Professional Digital Two-Way Radio System
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The information in this document is carefully examined, and is believed to be entirely reliable. However no responsibility is assumed for inaccuracies. Furthermore, Motorola reserves the right to make changes to any products herein to improve readability, function, or design. Motorola does not assume any liability arising out of the applications or use of any product or circuit described herein; nor does it cover any license under its patent rights nor the rights of others.
MOTOROLA, Stylized M logo, and MOTOTRBO are registered in the US
Patent & Trademark Office. All other products or service names are property of their respective owners. ?2007 by Motorola, Inc. The AMBE+2TM voice coding Technology embodied in this product is protected by intellectual property rights including patent rights, copyrights and trade secrets of Digital Voice Systems, Inc. This voice coding Technology is licensed solely for use within this Communications Equipment. The user of this Technology is explicitly prohibited from attempting to decompile, reverse engineer, or disassemble the Object Code, or in any other way convert the Object Code into a human-readable form. U.S. Pat. Nos. #5,870,405, #5,826,222, #5,754,974, #5,701,390, #5,715,365, #5,649,050, #5,630,011, #5,581,656, #5,517,511, #5,491,772, #5,247,579, #5,226,084 and #5,195,166.
Table of Contents
Section 1 Introduction
1.1 Welcome to MOTOTRBOTM! ???? 7
Section 2 System Feature Overview
2.1 MOTOTRBO Digital Radio Technology???? 9 2.1.1 Digital Radio Technology Overview ???? 9 22.214.171.124 Part One: The Analog to Digital Conversion???? 9 126.96.36.199 Part Two: The Vocoder and Forward Error Correction (FEC) ???? 9 188.8.131.52 Part Three: Framing???? 10 184.108.40.206 Part Four: TDMA Transmission ???? 10 220.127.116.11 Standards Compliance ???? 10 2.1.2 Spectrum Efficiency via Two-Slot TDMA ???? 11 18.104.22.168 Frequencies, Channels, and Requirements for Spectrum Efficiency 11 22.214.171.124 Delivering Increased Capacity in Existing 12.5kHz Channels ???? 11 126.96.36.199 Two-Slot TDMA Reduces Infrastructure Equipment ???? 12 188.8.131.52 Two-Slot TDMA Enables System Flexibility???? 14 184.108.40.206 Two-Slot TDMA System Planning Considerations ???? 15 2.1.3 Digital Audio Quality and Coverage Performance???? 15 220.127.116.11 Digital Audio Coverage ???? 16 18.104.22.168 Predicting Digital Audio Coverage ???? 17 22.214.171.124 User Expectations for Digital Audio Performance???? 18 2.2 Basic System Topologies for Digital and Analog Operations ???? 19 2.2.1 Repeater and Direct Mode Configurations???? 19 2.2.2 MOTOTRBO Supports Analog and Digital Operation ???? 20 2.2.3 MOTOTRBO Channel Access ???? 20 126.96.36.199 Impolite Operation (Channel Admit Criteria of ??Always??) ???? 21 188.8.131.52 Polite to All Operation (Channel Admit Criteria of ??Channel Free??) . 21 184.108.40.206 Polite to Own Digital System Operation (Channel Admit Criteria of ??Color Code??) ???? 22 220.127.116.11 Polite to Own Analog System Operation (Channel Admit Criteria of ??Correct PL??) ???? 22 2.3 MOTOTRBO Digital Features ???? 23 2.3.1 Digital Voice Features ???? 23 18.104.22.168 Group Calls???? 23 22.214.171.124 Private Calls???? 23 126.96.36.199 All Call???? 24 2.3.2 Digital Signaling Features ???? 24
188.8.131.52 PTT ID and Aliasing???? 25 184.108.40.206 Radio Disable (Selective Radio Inhibit) ???? 25 220.127.116.11 Remote Monitor ???? 25 18.104.22.168 Radio Check ???? 26 22.214.171.124 Call Alert ???? 26 2.3.3 Digital Emergency ????
