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Technology review20101112

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Technology review20101112

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     HOW TO HACK AN ATM

     p86

     BRIE FING

     WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

     p67

     The Web is reborn.

     HTML5 rewrites our most important shared technology

     p46

     Published by MIT

     Nuclear Power??s Bad Economics Brain Control

     p60 p54

     The Authority on the Future of Technology

     December 2010 www.technologyreview.com

     2010 General Motors. Cadillac? CTS? N??rburgring?

     THERE IS THE CURVE AND THEN THERE??S AHEAD OF THE CURVE.

     contents

     Volu me 113, Numb e r 6

     46

     The Web couldn??t keep up with the multimedia explosion of the last decade, a problem that spurred the rise of closed ??apps.?? Now an overhaul gives it a chance to be cool again.

     B y b ob b Ie Jo HNS oN

     The Web Is Reborn

     g raPH iTi

     increased demand for wireless bandwidth is forcing regulators to get creative. By Tommy McCall and Matt Mahoney

     34 Spectrum of Issues

     ed boyden is learning how to alter behavior by using light to turn neurons on and off.

     B y DAVID H . FreeDm A N

     coVe r

     54

     Brain Control

     ?ö www.technologyreview.com/ graphiti View an interactive version of this graphic.

     Photo illustration by Vault49

     ?ö www.technologyreview.com/opticalgenetics Watch ed boyden talk about his research.

     Not long ago it looked as if we were headed for a nuclear renaissance. What happened?

     B y mAT TH e W l . WA l D

     60

     Giant Holes in the Ground

     10 Letters 16 From the Editor

     noTe b ookS

     outcry over the google-Verizon ??pact?? on wireless broadband overshadows legitimate debate. By Michael Powell

     Q&a To Mar keT

     13 Fair Connections

     12 Online Evolution

     it??s never been cheaper to start an internet company that could reshape how we use the Web. By David Cowan compact nuclear power plants may be a lifeline for a struggling industry. By Jasmina Vujic

     12 Shrinking Nuclear

     a gallery of electric cars, Samsung??s iPad killer, smart medicine bottles, a stylish exercise bicycle, an internetenabled multimedia jukebox, and more.

     25?C30 Technology Commercialized

     The internet legal scholar worries about the fate of net neutrality. By Brian Bergstein

     36 Lawrence Lessig

     PHoTo eSSaY

     a rare look inside the world??s biggest optical-fiber plant. By Katherine Bourzac

     38 Light Factory

     4

     technology review november/December 2010

     Building the engines of a Smarter Planet:

     How midsize businesses can collaborate better on a global scale.

     As a midsize company, you can now collaborate in new ways to drive innovation, with IBM LotusLive? It??s an integrated . collaboration tool that allows you to focus on growing your business rather than on managing your applications. No additional hardware or software. Just a browser. It??s a cloud-based service that delivers e-mail, plus online meetings, social networking and more, in one security-rich environment for internal and external collaboration. A powerful tool for midsize companies, leading to better decisions and smarter businesses. Consider the benefits:

     1 2 3

     Save time and money. The power of the cloud means there are no upfront deployment costs. IBM does the work. You focus on your business.

     Improve productivity. With all the collaboration tools rolled into one, millions of users can see improvements in their businesses.

     Keep your exchanges more secure. Security-rich infrastructure from

IBM helps protect your data.

     IBM LotusLive is priced with midsize companies in mind. Collaboration offerings starting at

     $

     3

     1 per user per month.

     View the IBM LotusLive demonstration at ibm.com/engines/lotuslive

     Midsize businesses are the engines of a Smarter Planet.

     To learn more about services like LotusLive, connect with a Business Partner or get set up now, call 1-877-IBM-ACCESS or visit ibm.com/engines/lotuslive

     1

     Prices subject to change and valid in the U.S. only. Actual costs will vary depending on individual customer con?gurations and environment. IBM, the IBM logo, ibm.com, LotusLive, Smarter Planet and the planet icon are trademarks of International Business Machines Corp., registered in many jurisdictions worldwide. Other product and service names might be trademarks of IBM or other companies. A current list of IBM trademarks is available on the Web at

    www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml. ? International Business Machines Corporation 2010.

