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Technology

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Technology

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     Technology

     Application

     关键概念—定义阐释/应用领域/深远意义 插入例子—通过举例某个技术成果或现象

    说明问题 引出话题—回顾科技史/科技对人类各方面 的影响与意义

     Preparation

     关键概念? 做词汇表?弄懂概念背后隐藏的信息以及 概念之间的关系 插入例子?

    测?平时留意积累 引出话题? 预测?平时留意积累

     如何留意积累(

     方向性: 针对会议高频主题/热门话题进行搜 wiki, official website,

    www.kouyi.org,www.ted.com 实质性: 用句子描述某个概念的具体内涵(X 背单词) 活用性:

    善于在适当场合向他人描述所积累 的表达 (“一分钟说服”) 有机性: 利用发散性思维联系

    其他概念, 断完善资料库 启发性: 关注概念所引出的社会意义 (社会 问题) E.g.

    Nanotechnology

     Telecommunications

     Key concepts transmitter/receiver/communications channel (e.g. frequency bandwidth 频带) client/manufacturer/operator/solutions provider 用户、通信设备生

    产商、运营商、解决方 案提供商

     Telecommunications

     Economic impact On the microeconomic scale Businesses thrive on online retailing, delivery on demand 按需送货through calls, mobile communication, etc. On the macroeconomic one Link between good telecommunication infrastructure 电信基础设施

    建设 and economic growth digital divide 数字鸿沟

     Telecommunications

     Mobile subscription 移动用户 Land-line telephone subscription 固话用户 Social

    impact Refocusing on maintaining social bond Social networking sites 社交网站 Other

    impacts Access to music, film and other forms of cultural entertainment Access to news: twitter, microblogging, kaixin Advertising

     Telecommunication and government

     International Telecommunication Regulations by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) International frequency list 国际频率列表 The radio

    frequency spectrum 射频谱 Electromagnetic waves 电磁波 IEEE 802.11, 2.4 GHz

    Frequency is a medium carrying wireless communications: a networked service of general economic interest Frequency allocation 频率分配 Spectrum management 频谱

    管理 Unlicensed spectrum/license-free spectrum 免授权频谱

     Telecommunication solutions provider Huawei, Lucent, Cisco, AT&T Telecom

    operators, Telco, telephone companies Vodafone, Orange, Telecommunication manufacturer UTstarcom, blackberry, Nokia, Government

     TXT由“文库宝”下载:http://www.mozhua.net/wenkubaos, ranging from automobiles, computer systems, humor, movies, science fiction, abortion, games, etc. In short, anything that people are interested in.

     Anyone can post an article to a newsgroup (with a few exceptions). Then the article is sent across the Internet to all the hosts that receive news. Any user can subscribe

    to a newsgroup, and read what everyone has to say. The readership is (for the most part) very literate, if someone has a problem, that person can post an article about it and receive some good reply. The net news is also a good source for up to the minute information about current events. During the apparent discovery of cold fusion last year, the only way to get up to date and (fairly) accurate information was via the net. People would attend the press conferences, and then afterwards type in what happened. It was much better than any network coverage because it could get a lot more technical and it was not constrained by any television broadcast requirements. It was also possible to get a copy of the Pons and Fleischman paper much sooner than through any technical journal. The effect of all this on the scientific community is to speed up research greatly. Instead of waiting for the next journal to arrive by mail, scientist can find out what is going on right now not just last year or last month. This allows scientists to take advantage of new research quickly, which makes them work better. James Graves Spring 1990, Prof. Vernard Foley

     ?. Show The Effects and Influence of Technology on Society and Human Kind Could progressing technology itself be negatively affecting and disadvantageous to human kind? What effects have technology had on our society? Take some time and contemplate this notion; that technology itself could be negatively affecting and disadvantageous to human kind. Could such a conception possibly be correct? Technology, a word with Greek origins, is defined as, the practical application

    of knowledge especially in a particular area by Merriam-Websters dictionary.

