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Unit-4-Book-4-Unit-4-Book-Four-Section-A-The-Telecommunications-

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Unit-4-Book-4-Unit-4-Book-Four-Section-A-The-Telecommunications-

Unit 4 Book 4

    Unit 4 Book Four

    Section A The Telecommunications Revolution

Teaching Objectives

    After learning this unit, Ss are supposed to be able to

    ? Know something about hi-tech and how to use them correctly.

    ? grasp the key language points and grammatical structures in the texts in Section A and B. ? learn to write a paragraph of comparisons

    ? improve their reading skill---- recognizing paragraph patterns (I)

    ? conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities.

Time Allotment

    st nd1and 2 period------ Pre-reading Activities

    rdth3 and 4 period------While-reading Activities

    thth5 and 6 period -----Post-reading Activities and Section B th th7and 8 period------Listening and Speaking

Teaching Contents

    I. Important Points

    A. Key words and phrases:

    Section A: dumb, utility, condense, intensive, desperate, recession, scratch, reliable, width,

    nowhere, disposal, persist,

     be stuck with, date from, scratch the surface, at ones disposal

    Section B: sign up, refer to, feedback, transmit, vacuum, crucial, correspondence, be compared

    to, hence, devote to, in the hands of, specialize in B. Key Sentence Patterns

     1) Widespread access to information technologies, for example, promises to condense the

    time required to change from labor-intensive assembly work to industries that involve

    engineering, marketing, and design.

     2) Still, there‘s little dispute that communications will be a key factor separating the winners

    from the losers.

    3) For wireless phone service providers, nowhere is business better than in Latin America

     having an operation there is like having an endless pile of money at your disposal.

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    II. Difficult Points

    1. Places that until recently were deaf and dumb are rapidly acquiring up-to-date

    telecommunications that will let them promote both internal and foreign investment. 2. Thats partly because Latin American customers talk two to four times as long on the phone

    as people in North America.

Teaching Procedures

    I. Pre-reading Activities

    A. Warm-up activities

    Watch a video and discuss the following questions:

    1) What do you know about hi-tech?

    2) What does high-tech mean to college students?

    From our discussions, different conclusions can be drawn as follows:

     1) Hi-tech in the world of enterprisers is defined as a way to open up new industries, turn out

    new products, and bring in the biggest profits. In the eyes of politicians, hi-tech gives a

    country the edge it needs to compete with others for the buildup of overall national strength.

    Hi-tech in the context of IT is a general reference to such landmarks as network, fiber

    optics, artificial intelligence, information superhighway, etc. And hi-tech in the minds of

    scientists is always representative of sophistication(尖端), independence(独立性),

    infiltration(渗透性), and diffusion(扩散性).

    2) hi-tech is something relative and changeable. As compared to the traditional technologies,

    many of today‘s technologies belong to hi-tech, but are more than likely to grow out-of-date

    tomorrow. So, we must be aware that there is an interaction between hi-tech and traditional technology. The latter relies on the former for improvement while the development of the former is based on the latter. In this light, to be at home with hi-tech, we should equip ourselves first with basic knowledge, like mathematics, English, etc.

B. Background information

1). Telecommunications

     Telecommunications, from Greek, means ―communications at a distance‖.

    Telecommunications through voice, data, and image communication is changing the world. The

    ease of accessing information and people anywhere at anytime is having major impacts on

    society, business, and finance. Two major trends have occurred in the technology that is

    applicable to telecommunications. The first trend has been the incredible increase in the

    processing power of digital computers, namely, dramatic decreases in physical size along with

    equally dramatic increases in complexity, speed, and capacity. The second trend has been the

    explosive growth in transmission capacity through the widespread use of optical fiber across

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    continents and under oceans. These two trends have had impressive long-term consequences for telecommunications around the world. The Internet and the World Wide Web have already created a global system for the access of information. It has become popular that people check flight, weather, and hotels before traveling to a foreign country. E-mail makes it easy to keep in contact instantly with colleagues and friends around the globe. But many of the peoples of the world do not even have a telephone, much less access to the Internet and the information. The challenge to the telecommunications industry is to bridge the digital gap and extend the availability of telecommunications to all parts of the planet.