     contents

     Volu me 113, Numb e r 6

     Statement required by 39 U.S.C. 3685 showing the ownership, management, and circulation of Technology Review, published bimonthly (6 issues), for September 8, 2010. Publication No. 535-940. Annual subscription price $39.00. 1. Location of known office of publication: MiT, one Main Street, cambridge, Middlesex, Ma 02142 2. Location of headquarters or general business office of the publisher: MiT, one Main Street, cambridge, Middlesex, Ma 02142 3. The names and addresses of the publisher, editor, and managing editor: Publisher: Jason Pontin, MiT, one Main Street, cambridge, Middlesex, Ma 02142 editor: David rotman, MiT, one Main Street, cambridge, Middlesex, Ma 02142 Managing editor: brian bergstein, MiT, one Main Street, cambridge, Middlesex, Ma 02142 4. The owner is Massachusetts institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts avenue, cambridge, Ma 02139. 5. Known bondholders, mortgages and other security holders owning or holding one percent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securities: none

     88

     b r i e Fi ng Hack

     67?C75 Mobile Communications

     86 How to Make an ATM

     a researcher shows he can control a cash machine remotely or on the spot. By Erica Naone

     6. Extent and nature of circulation: average number of copies of each issue during preceding 12 months A. Total number of copies:

     number of copies of single issue published nearest to filing date

     can communications companies keep up with wireless devices?

     Spew Out Money

     200,152

     205,225

     View an interactive display of mobile technologies.

     r eVi eWS

     ?ö www.technologyreview.com/wireless

     ?ö www.technologyreview.com/hack See an aTM being hacked.

     De Mo

     B. Paid and/or requested circulation: 1. Paid/requested outside-county mail subscriptions: 147,335 2. Sales through dealers and carriers, street vendors, counter sales, and other non-USPS paid distribution: 11,776 C. Total paid and/or requested circulation: D. Free distribution by mail: E. Free distribution outside the mail:

     151,152

     76 Google Misses You

     Facebook has corralled 500 million people into an exclusive club. google won??t stand for that. By Paul Boutin

     Simple and versatile robotic hands can grip a football or pick up your keys. By Kristina Grifantini

     Watch aaron Dollar??s robotic hand being made.

     88 A Gentler Robotic Touch

     12,402

     ?ö www.technologyreview.com/demo

     159,111

     163,554

     261

     384

     5,102

     1,563

     FroM TH e Lab S

     92 Materials 93 Information Technology 94 Biomedicine 79 How Not to Make

     Lessons from the battle over cape Wind. By Evan I. Schwartz The iPad??s rivals are about to flood the market. They??ll need to be close to perfect. By Farhad Manjoo

     F. Total free distribution: G. Total distribution: H. Copies not distributed:

     5,363 164,474

     1,947 165,501

     Energy Decisions

     35,678 200,152

     39,724 205,225

     77 Year S ag o i n TR

     83 Insanely Late

     Vannevar bush gave Depression-era readers a preview of future technologies. By Matt Mahoney

     96 Future Perfect

     I. Total: J. Percent paid and/or requested circulation:

     96.7%

     98.8%

     7. I certify that all information furnished on this form is true and complete: (Signed) Heather Holmes, Vice President of circulation and consumer Marketing

     6

     Raise Your Florida IQ.

     Did you know that Florida is a:

     Top Ranked State for Clean Energy Businesses and Jobs (Pew Charitable Trusts) Top Emerging Biotechnology Cluster (GEN magazine) Leading State for High-Tech Establishments and High-Tech Employment (Cyberstates)

     Now you do.

     And now you know why innovative businesses like yours belong in an innovative state like Florida.

     407.956.5632

     e?orida.com/clusters

     Published by MiT

     Jason Pontin

     e ditor ial

     Editor in Chief and Publisher

     Cor porate

     Rick Crowley David Rotman Brian Bergstein Conrad Warre Lee Caulfield David Talbot

     Chief Correspondent Art Director Design Director Deputy Editor Editor

     Chief Financial Officer Chief Operating Officer Chief Strategy Officer Executive Assistant