    Despite this definition, it is an abstract term lacking a concrete meaning. Technology is a word used to collectively describe or portray the advancements, abilities, creations, undertakings, views, and knowledge of a singular group of persons: we as human-kind. The history of technology is undoubtedly as old as humanity itself. Primitive forms of technology have been found with almost every archaeological find of ancient human remains. Technology has such far progressed from the mastery of fire by man in times before 1,000,000 BC,

     to the supercomputers, space stations, rockets, electronics, weapons, and huge metropolises that are the defining aspect of the 21st century AD. The question that persists however, is, Is technology in fact harming our society as a whole? Albeit

    the fact that this is a remarkably intricate question of sorts, it can be answered with a simple answer. The actuality of this situation remains that technology is by no means detrimental to our society here in the United States, civilization throughout the world, or to the greater humanity of the human race; instead, it is vital to its survival. Nuclear Technology To illustrate this point, let us first examine an exceedingly significant technological advance of our time, nuclear technology. Nuclear technology is a research that involves the reactions of atomic nuclei. It has many vital applications in modern society, the most prominent of which are nuclear weapons, nuclear medicine, and nuclear power. The most controversial of these is, without a doubt, nuclear weapons. First created by the United States in 1945 during World War II, they were developed out of the fear that Nazi Germany would first develop them. A weapon of incredible power, a single nuclear weapon

     has to potential to decimate, level, and destroy an entire city. The first and

    only times a nuclear weapon has been used are in World War II, when the United States bombed the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki with the Little Boy and Fat

    Man bombs, respectively. The usage of these bombs allowed for the near instantaneous end to the destructive World War II. Although two cities were leveled and many lives were lost, the situation involving the usage of these nuclear weapons is not nearly as negative as one may perceive. Had the bombs not been dropped, Japan would not have surrendered, and it would have without a doubt prolonged the war for months or even years. This would have forced an Allied Forces ground invasion of Japan in an effort to end the war, which would have resulted in the loss of many more people than caused by the deployment of the two nuclear weapons. When you look at the usage of nuclear technology, you must look at the situation from the viewpoint of human society as a whole, and not from a standpoint of an individual. While the nuclear bombs destroyed two cities and killed many, they ended a horrific World War II and prevented the loss of many other lives. Today, in more modern terms, nuclear weapons play a huge role in our lives. As citizens of the United States, it is common knowledge that we are guaranteed many degrees of

     freedoms and rights, but have you ever considered who enforces our right to these freedoms in the world? Now, let us review the implications of technology on our civilization here on Earth as a whole. Could the notion of technology possibly have any basis? Simply put, it does not have any credibility of any sort. Technology itself does not signify any concrete object or thing; instead it collectively portrays human kinds achievements as a whole. Any advancements, abilities, creations, undertakings, views, or knowledge of us as humans are in essence technology. This definition alone refutes the argument that technology is detrimental. Take for instance the three significant technological advances of the human race covered in this article: nuclear technology, the internet, and medicine. Nuclear technology, an important advancement for our society, creates a world order, protects the inhabitants of the world, and ensures the longevity, freedoms, and well-being of the entire human race. Also, the internet allows for our society to inter-connect and progress further into enlightenment. Perhaps most important of all, medicine, allows for us to ensure our own survival on this planet. These three technologies well represent technology as a whole, and clearly show

     that technology is extremely beneficial to our society. Only by advocating and advancing technology, can we as humans, and as humanity, succeed. I??佳作有约 Model

    Writing

     1.