2) Optical fiber

     Optical fiber (or ―fiber optic‖) often refers to the medium and the technology associated with

    the transmission of information as light pulses along a glass or plastic wire or fiber. Optical fiber carries much more information than conventional copper wire and is in general not subject to electromagnetic interference and the need to retransmit signals. Most telephone company long-distance lines are now of optical fiber. Transmission on optical fiber wire requires repeater

    at distance intervals. The glass fiber requires more protection within an outer cable than copper. For these reasons and because the installation of any new wiring is labor-intensive, few communities yet have optical fiber wires or cables from the phone company‘s branch office to local customers (known as local loop). Single mode fiber is used for longer distances; multimode

    fiber is used for shorter distances.

3) Information age

     When we say that we live in the information age, we mean that we live in a time when information is very important and easy to get. The information age is an era of fundamental and global change in intellectual, philosophical, cultural and social terms. Today‘s information age began with the telegraph. It was the first instrument to transform information into electrical form and transmit it reliably over long distances. New techniques of encoding and distributing digital information are pacing the spread of the information age throughout society.

4) Information superhighway

    A name first used by (former) U.S. Vice President Al Gore for the vision of a global, high-speed communications network that will carry voice, data, video, and other forms of information all over the world, and that will make it possible for people to send e-mail, get up-to-the-minute news, and access business, government and educational information. The Internet is already providing many of these features, via telephone networks, cable TV services, online service providers, and satellites. In the U.S., the information superhighway is also known as National Information Infrastructure. The information superhighway can be understood to be a highway which has computer technology and modern communication technology serving as the base of the road and fiber-optic cables serving as the surface of the road. The ―vehicles‖ are the

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    multimedia machines equipped with computer, television and telephone, and high speed

    transmission and exchange of various multimedia information forms the web covering the whole

    nation. If the national superhighways all over the world are linked together, the global

    information superhighway will be created.

     Who first created the idea of ―constructing‖ a superhighway?

    In 1955, Albert Gore, then Tennessee Democratic senator, put forward in the U.S.

    Congress the act of interstate superhighway, which was later proved to have greatly promoted

    the American economic development. In 1991, his son, Al Gore, proposed another acthigh

    performance computing act, HPCA. For the first time, HPCA demanded high performance

    computer and communications. The core of the act was to set up a national research and

    education network, NREN.

C. Key Words and Their Collocations

1. telecommunications: n. the sending and receiving of messages over distance, esp. by

    telephone

     New competition in telecommunications is a useful start. a telecommunications satellite

    tele: prefix, 远距离的,远的

    telegram, telescope, television, telephone, telecommuter(远距离工作者)

2. utility: n. 1) a service used by the public, such as an electricity or gas supply or train service

     2) the usefulness of sth. esp. in a practical way

     Monopolies in industries like railways and various utilities need breaking up.

     Rescue teams worked desperately to restore utilities in the area shattered by the hurricane.

     The information is of the highest utility to a historian. Word building: utensil; utilize

3. web : n. a fine net made by a spider from a sticky substance which it produces from its body;

    sth. as complicated as a net

     Why doesnt a spider get stuck in his own web?

     Who can understand the web of life?

    Collocation

    a web of lies

     a web of railway

4. condense: v. 1) reduce (esp. sth. written) to a smaller or shortened form

     2) (of a gas) become liquid or sometimes solid esp. by becoming cooler

     He managed to condense his letter of application to one page.

     I tried to condense the report into as few words as possible.

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     When a gas or vapor condenses, it changes into liquid.

    Word building: condenser; condensation

5. intensive : adj. involving a lot of activity, effort, or careful attention in a short period of time

    Collocation Labor-intensive capital-intensive

     a one-week intensive course in English

     After a brief period of intensive training, I was allowed to make my first parachute jump.

    Word building: intensively

    cf: intense: adj. having a very strong effect or felt very strongly

    intense heat/cold/competition/pain

    Word building: n. intensity

     v. intensify

     Police have now intensified the search for the lost child.

6. desperate adj. 1) expecting great need; wanting very much

     2) showing a willingness to take risks, esp. because one is in a bad situation

    that one wants to change I was absolutely desperate to see her. The prisoners grew more desperate in despair. His increasing financial difficulties forced him to take desperate measures.

