubt one of the greatest inventions in history. Now

    lets watch a witty speech on If I Controlled the Internet and find out about

    what if the speaker ran the Internet.

     Click on the picture

     Starting out

     Task 2

     Step One Directions: Work in pairs to match inventors in Column A with inventions

    in Column B. (P96)

     Starting out

     1) Tim Berners-Lee (England) ? g. the World Wide Web 2) Alexander Graham Bell

    (US, born in Scotland) ? d. telephone 3) Wilbur Wright and Orville Wright (US) ? i. airplane 4) Thomas Alva Edison (US) ? h. electric light bulb 5) Cai Lun (China)

    ? c. paper 6) Alexander Fleming (England) ? a. penicillin 7) Leo Baekeland (US,

    born in Belgium) ? e. plastics 8) Chester Floyd Carlson (US) ? j. xerography 9)

Wilhelm Conrad von R?ntgen (Germany) ? b. X-ray ? 10) Willis Carrier (US) ? f.

    air-conditioner

     Starting out

     Step Two Directions: Choose two of the inventions mentioned above and talk about their importance.

     Sample: I think one of the most important inventions is the electric light bulb. The importance of this invention becomes most apparent when there is a power outage and we have to feel for everything in darkness. Another most important invention is the airplane. The invention of airplanes has enabled human beings to fulfill their dream of flying like birds. It is the fastest means of transportation so far. Modern tourism also owes much to the invention of the airplane. Airplanes have shortened the distance between people and made the world smaller. Thanks to the invention of the airplane, people can now travel around the world and enjoy different things in exotic destinations.

     Reading Focus

     Is Google Making Us Stupid?

     Background Information Watch a short video then 1) find out about peoples ideas

    about what Google has done from different angles and 2) fill in the following paragraph with the information youve got from the video. Six simple letters on a plain white page thats the face of the most powerful technology company in the world, revered, envied, and sometimes scorned. Googles cofounders Sergey Brin and Larry Page started

    the company as grad students . It has in 1998 astonishingly rich made them . Today they stand atop an empire cast in their own image, , ambitious, and often controversial . audacious It is a company like no other, on long hours, too much thriving coffee, and something quite elusive genius.

     Reading Focus

     1 2 3 4 5

     Global Understanding Detailed Information Critical Thinking Language Points Vocabulary in Action

     Reading Focus Global Understanding

     Complete the following extract with information from the text.

     uncomfortable Over the past few years, Ive had an 1) feeling that Im not thinking

    the way I used to think, particularly when I am 2) . In the past, I would be reading able to 3) immerse myself in lengthy articles. But, it is a different story now. It has become an exacting thing for me to do some 4) reading. This, I think, can be deep attributed to a universal medium the Net, which provides immediate 5) to such an

    incredibly rich store of access information. Reliance on the Net leads to the gradual loss of my capacity for 6) and contemplation. concentration Similar troubles with reading also fall upon other people,

     Reading Focus Global Understanding

     including Scott Karp, who recently confessed that he has stopped 7) reading books altogether, and Bruce altered Friedman, who claimed that the Internet has 8) his mental habits. A recently published study of online research habits also change points to the 9) in the way we read and think. Although the Internet and text-messaging on

cell phones different facilitate our reading, its a 10) kind of reading. According

    to Maryanne Wolf, a developmental psychologist at Tufts University, we tend to become mere 11) of information while reading decoders online.

     Reading Focus Global Understanding

     As a consequence, our ability to interpret and make rich mental connections remains tremendously 12)disengaged . Another good case in point, illustrating the point that 13) extend across many regions of the brain variations when we apply different media, is Friedrich Nietzsche. When his vision was failing and it was tough for him to keep his eyes focused on a page, he bought a typewriter, with which 14) could once again flow from words his mind to the page. But, as one of Nietzsche

    s friends claimed, it made Nietzsches terse prose even 15) and more telegraphic.

    tighter

     Reading Focus Detailed Information

     Task 2 Choose the sentence that best expresses the meaning of the sentence from the text. (P103)

     Key: 1 D 2 A 5 D 6 A

     3 7

     B 4 B C 8 C

     Reading Focus

     Critical Thinking

     Reading FocusCritical Thinking Read the following sentences from the text and discuss with your group members how you understand them and whether you agree with them. Use examples to illustrate your point. 1. We are not only what we read,

    says Maryanne Wolf. We are how we read. 2. When we read online, she says, we tend

    to become mere decoders of information.