     Custom e r se rviCe an d su b sCr i ption i nqu i r i es

     Europe

     Anthony Fitzgerald

     mail@afitzgerald.co.uk

     44-1488-680623

     James Coyle

     Kathleen Kennedy Leila Snyder

     Manager of Information Technology

     Colby Wheeler

     National: 800-877-5230 International: 818-487-2088 E-mail: technologyreview@ pubservice.com www.technologyreview.com/ customerservice MIT Records: 617-253-8270 (alums only) Permissions: Jennifer Martin jmartin@wrightsreprints.com 877-652-5295, ext. 104

     adve rtisi ng sales

     France

     Philippe Marquezy

     philippe.marquezy@ espacequadri.com 33-1-4270-0008

     Germany

     Michael Hanke

     China

     michael.hanke@heise.de 49-511-5352-167

     Linda Cardinal

     mar keti ng

     Office Co?rdinator Midwest Sales Director and National Print Strategist

     RP Soong

     India

     Senior Editor, Special Projects

     rpsoong@mittrchinese.com 010-8280-9083

     Stephen Cass

     Alice Dragoon

     Senior Editor, MIT News Senior Editor, Business Senior Editor, Biomedicine

     Amy Lammers

     Associate Director, Marketing and Events Associate Manager, Advertising Operations Associate Art Director, Marketing and Custom Publishing

     Maureen Elmaleh

     maureen.elmaleh@technologyreview.com 303-975-6381

     Aninda Sen

     Japan

     anindas@cybermedia.co.in 91-80-43412000

     Evan I. Schwartz Emily Singer Will Knight

     Online Editor

     West Coast Sales Director and National Digital Strategist

     David A. Schmidt

     Patrick Viera

     Shigeru Kobayashi

     patrick.viera@technologyreview.com 415-659-2982

     shig-koby@media-jac.co.jp 813-3261-4591

     Andrew Memmelaar

     New York and Northeast

     Spain and South America (Online)

     Tom Simonite

     Erica Naone

     IT Editor, Software & Hardware

     Consu m e r mar keti ng

     Johanna Zottarelli-Duffe

     Pedro Moneo La?ªn

     IT Editor, Web & Social Networking Energy Editor Materials Science

    Editor

     jo.duffe@technologyreview.com 857-998-9241

     pedro.moneo@opinno.com 34-667-732-894

     Heather Holmes Kathy Kraysler Tina Bellomy

     Fi nanCe

     Senior Vice President, Audience Development Director of Audience

    Analytics

     New England, Detroit, and Canada

     Barry Echavarria

     International Licensing Consultant

     Kevin Bullis

     barry.echavarria@technologyreview.com 603-924-7586

     Chander Rai

     Mid-Atlantic and Southeast

     Advertising Services

     webcreative@ technologyreview.com 617-475-8004

     Katherine Bourzac Linda Lowenthal Brittany Sauser

     Copy Chief

     Fulfillment Manager

     Clive Bullard

     Northwest

     cbullards@cs.com 845-231-0846

     Media Kit

     Senior Web Producer

     Timothy Maher Matt Mahoney

     Research Editor

     Assistant Managing Editor

     Letitia Trecartin Tim Curran

     b oar d oF di r eCtor s

     Accountants

     Steve Thompson

     www.technologyreview.com/media

     stevet@mediacentricinc.com 415-435-4678

     Technology Review

     One Main Street, 13th Floor Cambridge MA 02142 Tel: 617-475-8000

    Fax: 617-475-8043

     Kristina Grifantini Angela Tieri

     Assistant Art Director Production Director

     Assistant Editor

     Reid Ashe Judith M. Cole Jerome I. Friedman Theresa M. Stone Sheila E. Widnall Ann J. Wolpert

     James LaBelle

     Simson Garfinkel Mark Williams

     Contributing Editors

     TechNology Review, iNc., identifies emerging

     teCh nologyr evi ew.Com

     David Foucher

     Vice President, Online Web Developers

     Michael Callahan Shaun Calhoun Sarah Redman

     De Technologia non multum scimus. Scimus autem, quid nobis placeat.

     technologies and analyzes their impact for technology leaders. Technology Review publishes Technology Review magazine (the oldest technology magazine in the world, founded in 1899) and the daily website TechnologyReview.com; it also produces live events such as the EmTech Conference. Technology Review is an independent media company owned by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The views expressed in our various publications and at our events are often not shared by MIT.

     technology review November/December 2010

     8

     W H AT ?? S t h e B U S I N E S S P RO B L E M ?

     F O R M I S S I N G M AT I O N

     the QWEST SOLUTION: Ever-increasing threats to security mean you have to go to greater lengths to keep critical data from disappearing. Fortunately, Qwest??s voice, data and networking solutions are created with today??s complex security challenges in mind. So you can keep your business safe and your sensitive information from going MIA. Solve more problems at qwestsolutions.com.

     Solve problems on the go. Download Qwandary for the iPhone.

     M I S S I N G I N F O R M AT I O N

     Copyright ? 2010 Qwest. All Rights Reserved.