     They face a desperate (extremely serious) shortage of water.

    Word building: desperation n.

     desperado n.

7. recession: n. .a period when the economy of a country is not successful, business conditions

    are bad, industrial production and trade are at a low level and there is a lot of unemployment.

     The economy suffers from the impact of the current recession in manufacturing.

     Active policies should be adopted to pull the country out of recession.

     In times of severe recession companies are often forced to make massive job cuts n order to

    survive.

     recede: v. 1). If sth. you can see or hear recedes, it gets further and further away until it

    disappears;

     2) if a memory, feeling, or possibility recedes, it gradually goes away;

     3) if water recedes, it moves back from an area that it was covering

     The footsteps recede into the distance. As the threat of attack receded, village life returned to normal.

     Flood waters finally began to recede in November.

    recessional:衰退期的, 衰退的

8. scratch : v. cut or damage (a surface) slightly with sth. sharp or rough 抓,搔,划

     She scratched at the insect bites on her arm.

     Mind you dont scratch the table with those scissors!

     The dog kept scratching at the door to be let in.

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    scratch the surface: 触及表面

     I can only hope to scratch the surface of the topic in this talk.

     The amount of aid which has been offered is hardly going to scratch the surface of the

    suffering.

    scratch the head; 动脑筋,冥思苦想

     The last question really had us scratching our heads.

    scratch out: 删掉;划掉

    you scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours: (口)你帮我,我也帮你

9. peak: n. 1) the point of highest intensity, value or achievement 高峰,最高点

    2) a pointed top, esp. of a mountain 山顶

     v. to reach the highest point of a level

     adj. the highest level etc of sth.

     sales have reached a new peak.

     Mount Qomolangma is the worlds highest peak. Oil production peaked in the early 1980s. Unemployment peaked at 17% during the recession.

     The information Age is a time of peak demand for computers.

     March is one of the peak periods for our business. at ones peak: 达到巅峰

peak:: “高峰,最高点,山顶”,可指具体的山,也可指整座山及其上部。

summit: “(山顶的)最高点,峰顶,最高级会议”,指具体的山的最高处,也可表示国

    家元首之间的高级会谈。 Cf. climax: “高潮,最令人兴奋(或感兴趣)的部分”,比喻任何事物发展的顶点、最高点。

     the recent Geneva summit

     the summit of scientific achievement

     The opera reaches its climax in the third act.

10. stake: n. 1) an investment in business, with the hope of financial gain 股份,利益关系

    2) a pointed piece of wood, metal, etc. for driving into the ground as a mark, for

    holding a rope, etc. 桩,标桩 Collocation: at stake 在危急关头,在危险中

     tie a horse to a stake 把马拴在桩上

     play for high stake 下大赌注 The company is selling off its 15% stake in the bank.

     I‘d stake my life on it. 我敢拿性命担保。

11. reliable: adj. able to be depended on or trusted

     Our information comes from a reliable source.

     My memory is not very reliable these days.

    Word building: unreliable adj.

     reliably adv.

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     rely v.

     reliability n.

12. disposal: n. 1) the power or authority to use freely

     2) the act of getting rid of sth.

     Please see to the disposal of that rubbish

    Collocation: at ones disposal

     We will use all the means at our disposal to solve the dispute.

     During their visit I put my car at their disposal. Word building: dispose v.

     dispose of: to get rid of sth.

     dispose sb to sth.: to make someone more likely to feel or think a particular

    way about sth. How did the murderer dispose of his victims bodies?

13. persist : vt. 1) to continue to do sth., although this is difficult, or other people worn you not

    to do it, 坚持,执意

    2to continue to exist or happen

    Collocation: persist in (doing) sth.

     If you persist in causing trouble, the company may be forced to dismiss you.

     Despite official denials, the rumors persisted.

    Word building: persistent

     persistence

    cf: insist on (doing) sth.

     insistent adj. demanding firmly and repeatedly that sth. should happen

     insistence n. an act of demanding that sth. should happen

     We insist on the highest standards of cleanliness in the hotel.

     She will insist on washing her hair just when I want to have a bath.

     She was insistent that they should all meet for dinner.