26 126.96.36.199 Emergency Alarm Only???? 28 188.8.131.52 Emergency Alarm and Call ???? 28 184.108.40.206 Emergency Alarm with Voice to Follow ???? 29 2.4 MOTOTRBO Integrated Data ???? 30 2.4.1 Overview ???? 30 2.4.2 Text Messaging Services ???? 32 220.127.116.11 Built-In Text Messaging Service ???? 32 18.104.22.168 MOTOTRBO Text Messaging Application ???? 33 22.214.171.124 Services Provided to a Third Party Text Message Application ???? 35 2.4.3 Location Services???? 36 126.96.36.199 Services Provided to a Radio User???? 37 188.8.131.52 Services Provided to a Location Application???? 37 184.108.40.206 Services provided by the MOTOTRBO Location Services Application. 37 2.4.4 Telemetry Services ???? 38 2.5 Scan ???? 39 2.5.1 Priority Sampling ???? 40 2.5.2 Channel Marking ???? 40 2.5.3 Scan Considerations ???? 41 2.6 Analog Features ???? 44 2.6.1 Analog Voice Features???? 44 2.6.2 MDC Analog Signaling Features???? 45 2.6.3 Analog Scan Features ???? 45 2.6.4 Comparison Chart ???? 46 2.7 Application Developer Program (ADP)???? 48 2.7.1 MOTOTRBO, the Dealer, and the Accredited Third-Party Developer???? 48 2.7.2 MOTOTRBO Applications Interfaces ???? 48 2.7.3 Documents of MOTOTRBO ADP???? 49 2.7.4 Available Levels of Partnership???? 50
Section 3 System Components and Topologies
3.1 System Components ???? 51 3.1.1 Fixed End Components???? 51 220.127.116.11 Repeater ???? 51
18.104.22.168 Radio Control Station???? 22.214.171.124 MC1000, MC2000, MC2500 Console???? 3.1.2 Mobile Components ???? 126.96.36.199 MOTOTRBO Portable???? 188.8.131.52 MOTOTRBO Mobile ???? 3.1.3 User Interface ???? 184.108.40.206 Voice Feature Support???? 220.127.116.11 Command and Control Feature Support???? 18.104.22.168 Analog Compatibility ???? 22.214.171.124 Integrated GPS Antenna and Receiver ???? 126.96.36.199 Text Messaging ???? 188.8.131.52 Front Panel Accessory Interface???? 184.108.40.206 Rear Accessory and Peripherals Interface ???? 3.1.4 Data Applications ???? 220.127.116.11 Application Server???? 18.104.22.168 Presence Notifier ???? 22.214.171.124 Multi-Channel Device Driver (MCDD) ???? 126.96.36.199 Text Messaging Application???? 188.8.131.52 MotoLocator Location Tracking Server???? 3.2 System Topologies???? 3.2.1 Direct Mode???? 184.108.40.206 Digital MOTOTRBO Radios in Direct Mode???? 220.127.116.11 Interoperability between Analog MOTOTRBO Radios and Analog Radios in Direct Mode ???? 18.104.22.168 Interoperability between Digital MOTOTRBO Radios, Mixed Mode MOTOTRBO Radios, and Analog Radios in Direct Mode???? 3.2.2 Repeater Mode ???? 22.214.171.124 Digital MOTOTRBO Radios in Repeater Mode ???? 126.96.36.199 Analog MOTOTRBO Radios in Repeater Mode ???? 3.3 Multi-Topology System Configuration ????
52 53 53 54 58 59 61 61 61 61 61 62 62 63 63 63 64 64 66 68 68 69 77 78 79 80 90 92
Section 4 System Design Considerations
4.1 Purpose ???? 4.2 Migration Plans???? 4.2.1 Pre-Deployment System Integration ???? 4.2.2 Analog to Digital Preparation and
Migration???? 4.2.3 New/Full System Replacement ???? 4.3 Frequency Licensing ???? 4.3.1 Acquiring New Frequencies (Region Specific)???? 4.3.2 Converting Existing 12.5/25kHz Licenses???? 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 97
4.3.3 Repeater Continuous Wave Identification (CWID)???? 97 4.4 Digital Repeater Loading???? 98 4.4.1 Assumptions and Precautions???? 98 4.4.2 Voice and Data Traffic Profile ???? 98 4.4.3 Estimating Loading???? 99 4.4.4 Loading Optimization and Configuration Considerations ???? 101 188.8.131.52 Distribution of High Usage Users???? 101 184.108.40.206 Minimize Location Periodic Update Rate???? 102 220.127.116.11 Data Application Retry Attempts and Intervals ???? 103 18.104.22.168 Optimize Data Application Outbound Message Rate ???? 104 4.5 Data Sub-System Design Considerations ???? 104 4.5.1 Computer and IP Network