     We sure live differently from our parents did decades ago. The changes are wide and profound. At the same time, we are facing challenges and problems unknown in the past. Could we find solutions to problems created by scientific development? The answer seems to be no. Some of the most obvious problems caused by technological advances lie in the IT industry. At a time when we did not have computers and electronic bank services, people took money with them and paid by cash. If they were stolen, only the amount they had with them was lost. But now credit cards are more commonly used in shopping malls and other places, crimes again us have become more serious

    and caused greater losses to people. A thief may tape the code of your credit card and make a copy of it. Then he could safely withdraw all your money from an ATM machine. Crimes such as this are very sticky to solve because there is no witness and the surveillance cameras give little help to the police. Another example is the issue of information control with the media industry including TV networks and Internet that give easy access to information without discrimination to peoples age. This

    has created a

     huge problem for parents and schools because teenage people are particularly vulnerable to adult materials and information violent in nature. In the past, when most information came in the form of print, it was relatively easy to control what children read. When a parent put away a book unsuitable for children, they were cut off from the source of information. With computer parents could use software to filter bad web sites but could not prevent new ones from appearing every day. People are working very hard to solve such problems that come along with advances in science and technology, but the efforts are not sufficient and not very successful. Even with the little progress we have achieved, we find ourselves defeated by new problems with greater complexity and in wider scope. In conclusion, developments in many fields of our life have brought us both benefits and problems. Developments in the banking industry give us greater convenience but making us targets of computer-based theft. Changes in media industry expose young people to inappropriate information difficult for parents control. However up until now, we have not successfully found permanent solutions yet. 2. Whether technology has made the world a better place to live is a prevalent topic undergoing serioius debate. After pondering it from

     several aspects, I totally agree it is true that technology has made the world a better place to live. This I support with the following reasons: As we know, firstly technology can help people to live a longer life. A small example can give some light to this point. At the stone age, our ancestors average age is about 25. Due to the

    development of medical technology, now peoples average age is two or three times

    of that time. Another reason why I prefer to this choice lies in the fact that technology ameliorate the environment in which people living in. for example, thousand of yeas ago people lived in caves, which are cold in winter and hot in summer. With using Architectural technology, people build up houses, skyscrapers. Living in them, people enjoy the comfortable lives without worrying about the whether it is hot cold or rainy outside. Finally I want to mention that technology has bring our lives more and more convenience. For instance, many people like music, classic music or pop music. At the beginning, people must go to the theater whenever he wanted to hear a song. Today, by using great technologies, walkman and discoman are supplied for the music fans. Then they can enjoy their favorite songs anywhere and anytime.

     From what has been discussed above, we can safely draw the conclusion that technology has made the world a better place to live. 3. With the development of technology, there have been a lot of changes to our life. Admittedly, some of these changes are bad, causing many environmental and social problems. However, most of these changes contribute to making our life more convenient, more comfortable and more wonderful. First of all, due to the improvement of technology, people can enjoy

    more convenience than ever. For example, it only takes travelers or businessmen several hours to go to other countries by jet plane, which makes the world seem to be much smaller. With the help of Internet, people at different corners of the world can communicate with significantly high speed and low cost. It is technology that has cleared away the barriers that once prevented people from leading a convenient life. Secondly, technology has made our life as comfortable as we can imagine. Sitting in airconditioned rooms, people do not have to suffer the extremely cold or hot weather any more. Whatever vegetable or fruit we want to eat, we can always find it in a supermarket without worrying

     about the season. We can also go to work in a place far away from our homes by using automobiles or public transportation tools. In addition, technology provides us many choices to spend our spare time. Listening to music by using an MD, MP3 or walkman, surfing the internet or watching digital movies, all of these entertainments make our life wonderful. In conclusion, although technology has brought about some problems, such as air pollution caused by increasing automobiles, ethnic problems caused by cloning human beings, the benefits of technology far outweigh its bad influences. So it is safe to say that technology has made the world a better place to live. ? 词库与论据库 Word Bank and Argument Pool 1. 词库 半导体 semiconductor