     Reading FocusCritical Thinking Read the following sentences or questions and discuss with your partner whether you have the same problems and if you have, how you will cope with these problems. 1. The more they use the Web, the more they have to fight to stay focused on long pieces of writing. 2. People using the sites exhibited a form of skimming activity, hopping from one source to another and rarely

    returning to any source theyd already visited. 3. I cant read War and Peace

    anymore, he admitted. Ive lost the ability to do that. Even a blog post of more than three or four paragraphs is too much to absorb. I skim it.

     Reading FocusCritical Thinking

     Discuss in groups the following questions

     People can gain easy access to virtually all the information on the Internet, including e-books, which acts as a catalyst for the debate as to whether to abandon or strengthen the copyright of books. In your opinion, how should the issue of copyright be dealt with?

     Reading Focus Language Point 1. Immersing myself in a book or a lengthy article used to be easy. My mind would get caught up in the narrative or the turns of the argument, and Id spend hours strolling through long stretches of prose. (Para. 1) Here, the author is talking about his past experience. For example, he used to be easily absorbed in a book or a long article. His attention would also be drawn to

the narrative, complex arguments and long prose.

     Reading Focus Language Point

     2. The Web has been a godsend to me as a writer. (Para. 2) If you describe something as a godsend, you are emphasizing that it helps you very much. e.g. 1) The hot weather has been a godsend for icecream sellers. 2) It was a godsend to have him there just when we needed someone.

     Reading Focus Language Point 3. A few Google searches, some quick clicks on hyperlinks, and Ive got the telltale fact or pithy quote I was after. (Para. 4) If you are after somebody or something, you are looking for somebody or something. e.g. 1) That boys always in troublethe police are after him again. 2) —“Were

    you after anything in particular? No, we're just looking.

     Reading Focus Language Point 4. Once I was a scuba diver in the sea of words. Now I zip along the surface like a guy on a Jet Ski. (Para. 3) These two sentences imply that I used to have a liking for deep reading whereas I tend to skim and scan for information while reading now.

     Reading Focus Language Point 5. What happened? He speculates on the answer:

    What if I do all my reading on the web not so much because the way I read has changed, i.e. Im just seeking convenience, but because the way I THINK has changed? (Para.

    4) not so much because , but because„” means “并不是 因为??????;而是因

     因为 ;而是因为??????”. speculate 1) speculate (on/about something)/ that/

    whspeculating about the possibility e.g. There was no point (猜测他们是否会一起 of

    them getting back together 猜测他们是否会一起 回来). 回来 2) speculate in/ on

    something e.g. He likes to speculate on the stock market. Derivations: speculation; speculative

     Reading Focus Language Point 6. A pathologist who has long been on the faculty of the University of Michigan Medical School, Friedman elaborated on his comment in a telephone conversation with me. (Para. 5) If somebody is on the faculty of a particular college or university, he or she works in it. However, faculty has

    other meanings as follows. 1) How can the faculty improve their teaching so as to encourage creativity? all the teachers 2) the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences department 3) She is over eighty but still has all her faculties. be able to speak, hear, see, understand, etc

     Reading Focus Language Point

     articulate (v.): to give more details or new information about something e.g. 1) He said he had new evidence, but refused to elaborate any further. 2) They refused to elaborate on the reasons for their decision. articulate (adj.) 1) very complex e.g. an elaborate research project 2) carefully planned and organized in great detail e.g. She had prepared a very elaborate meal.

     Reading Focus Language Point 7. But a recently published study of online research habits, conducted by scholars from University College London, suggests that we may well be in the midst of a sea change in the way we read and think. (Para. 6) In this sentence, conducted by scholars from University College London functions

    as an attributive of a recently published study. “„ may well be in the midst

    of a sea change means are very likely to undergo dramatic changes.

     Reading Focus Language Point 8. Thanks to the ubiquity of text on the Internet, not to mention the popularity of text-messaging on cell phones, we may well be reading more today than we did in the 1970s or 1980s, when television was our medium of choice. (Para. 6) 参考译文~ 参考译文~ 多亏铺天盖地的网络文本;更别说当下时兴的手机短信;

    多亏铺天盖地的网络文本;更别说当下时兴的手机短信; 可供我们阅读的东西很可能比上世

    纪七八十年代要多了; 可供我们阅读的东西很可能比上世纪七八十年代要多了; 那时;我

    们选择的媒体还是电视。 那时;我们选择的媒体还是电视。

     Reading Focus Language Point

     9. His vision was failing, and keeping his eyes focused on a page had become exhausting and painful, often bringing on crushing headaches. (Para. 9) Here, failing is an adjective, meaning no longer strong or healthy. e.g. government

    money wasted on failing industries bringing on crushing headaches is used to modify

    the previous sentence as an attributive. bring on here means make something

    bad or unpleasant happen. e.g. Stress can bring on an asthma attack.