Configurations???? 104 22.214.171.124 Radio to Mobile Client Network Connectivity???? 104 126.96.36.199 Radio to Air Interface Network Connectivity ???? 106 188.8.131.52 Application Server Control Station Network Connectivity ???? 108 184.108.40.206 Multi-Channel Device Driver (MCDD) and Required Static Routes 110 220.127.116.11 Application Server and Dispatcher Network Connectivity???? 110 18.104.22.168 MOTOTRBO Example System IP Plan ???? 111 4.5.2 Data Application Licensing Considerations???? 113 4.5.3 Mobile Terminal and Application Server Power Management Considerations 113 4.5.4 MOTOTRBO Telemetry Connection Details ???? 113 4.6 Customer Fleetmap Development???? 114 4.6.1 Identifying a Functional Fleetmap Design Team???? 115 4.6.2 Identifying Radio Users ???? 115 4.6.3 Organizing Radio Users into Groups ???? 116 22.214.171.124 Configuration of Groups???? 117 4.6.4 Assigning IDs and Aliases???? 118 126.96.36.199 Identifying Radio IDs???? 118 188.8.131.52 Assigning Radio Aliases ???? 119 184.108.40.206 Identifying Group IDs ???? 120 220.127.116.11 Assigning Group Aliases???? 120 4.6.5 Determining Which Channel Operates in Repeater Mode or Direct Mode ???? 121 4.6.6 Determining Feature Assignments???? 121 18.104.22.168 Determining Supervisor Radios ???? 121 22.214.171.124 Private Calls???? 121 126.96.36.199 All Call???? 122 188.8.131.52 Radio Disable ???? 122 184.108.40.206 Remote Monitor ???? 122 220.127.116.11 Radio Check ???? 123
18.104.22.168 Call Alert ???? 4.6.7 Emergency Handling Configuration ???? 22.214.171.124 Emergency Handling User Roles???? 126.96.36.199 Emergency Handling Strategies ???? 188.8.131.52 Acknowledging Supervisors in Emergency???? 184.108.40.206 Extended Emergency Call Hang time???? 4.6.8 Channel Access Configuration???? 4.6.9 Zones and Channel Knob Programming???? 4.7 Failure Preparedness ???? 4.7.1 Direct Mode Fallback (Talkaround) ???? 4.7.2 Uninterrupted Power Supplies (Battery Backup)???? 4.8 Configurable Timers ????
123 123 123 124 126 126 126 127 127 127 127 128
Section 5 Sales and Service Support Tools
5.1 Purpose ???? 5.2 Applications Overview ???? 5.3 Service Equipment ???? 5.3.1 Recommended Test Equipment???? 5.4 Documentation and Trainings ???? 5.4.1 MOTOTRBO Documentation ???? 5.4.2 MOTOTRBO Trainings???? 133 133 133 133 134 134 135
Section A Replacement Parts Ordering
A.1 Basic Ordering Information ???? A.2 Motorola Online???? A.3 Mail Orders ???? A.4 Telephone Orders ???? A.5 Fax Orders ???? A.6 Parts Identification ???? A.7 Product Customer Service ???? 137 137 137 137 137 137 138
Welcome to MOTOTRBOTM!
Improving workforce productivity and operational effectiveness requires superior communications quality, reliability, and functionality. MOTOTRBO is the first digital two-way radio system from Motorola specifically designed to meet the requirements of professional organizations that need a customizable, business critical, private communication solution using licensed spectrum. MOTOTRBO combines the best in two-way radio functionality with digital technology to deliver increased capacity and spectral efficiency, integrated data applications and enhanced voice communications. MOTOTRBO is an integrated voice and data system solution comprising of mobile and portable radios, audio and energy accessories, repeaters, text messaging and location tracking applications, and a third party application developers program.
Figure 1.1 MOTOTRBO System This system planner will enable the reader to understand the features and capabilities of the MOTOTRBO system, and will provide guidance on how to deploy and configure the system and its components to take advantage of its advanced capabilities. This planner is divided into 5 sections, the first being this introduction. Section 2 provides an overview of system level features. Section 3 describes the system components in more detail. Section 4 provides guidance on system design considerations including configuration of components. Section 5 provides product sales and support information. This system planner is complementary to additional training and documentation including: ? ? ? Radio Customer Programming Software (CPS) and related training System workshop/system service training Product specification sheets
System Feature Overview
SECTION 2 SYSTEM FEATURE OVERVIEW
2.1 MOTOTRBO Digital Radio Technology
This section provides a brief overview of MOTOTRBO digital radio technology. It addresses two of the primary benefits delivered by this technology: spectral efficiency and improved audio performance.