    微处理器 microprocessor 工作站 workstation 基础设施 infrastructure 多媒体

    multimedia 同步化 synchronize 切换 转接 hand-off 调制解调器 modem 电话会议

    videoconference

     电离层 ionosphere 磁层 magnetosphere 杂交 hybridization 执照 license 仿真

    simulation 高清晰的 hig-definition 差异 discrepancy 里程碑 landmark 细菌

    bacteria 导航 navigation 推测 conjecture 演绎、演绎法 deduction 突现 emergence

     justification

     2. CP 登月 moon landing 国家安全 national security 核武器 nuclear weapon 科学

    成就 scientific achievement 科学仪器 scientific instrument 可再生资源 renewable

    energy sources

     能源的耗损 depletion of resources 能源危机 energy crisis 人工智能 artificial

    intelligence 踏足于 set foot on 太空研究 space exploration/space research 天然资

     natural resources 现场直播 live TV broadcast 濒危物种 endangered species 环境

    恶化 environment deterioration 机械劳动 mechanical labor 家庭电器 household

    appliance 全球变暖 global warming 寿命 life expectancy life span 处于灭绝的边缘

    be on the verge of extinction 促进人类社会的发展 promote the development of human

    society 恶劣的环境 hostile environment 降低成本 lower the cost 降低风险 lower the

    risks 破坏社会稳定 undermine the social stability 提高工作效率 improve work

    efficiency 提高生产力 increase the productivity 下岗工人 laid-off worker

     不合伦理道德的 ethically and morally wrong 改善生活质量 improve the quality of

    life 出现、产生 come into being 机器翻译 mechanical translation 不可避免的趋势 an

    inevitable trend 大量的知识储备 vast stores of knowledge 个人优缺点 individual

    strengths and weaknesses 个性化的改变 personalised shift 老师指导下的学习

    teacher-directed learning 有深远的影响 have a profound effect on 环保的

    environmentally friendly 散布信息 disseminatein formation 身心健康 physical and

    mental health 受到普遍欢迎 gain widespread popularity 有深远的影响 exert a

far-reaching influence on 在线金融交易 online financial transaction 直接的反馈

    instant feedback 把虚幻当现实 take fantasy for reality 不健康的生活方式

    unwholesome lifestyle 大量的信息 vast quantities of information 技术的局限性

    technical limitation 加速信息的传播 accelerate flow of information

     令人注目的 eye-catching 信息高速公路 information superhighway 不合要求 be not

    up to standard 传统的学校教育 conventional school education 工作的稳定性 job

    security 减少往返上下班的时间 reductions in commuting time 接触、面对 be exposed to

    经济有效的 cost-effective 灵活的工作环境 flexible work environment 恰当的监管

    proper supervisional guidance 全面的知识 a comprehensive knowledge 人力资源 human

    resources 综合国力 overall national strength 广告行业的兴旺发达 the thriving of

    the advertising industry 建立和实施针对所有媒体的严格的审查制度 establish and

    impose a strict censorship on all mass media 随着因特网技术出现 with the advent of

    the Internet technology 一个公认的事实 a generally acknowledged fact 在这个日益电

    脑化的世界中 in this increasingly computerized world 3.

     经典句子

     1. What can school administrators do to best prepare their schools and students for a world in which technology-driven societal change

     has become a constant? 2. The primary criteria are directly linked to the legislative mandates for the program to focus technology reviews where there are concerns about safety, efficacy, or cost effectiveness, especially relative to existing alternatives. 3. I also moderated a thought-provoking graduate student panel on education where I was extremely impressed with the presentationsso much so, that

    every morning this week, Ill be highlighting a panelists topic and posing a related

    question to readers from the discussion that followed. 4. I begin with the observation that on several occasions I have seen commenters here questioning your credentials as a scientist. 5. If we weigh the pros and cons of science and technology, we could find easily that its advantages outweigh its disadvantages. 6. We should not stop the development of science and technology as the disasters they bring just as we should not give up eating for fear of choking. 7. The political ideology associated with the federal government's support of commercially oriented technology has been an enormous problem for the Advanced Technology Program (ATP) since the program's inception. 8. Innovations resulting from breakthroughs in science and technology fuel economic growth.