     Reading Focus Language Point

     bring on can also have other meanings as follows. 1) to help someone to improve or make progress e.g. Teachers have to bring on the bright children and at the same time give extra help to those who need it. 2) to make plants or crops grow faster e.g. Keeping the young plants in a greenhouse will help bring them on.

     Reading Focus Language Point

     10. His already terse prose had become even tighter, more telegraphic. (Para. 10) This sentence implies that his prose had become even more concise and terse.

     Reading Focus Vocabulary in Action Task 1 Step One Column A is a list of words from the passage. Find a word or phrase in Column B which is similar in meaning to each of the words in Column A. (P106)

     Key 1- i 2-f 6- j 7- c

     3- a 8- e

     4- b 5-h 9- d 10- g

     Reading Focus Vocabulary in Action

     Step Two

     Fill in each of the blanks with an appropriate word from Column A above. Change the form if necessary. (P.106) applaud pithy definitive propel curtail ubiquity duly fidgety forage crushing

     fidgety 1) The children get if they have nothing to do. crushing 2) The shipyard has been dealt another blow with the failure to win this contract.

     Reading Focus Vocabulary in Action

     applaud pithy

     definitive propel

     curtail ubiquity

     duly fidgety

     forage crushing

     pithy 3) His advice to young painters was, Above all, keep your colors fresh.

    foraging 4) It is important to note that for information does not equate to aimless surfing. 5) The victims families of the murder have appealed to the definitive

    Supreme Court to have a(n) answer. propelled 6) His addiction to drugs him towards a life of crime.

     Reading Focus Vocabulary in Action

     applaud pithy

     definitive propel

     curtail ubiquity

     duly fidgety

     forage crushing

     7) On the triumphant return home, the captain, Brian applauded Robson, was for sticking to his guns. ubiquity 8) The of advertising is not being driven by corporations searching for new ways to sell products but by media searching for new ways to make money. duly 9) Here are your travel documents, all signed. 10) By the same token, reduced military budgets would curtail force the government to its foreign involvement.

     Reading Focus Vocabulary in Action

     Task 2

     Fill in each of the blanks with an appropriate preposition or adverb. (P107)

     Key 1- above 3- to 5- about/on 7- with 9- on/about

     246810-

     on on to at in

     Reading Focus Vocabulary in Action

     Task 3

     Complete the following sentences by translating the Chinese in brackets into English. Try to use the expressions you have learned from the text. may have a 1. The regions where a person grows up subtle effect on (可能会对 产生微妙的影响

    能会对??????产生微妙的影响 产生微妙的影响) 可能会对 his or her idea of typicality

    of certain items. provide free access to 2. Many sites on the Internet e-books

    供免费阅读电子书籍的机会 (提供免费阅读电子书籍的机会 提供免费阅读电子书籍的机会).

    is in the midst of a sea change 正发生着 3. Business (正发生着 巨变) 巨变 when it

    comes to staffing and retaining superior talent.

     Reading Focus Vocabulary in Action

     4. Since 1970, Green has been on the faculty of Harvard University (一直在哈

    佛任教 where he 一直在哈佛任教), 一直在哈佛任教 currently holds two named

    professorships. a voracious book reader 5. John is (如饥似渴的读 如饥似渴的读 )

    and participates in two monthly book clubs. 6. When your goal is in your conscious mind all the time, youll stay focused on it (你就会把心思全花在这 你就会把心思

    全花在这 上了). 上了 7. In all facets of community life, the media play a central role as (信息传递者 信息传递者) the conduit for information 信息传递者 and

    potentially a catalyst for activism and change.

     Reading Focus Vocabulary in Action

     your check came as an absolute 8. The rent was due, so godsend (你的支票真是

    天赐之物 你的支票真是天赐之物)! 你的支票真是天赐之物 lost the thread 9. I must have

    skipped a page, because I of the story (我弄不清故事的脉络了 我弄不清故事的脉络了).

    我弄不清故事的脉络了 10. In the warm winter afternoon, she likes to stroll through

(徜徉在优美的散文中 徜徉在优美的散文中). 徜徉在优美的散文中 elegant prose

     Reading More

     Confessions of a Cyber Columnist

     Reading More

     1 2 3 4

     Global Understanding Critical Thinking Language Points Vocabulary in Action

     Reading MoreGlobal Understanding

     Complete the following extract with information from the text.

     The middle-aged man may suffer from various kinds of 1) , humiliation among which a visit to a computer shop is most 2) . At least, I have run across such a irritating miserable encounter, which reflects much of whats crazy infatuated about our

    technologically 3) society. It appears that we are 4) to technology when we enslaved should make the technology 5) for us. work However, the new thinking is that the human species needs bind to 6) itself ever more closely to computers. Dramatic advances have been achieved to make computers human-like more 7) than ever.