Digital Radio Technology Overview
The digital radio technologies employed by MOTOTRBO can be summarized as follows:
Figure 2-1 MOTOTRBO Digital Radio Technology Figure 2-1 ??MOTOTRBO Digital Radio Technology?? is broken down into four parts which are described in the following subsections.
Part One: The Analog to Digital Conversion
When a radio user presses the Push-To-Talk (PTT) button and begins speaking, his voice is received by the radio microphone and converted from an acoustic waveform to an analog electrical waveform. This voice waveform is then sampled by an analog to digital converter. In typical radio applications, a 16-bit sample is taken every 8kHz, this produces a 128,000bps (bits per second) digital bitstream, which contains far too much information to send over a 12.5kHz or 25kHz radio channel. Therefore some form of compression is required.
Part Two: The Vocoder and Forward Error Correction (FEC)
Vocoding (Voice encoding) compresses speech by breaking it into its most important parts and encoding them with a small number of bits, while greatly reducing background noise. Vocoding compresses the voice bitstream to fit the narrow (for MOTOTRBO) 6.25kHz equivalent radio channel. The MOTOTRBO vocoder is AMBE+2TM which was developed by Digital Voice System, Inc. (DVSI), a leader in the vocoding industry. This particular vocoder works by dividing speech into short segments, typically 20 to 30 milliseconds in length. Each segment of speech is analyzed, and the important parameters such as pitch, level, and frequency response are extracted. These parameters are then encoded using a small number of digital bits. The AMBE+2TM vocoder is the
System Feature Overview first to demonstrate very low bit rates while producing toll-quality speech such as traditionally associated with
wireline telephone systems. Together with the vocoding process, Forward Error Correction (FEC) is also applied. FEC is a mathematical checksum technique that enables the receiver to both validate the integrity of a received message and determine which, if any, bits have been corrupted. FEC enables the receiver to correct bit errors that may have occurred due to radio frequency (RF) channel impairment. This effectively rejects noise that can distort an analog signal and by comparison enables more consistent audio performance throughout the coverage area. At this stage, the vocoder has already compressed the 128,000bps input signal to 3,600bps.
Part Three: Framing
In framing, the vocoded speech is formatted for transmission. This includes organizing the voice and any embedded signaling information (such as color code, group ID, PTT ID, call type, etc.) into packets. These packets form a header and payload type of structure ?C the header contains the call control and ID information, and the payload contains the vocoded speech. This same structure can also relay Internet Protocol (IP) data packets ?C the IP packets are simply an alternative form of payload to the MOTOTRBO radio. The header information is repeated periodically throughout the transmission, thereby improving the reliability of the signaling information as well as enabling a receiving radio to join a call that may already be in progress ?C we refer to this condition as ??late entry??.
Part Four: TDMA Transmission
Finally, the signal is encoded for a Frequency Modulation (FM) transmission. The bits contained in the digital packets are encoded as symbols representing the amplitude and phase of the modulated carrier frequency, amplified, and then transmitted. TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) organizes a channel into 2 time slots: a given radio??s transmitter is active only for short bursts, which provides longer battery life. By transmitting only on their alternating time slots, two calls can share the same channel at the same time without interfering with one another, thereby doubling spectrum efficiency. Using TDMA, a radio transmits only during its timeslot (i.e. it transmits a burst of information, then waits, then transmits the next burst of information).
The digital protocols employed in MOTOTRBO (from vocoding and forward error correction to framing, transmission encoding, and transmission via two-slot TDMA) are fully specified by the ETSI1 DMR2 Tier 23 Standard, which is an internationally recognized standard with
agreements among its supporting members. Although formal interoperability testing and verification processes for this standard have yet to fully mature, Motorola anticipates that MOTOTRBO radio systems will be interoperable with other solutions that comply to the ETSI DMR Tier 2 standard.
1. 2. 3.
European Telecommunications Standards Institute Digital Mobile Radio Tier 2 indicates full power conventional operation in licensed channels for professional and commercial users.