     9. Many leading economists now believe that new discoveries in information technology led to investments over the last couple of decades that helped account for the historic surge in economy-wide productivity growth in the 1990s. 10. Regardless of how promising a drug or other new treatment appears in the laboratory or even in animals, it must undergo extensive clinical trials before it can be approved as safe and effective for market introduction. 11. Today, thanks to improvements in technology, millions more seniors with more modest visual impairment find that modern cataract surgery improves their lives. 12. The increased spending on health care does not necessarily reflect negatively on technological change. 13. Beyond the agricultural and industrial revolutions of which we have heard of in the past the all new technology revolution is changing the world. 14. The world has developed into

    a global village due to the help of information technology allowing countries who are not only separated by distance but also by language to shares ideas and information with each other.

     15. Economies are improving because of the technology help and so is the commercialization of the countries resulting in the growth of the country, which in turn helps in keeping the per capita income of the country healthy. 16?The phone

    is environmental, and we have more or less learned to put it in its place. 17?Statistical studies based on what can be counted and measured, the accepted approach to the impact of technology, are of limited use. 18?The process of

    recognizing key patterns, such as the blind man experiences when he first learns to pick out visual objects, involves a cultivated insensitivity to all else that is irrelevant. 19. By speeding up the flow of information, computers increase the possibility of overlooking errors, and therefore make it more difficult to correct errors should they enter the information flow. 20? HOW far does consumer privacy

    protection lag behind data-collection systems, those advanced technologies that media companies use to gather, share and profit from our personal information? 21. This article outlines the considerations for implementation of massive computing access projects aimed at systemic low impact long term improvements through what we call Technology Resource Centers, where teachers and students may have access

    to ICT and additional technologies at their own pace and in their own terms.

     22?Information and Communications Technology is being distributed to students and teachers to saturate the system with learning and teaching tools that are simple to use and available in a nonthreatening environment and long term. 23? Beijing-Shanghai line, once completed, is anticipated to bring the The travel time between the two cities down under five hours, making the train faster than flying in practical terms since distant suburban airport locations, security and boarding times add to the two and a half hour flight. 4. 经典段落 1. Today's children have

    a very narrow definition of what is fun, and "boring" is the first word out of their mouths when confronted with anything they regard as unrelated to their interests

    which derive almost entirely from the pop culture that is marketed to them. We owe it to our students to educate them, to lengthen their short attention spans, and to help them to overcome their pampered indifference 2. Constructivism posits that students should design their own learning goals and that teachers, rather than being the primary providers of knowledge, should coach students as they undertake individual inquiries. The "sage on a stage" is often derided as a vestige of an old, irrelevant mode of instruction. Computers fit well with constructivist pedagogy because only one user or a small group can use a single computer. If five

     computers are installed in a classroom, the teacher is forced to break students into groups, whether effective or not, in order to use the computers 3. The Health Technology Assessment (HTA) program is a legislatively created program that seeks to ensure that health technologies purchased by state agencies are safe and effective, and that coverage decisions of state agencies are more consistent and transparent. The focus of the program is to rely on scientific, or evidence-based, information about safety and effectiveness to inform decisions and improve quality. An

    independent committee of eleven practicing health care clinicians uses the report and other information to review evidence regarding safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of various medical procedures and/or equipment and determine if the state will pay for those procedures. 4. I do want to say something about the two polls Ive been running over the past few days in which Ive used the word

    technology more than I typically do during any given three months. One reason I try to avoid the word is clear when reading through the comments on those posts. People, rightly, want to clarify exactly what is meant by the word technology, qualifying their answers based on this perspective or that. Still, its not a useless term,

    and following Alan Kays definition, that Technology is anything that was invented

    after you were born, Im talking about

     computers, the Internet, software, and devices that you can connect to your computer things that didnt exist when I started teaching 33 years ago. 5. With respect to the problems technology has brought to us, scientists may face dilemmas. I think we should pay attention to the environment and ecology when developing science and technology and we may also protect the environment and ecology in technological ways, that will work a lot/well. 6. Researchers say the lure of these technologies, while it affects adults too, is particularly powerful for young people. The risk, they say, is that developing brains can become more easily habituated than adult brains to constantly switching tasks and less able to sustain attention. 7. The