     Reading MoreGlobal Understanding

     Complete the following extract with information from the text.

     For example, they can talk like us and they are learning to possess an increasing ability to simulate 8) , emotions make moral judgments and use social skills. The prospect chills thrills scientists. But it 9) me. The escalation of financial crisis to near-catastrophe is a 10) of warning what might happen if common sense is replaced by 11) superbrains enhanced by artificial intelligence. Meanwhile, it leaves me wondering about a series of questions, say, what happens when we 12) our link brains to those of the machines or when we cant even think for ourselves without triggering

    the machines to think for us?

     Reading More

     Critical Thinking

     Reading MoreCritical Thinking Work with your partner to answer the following questions based on the text youve just read. 1. Is there any humiliation more

     irritating to a fiftysomething - more symbolic of the widening gulf between his 20th-century sensibility and the faddish, superficial epoch in which we now live - than a visit to a computer shop?

     Do you agree or disagree with the statement? Use examples to justify your answer. What do you think is symbolic of the widening gap between the 20th century and the 21st century?

     Reading MoreCritical Thinking

     2. In the text, the author seems to think that we live in a technologically infatuated society, which is crazy. Do you agree with him? Why or why not?

     Reading MoreCritical Thinking

     Step Two A Monster or An Angel? As you can see, the human race has made great strides in science and technology, which has dramatically changed our everyday lives.

     Do you think science and technology is an angel or a monster? Use examples to illustrate your point.

     Reading More Language Point

     1. But is there any humiliation more irritating to a fiftysomethingmore

    symbolic of the widening gulf between his 20th-century sensibility and the faddish, superficial epoch in which we now live than a visit to a computer shop? (Para. 2)

     参考译文~ 参考译文~ 但是对于一个五十几岁的人来说; 但是对于一个五十几岁的人

    来说;还有什么羞辱比光顾 一家电脑商店更令人无地自容呢?这似乎更能代表20 一家电脑

    商店更令人无地自容呢?这似乎更能代表20 世纪的理性和如今社会的时尚和浮华之间有越

    来越大的 鸿沟。 鸿沟。

     Reading More Language Point

     2. In the first I bought a small laptop computer - handy for stuffing in a jacket pocket as I rush from theatres

     bearing tidings of great cultural joy to Times readers. (Para. 2)

     Here, handy for stuffing in a jacket pocket functions as an attributive of

    a small laptop computer, as is used to introduce a reason. bearing tidings

    of great cultural joy to Times readers means informing Times readers of news about

    great cultural joy in theaters.

     Reading More Language Point 3. The youth looked me over, made a swift judgment about my age, possible senility and almost certain technophobia, gave a weary sigh. (Para. 3) 参考译文~那个年轻人打量了我一下~看起来有点老态龙钟; 参考译文~那个年

    轻人打量了我一下~看起来有点老态龙钟; 明显患有科技恐惧症。他很快确定了我的年龄;

    明显患有科技恐惧症。他很快确定了我的年龄;不耐烦地叹了 一口气。 一口气。 If you have

    a phobia about something, you have an unpleasant feeling or fear about it. e.g. He has a phobia about snakes. -phobia occurs in words which refer to a very strong,

    irrational fear or hatred of people or things of a particular kind. e.g. claustrophobia (=fear of being in a small enclosed space) aquaphobia (=fear of water) Anglophobia (=a dislike of English or British things)

     Reading More Language Point 4. Even now, though, the youth admitted no liability on his companys part. (Para. 6) Paraphrase: However, the young guy didn

    t think that the company should take the responsibility for that. liability 1) ~ for something/ to do something: the state of being legally responsible for sth. e.g. The company cannot accept liability for any damage } caused by natural disasters. 2) someone or something that is likely to cause problems for someone e.g. The outspoken minister has become a liability to the government. 3) [plural] the amount of debt that must be paid e.g. There is enough money to cover existing liabilities.

     Reading More Language Point 5. I recount this encounter not in an attempt to win some sort of Franz Kafka Prize for Surreal Reportage, but because it encapsulates much of whats crazy about our technologically infatuated society. (Para. 8) Paraphrase: I describe this experience not because I want to win some sort of Franz Kafka Prize for Surreal Reportage but because it summarizes this society where people are crazy about technology. encapsulate: to express or show something in a short way e.g. A Wall Street Journal editorial encapsulated the views of many conservatives.

     Reading More Language Point

     6. And so it goes on: this mad scramble enslaves us to technology when it is technology that should be enslaved to us. (Para. 8) Paraphrase: And so it goes on: this crazy struggle or competition makes us become the slave of technology. Actually,

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