System Feature Overview
Spectrum Efficiency via Two-Slot TDMA
Frequencies, Channels, and Requirements for Spectrum Efficiency
A radio communications channel is defined by its carrier frequency, and its bandwidth. The spectrum of available carrier frequencies is divided into major bands (such as VHF and UHF), and the majority of licensed channels in use today have widths of either 25kHz or 12.5kHz. As the airwaves have become increasingly crowded, new standards and technologies that allow more radio users to share the available spectrum in any given area are needed. The demand for greater spectral efficiency is being driven, in part, by regulatory agencies. In the U.S., for example, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) requires manufacturers to offer only devices that operate within 12.5kHz VHF and UHF channels by 2011. By the year 2013, all VHF and UHF users are required to operate in 12.5kHz channels. The next logical step is to further improve the effective capacity of 12.5kHz channels. While there is no current mandate requiring a move to 6.25kHz, such discussions are on-going at the FCC and other agencies. It??s only a matter of time before the ability to carry two voice paths in a single 12.5kHz channel, also known as 6.25kHz equivalent efficiency, becomes a requirement in VHF and UHF bands. Presently, FCC rules are in place to mandate manufacturers to build radios capable of the 6.25kHz efficiency for VHF and UHF bands, but the enforcement of these rules are put on hold. In the meantime, MOTOTRBO offers a way to divide a 12.5kHz channel into two independent timeslots, thus achieving 6.25kHz-equivalent efficiency today.
Delivering Increased Capacity in Existing 12.5kHz Channels
MOTOTRBO uses a two-slot TDMA architecture. This architecture divides the channel into 2 alternating timeslots, thereby creating two logical channels on one physical 12.5kHz channel. Each voice call utilizes only one of these logical channels, and each user accesses
a timeslot as if it is an independent channel. A transmitting radio transmits information only during its selected slot, and will be idle during the alternate slot. The receiving radio observes the transmissions in either timeslot, and relies on the signaling information included in each timeslot to determine which call it was meant to receive.
System Feature Overview By comparison, analog radios operate on the concept of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA). In FDMA, each transmitting radio transmits continuously on a designated channel, and the receiving radio receives the relevant transmission by tuning to the desired carrier frequency.
Slot 2 Slot 1 Slot 2
Regulatory emissions mask
Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 1
- 1 voice for each 12.5kHz channel - A single repeater for each channel
- Divides existing channel into two timeslots - Delivers twice the capacity through repeater - Performance is same or better than 12.5kHz FDMA - Single repeater does work of two repeaters - Reduces need for combining equipment - Enables 40% increase in radio battery life
Figure 2-2 Comparison between Today??s Analog and MOTOTRBO TDMA thereby offers a straightforward method for achieving 6.25kHz equivalency in 12.5kHz repeater channels ?C a major benefit for users of increasingly crowded licensed bands. Instead of dividing channels into smaller slices of decreased bandwidth ?C which is what would be required to increase spectrum efficiency with FDMA methods, TDMA uses the full 12.5kHz channel bandwidth, but increases efficiency by dividing it into two alternating timeslots. Additionally, this method preserves the well-known radio frequency (RF) performance characteristics of the 12.5kHz signal. From the perspective of RF physics ?C that is, actual transmitted power and radiated emissions ?C the 12.5kHz signal of two-slot TDMA occupies the channel, propagates,
and performs essentially in the same way as today??s 12.5kHz analog signals. With the added advantages of digital technology, TDMA-based radios can work within a single repeater channel to provide roughly twice the traffic capacity, while offering RF coverage performance equivalent to, or better than, today??s analog radio.
Two-Slot TDMA Reduces Infrastructure Equipment
As we have seen, two-slot TDMA essentially doubles repeater capacity. This means that one MOTOTRBO repeater does the work of two analog repeaters (a MOTOTRBO repeater supports two calls simultaneously). This saves costs of repeater hardware and maintenance, and also saves on the cost and complexity of RF combining equipment necessary in multi-channel configurations. Just as importantly, the two-slot TDMA signal fits cleanly into a customer??s existing, licensed channels; there is no need to obtain new licenses for the increase in repeater capacity,
System Feature Overview and compared to alternative technologies that may operate on different bandwidths, there is no comparative increase in the risk of interference with or from adjacent channels.
Analog 2-Channel System
MOTOTRBO 2-Channel System
Figure 2-3 MOTOTRBO Requires Less Combining Equipment
System Feature Overview
Two-Slot TDMA Enables System Flexibility
The two timeslots or logical channels enabled by two-slot TDMA can potentially be used for a variety of purposes. Many organizations deploying MOTOTRBO systems can use these slots in the following manner: ? Use both the slots as voice channels. This doubles the voice capacity per licensed repeater channel, thereby ? ? ? ? increasing the number of users the system can accommodate, and increasing the amount of air time the users can consume.
Use both slots as data channels. This allows the organizations to fully deploy data transactions Use one slot as a voice channel, and the other as a data channel. This is a flexible solution, that allows customers to equip their voice users with mobile data, messaging, or location tracking capabilities.
In any of these scenarios, additional benefits are realized within the exisiting licensed repeater channel(s).
Voice Call 1 (or Data)