    federal government's research and development portfolio contains fundamental research that is not targeted toward any foreseeable commercial use, applied research, or development. In general, applied research is designed to provide answers to specific scientific and technical questions needed to carry out certain governmental missions in defense, energy, space, the environment, and underlying national interests in the commercial sector such as standards and metrology. However, there are areas that are neglected by the federal government and corporate research programs. 8. While all economists appreciate the contribution of such economic

     growth to the well-being of the U.S., there is often less appreciation of the contribution of innovations in biomedical technology. A primary reason is that technological change in medicine brings benefits in addition to direct economic gains, including increased longevity, improved quality of life, and less time absent from work. These benefits are not taken into account in standard measures of aggregate economic output. If a country had real gains in its overall health, but not in its material well being (most often measured by per-capita income) the national income accounts would not change, even though those accounts are often thought to measure the well being of a population. In addition, the direct economic and public health benefits of developing important new medicines often takes considerable time to be realized. 9. Just as there is an increase in our dependence on technology, there is also the possibility of becoming more dependent on one another because of technological involvement. This is a world economy that we are involved with, and it is that involvement that makes us dependent on one another for what we need to survive. Technology can both create and alleviate that dependency. The impact of technology on the commercial aspect of human culture is a major one. 10. Technology

has not only brought the world closer together, but it has allowed the worlds economy

    to become a single interdependent system.

     This means that we can, not only share information quickly and efficiently, but we can also bring down barriers of linguistic and geographic boundaries. 11. One source of new technology is the search for increased economic efficiency and a sincere desire to reduce the cost that the society has to pay for the availability of goods. Whether the purpose of the technology is to improve its effective use of available natural resources or to increase or alter the supply of available resources, it will impact what people have financial transactions on. 12. The accelerating pace of technological change combined with increased growth of the industries will increase the importance of education and training. Distance learning and other alternative mechanisms will help, but such change will make it difficult for societies reluctant to change. 13. As technology brings benefits and prosperity to its users, it may leave others behind and create new class disparities. Although technology will help alleviate some severe hardships, it will create real economic disparities both between and within the developed and developing worlds. Those not willing or able to retrain and adapt to new business opportunities may fall further behind.

     14. Many people feel that their cultures continued vitality and possibly even long-term existence may be threatened by new ways of living brought about by technology. As the benefits of technology are seen (especially by younger generations), it may be more difficult to prevent such changes even though some technologies can preserve certain cultural artifacts and values and cultural values can have an impact on guiding regulations and protections that affect technological development. 15. Looking back in time, we realize how much our lives have changed due to the fruits of technology. It has provided us with freedom and less consumption of time and resources. Pointing out a particular technology for the drastic changes in one's life is simply not possible. A nation's economic growth can be measured according to the level of technology. This is because a number of factors are responsible for affecting an individual's life style. The most important factor for deciding the working of a particular technology is the presence of competition. One kind of technology seems beneficial only until a technological advancement does not occur. 16. The other animals have each only way method of defence and cannot exchange it for another. Whereas the human is physically weaker, by the use of his hands he can create any tool that any other animal has. Our

     weakness is our strength, as the lack of any specialized defensive organs makes us free to be versatile. Likewise, we are poorly equipped with instincts. 17. In a broad sense, then, technology forms our environment. This environment remains unperceived unless we are separated from it, as a fish does not know what water is until it is beached. The particular technological environment wherein we are nurtured is incorporated into our being. It forms who we are. We do not need to make any special effort to learn it. Rather, it is learned by absorption. 18? Often they never hear

    the songs, because they are sung in public houses. Often they never hear of the arts and crafts, because they are not recorded in books. This sort of ignorance is indeed ignorance, but it is ignorance in arms, ignorance militant and triumphant, ignorance

advancing with all its armies across a conquered land. 19?Technological change and

    the cultural change that is its companion ? force everyone to be both a philosopher