     Letters and Comments

     Why 35? that miracles or major new breakthroughs porn industry did this to itself. In the old days, Each year that Technology Review releases are not likely to occur. And we know that porn was difficult to produce due to restrictive the TR35 (September/October 2010), I the efficiencies of both new energy supplies moral standards. The limited supply made for find myself reacting very negatively to and end-use technologies will improve good business and fat profits, but nowadays the criterion that the invenonly very slowly from this porn is ubiquitous and taken for granted. tors be under the age of 35. gabrielg01 point forward. Furthermore, (Gabriel Gaidos, Hanover, New Hampshire) Perhaps

    it is because my age new zero-carbon-emitting energy technologies are not is now the transposition of ever likely to cost less than Value of anonymity these digits, but to me there is something offensive about current coal-fired electricity, Sites like 4chan (??Radical Opacity,?? Septemputting so much value in feawhich Gates thinks is possible ber/October 2010) allow people to be their turing young innovators. I and necessary for their suc- worst selves without the need to face the conwould prefer that you just list cess. We need energy policies sequences of their words and actions. Posting the top innovators of the year that mandate the installation to an online forum is not necessarily harmless. regardless of their ages. of the most efficient end-use Those who seek to do harm should not be allowed September/October ??10 Jonathan Simon technologies we have today, the anonymity to get away with it. nhabrams06, 8/23/2010 Pleasant Valley, Connecticut and we need a national investment plan to eliminate almost all fossil fuels from the The editor in chief responds: When we energy supply over the next 40 years. These ??A place to be wrong?? is important?ªI think you select 35 innovators under 35, we don??t investments might easily total $500 billion need to understand that. I have used 4chan mean to imply that 65-year-olds aren??t to $1 trillion per year, but they would cre- for bouncing around ideas that I never could capable of innovation. Of course they are. ate millions of jobs. By ignoring the need anywhere else. I??ve shared things with people I We search for innovators under 35 because to invest hundreds of billions of dollars per never would consider. It??s therapeutic, and only stories about them and their work will be year immediately, and by primarily stress- a small number of anonymous users lash out. anubite new to our readers. ing R&D, Gates is doing a disservice to our (Karl Schneider, Cleveland, Ohio) country. Gates and enerGy

     As a senior fellow at the Tellus Institute, I thought some of the points raised by Bill Gates in your September/October 2010 Q&A were problematic. I agree with Gates that getting the United States to zero carbon emissions will be very hard, but I was disappointed in the stress that he put on funding research and development in new technologies in order to develop energy ??miracles.?? The physics and engineering of most energy technologies have been fairly well known for 50 to 150 years, so we know

     Richard A. Rosen Brookline, Massachusetts

     enerGy stimulus

     The best way to stem the tide of global climate change is with a revenue-neutral carbon tax. If the American electorate were properly educated about a carbon tax?ªthe solution the world??s leading economists and scientists agree is best?ªthey would support it wholeheartedly. And it??s long past time that we demand that the people

    who represent us in Washington put good public policy ahead of political expediency. ClimateTF, 8/25/2010

     www

     the Business of Porn

     join the discussion, or contact us

     ?ö technologyreview.com/community e-mail

    letters@technologyreview.com Write Technology Review, One Main Street, 13th Floor, Cambridge, MA 02142 fax 617-475-8043 Please include your address, telephone number, and e-mail address. Letters and comments may be edited for both clarity and length.

     Letters and Comments

     The porn industry is struggling to make money online (??Down the Tubes,?? September/October 2010) because it takes talent and hard work to achieve anything meaningful in most activities, but porn has no such barriers. Anyone who is willing can have sex on a tape and upload it to the Web, resulting in an oversupply of porn, with diminishing returns. The huge irony is that the

     I think that the U.S. government should get out of the stimulus business and into the regulation business (??Cash for Infrastructure,?? September/ October 2010). I don??t trust any government to make the best decision on which energy technologies to develop. I think that the government should figure out what is the cost to pollute (health-care costs for asthma, costs of sea-level rises, costs of acid rain, etc.), and then should tax the pollution source based on the amount of pollution emitted. If the company wants to avoid the tax then it will invest in technology that emits less pollution. Devere, 8/31/2010

     Correction: The algorithm created by TR35 winner Philip Low (September/October 2010) can classify sleep stages using data from a single EEG lead (not LED).

     technology review November/December 2010

     10

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