    and an artist. The attitude of the philosopher is that of taking nothing for granted, and that attitude arises only when some new perception jars the conceptual framework that no longer applies. The artist takes the environment we take for granted and puts it into relief, where we can see it for what it is. 20. The introduction of information technology speeds up the amount of information that we must deal with. The result is real pain. Aristotle noted

     that what we feel to be painful may largely be a matter of habituation. An animal organism is normally under stress. Sight and hearing are in fact painful, but we have become used to them over the course of time. Once accustomed to a certain level of sensory input, we feel the withdrawal of sensation to be painful or distressing. 21?In

    many development economies, this situation is aggravated by the fact that computer courses in schools are taught by technicians with little or no background in Education. It is a hopeful symptom, however, that teachers are increasingly taking control of Computer Labs as was the case with project Huascarán whose driving factors were

    pedagogical rather than technological. 5. 中文素材 1. 科技发展的两面性 科技进步带

    来的各种发现和发明使人类逐渐强大起来。 各种交通 工具是脚的功能的延伸?大大拓展了

    人类的活动范围?望远镜和显微 镜是眼睛的延伸?使人类能探测更广阔和更微小的世界?信

    息技术的 进步和网络的完善是嘴巴和耳朵的延伸? 使远在千里之外的人们能相 互沟通?地

    球成了一个地球村。诸如此类的成就不仅代表了科技所达 到的水平?也大大提高了人们的生

    活质量。激光、微波、电视、计算 机、网络、核反应堆?这些东西不再是可有可无的东西?

    它们充满了 人类生活的各个方面。不管我们是否意识到了它们的存在?它们都影 响和控制

    了我们的生活。

     人们在享受科技带来的巨大好处的同时? 也逐渐意识到科技是一 枚双刃剑。人类在科

    技领域已经不止一次打开“潘多拉的盒子” ?引 起全球变暖、臭氧层受损、荒漠化加剧、

    物种灭绝、核武器威胁等问 题。 站在新世纪的门槛上?可以预见科技将更迅猛地改变人们

    的生 活、工作和思维方式。在这种情况下?人类在利用科学技术造福于社 会的同时一定要

    慎重地考虑它的负面影响? 因为科技发展中的一个小 失误都可能造成巨大损失。 现在越来

    越多的人意识到随着科学技术对 社会各领域影响的日益扩大?科技如何发展?怎样把握科技

    的发展? 成为人类进入新千年前的重大课题。 2. 高速铁路 高速铁路是指通过改造原有线

    路;直线化、轨距标准化~?使营 运速率达到每小时 200 公里以上?或者专门修建新的“高

    速新线”? 使营运速率达到每小时 250 公里以上的铁路系统。 高速铁路除了在列 车在营运

    达到速度一定标准外?车辆、路轨、操作都需要配合提升。 广义的高速铁路包含使用磁悬浮

    技术的高速轨道运输系统。 2008 3 31 日?时速 350 公里的首列国产化 CRH3 高速

     车组在“唐车”下线?进入测试运行。 之前有外国宣称试验了 500 公里的高速列车?但

    目前全世界投入实际运营的最高速度? 仍是武广高铁最高时速 394。事实上?中国的高铁速

    度代表了目 前世界的高铁速度。作为中国第一条真正意义上的高速铁路?京

     津高铁从一问世就站在世界前沿?创造了运营速度、运量、节能 环保、舒适度四个世界

    第一。 2010 12 3 日?在京沪高铁枣庄至蚌埠段进行综合试验 的“和谐号”CRH380A

    新一代高速动车组试车最高时速达 486.1 公里:大大超过此前沪杭高铁 416.6 公里的纪录。

    中国再度刷新 世界铁路运营速度纪录?演绎“高铁奇迹”。 目前?中国已投入运营的高速铁

    路营业里程达到 7531 公里? 居世界第一位?已成为世界上高速铁路系统技术最全、集成能

     最强、运营里程最长、运行速度最高、在建规模最大的国家。现 在? 中国每天开行的动

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