14. be stuck with: have no choice about dealing with (sb. Sth.) or doing (sth. unwanted or

    unpleasant) 无法摆脱,解脱不了

    be stuck in: be in an unpleasant or boring situation and unable to change it or get away from

    it 陷入

     Why am I always stuck with the dirty work?

     Lets make a decision, then stick with it.

     The bus is stuck in the mud.

     He was completely stuck in the book you gave him.

     be stuck for: be unable to think or to find sth. that you need to have 无法找到

     If youre stuck for a babysitter, Lisa is always free.

    stick with, stick to, stick at: continue to work or study in a very determined way in order to

    achieve sth

     lets make a decision, and then stick with it.

     I hated practicing, but I stuck to it and now I can play pretty well.

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     Just stick at it and youll pass your exams easily.

     a matter of sth./doing sth.

     They would not ask for help unless it were a matter of life and death. 生死攸关的问题

     Its only a matter of time before somebody gets hurt.

    II. While-reading Activities

    1.Text Study

    A. Fast reading and try to grasp the main idea of text

    What is the text mainly about?

    Telecommunications is widely conceived as a key to developing countries‘ dream of

    jumping into the modern world. Although there is some dispute as to how fast they can push

    ahead with their plans, different developing countries still are seeking their own ways of leaping

    over their backwardness with one jump in this direction. Surely, they will catch up with

    developed countries on the information superhighway as long as they persist in their efforts

B. Structure Analysis

    The whole passage falls into 4 parts:

    Part I (para.1-2): The 2 paragraphs focus on the overwhelming advantages of

    telecommunications revolution, especially for developing countries. Part II (para.3): The paragraph puts forward a question for consideration; how fast to develop

    telecommunications technologies in developing countries. Part III (para.4-10): Different counties have different backgrounds and they seek different

    ways out of their respective problems to realize telecommunications

    transformation.

    Part IV (para.11): The passage concludes to say that developing countries can catch up with

    Americans and Western Europeans in telecommunications technologies. How is the text organized?

    The passage is arranged into four parts: The advantages of telecommunications

    technologies; the questions that should be considered in developing the

    new technologies for developing countries; different countries trying to

    solve their problems with different solutions; and the conclusions. As a

    striking feature of its organization, what is in suspense is sketched out

    whereas what is in certainty is explicated through comparison and

    exemplification.

C. Difficult Sentences:

     1. Places that until recently were deaf and dumb are rapidly acquiring up-to-date

    telecommunications that will let them promote both internal and foreign investment.

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Unit 4 Book 4

    多重复合句。第一个that 引导的是修饰places 的定义从句。第二个that 引导的是telecommunications 的定语从句。

     Some youth who until recently were students in college are now teaching other students on

    the stage.

    一些前不久还是学生的青年们,如今已走上讲台,开始授课了。 Industries that formerly were ignored are now given more attention, which will accelerate

    the development of economy.

    一些从前被人们忽视的产业,现在正得到更多的关注,这将对整个经济的发展起到促进

    作用。

2. Many experts think Vietnam is going too far by requiring that all mobile phones

    be expensive digital models, when it is desperate for any phones.

     多重复合句。 首先这是这句话中包含有think 的宾语从句。 宾语从句中又含有when 引导的时间状语从句。 时间状语从句主语中,在by介词短语引导的方式状语中,requiring 的宾语是由that 引导的从句,需要注意到requiring 要求此从句中用(should) be 的虚拟形式。

3. Its cheaper to build radio towers than to string lines across mountain ridges, and

    businesses eager for reliable service are willing to accept a significantly higher

    price tag for a wireless call the fee is typically two to four times as much as

    for calls made over fixed lines.

    And的连接的并列关系的复合句。And前一分句中than引导比较状语从

    句,从句中省略了形式主语it和谓语动词isAnd后的分句中,破折号后是

    a significantly higher price tag 的进一步说明。Two to four times as much as

    是倍数的表示方法,即在比较结构前面用几倍数表示一方为另一方的几倍。

    p99IX

D. Key Sentence Patterns

    1) Widespread/Systematic/Free/Easy /Convenient access to sth. promises to

    do???????????? Our frequent access to different cultures promises to optimize the structure of

    our knowledge.

    经常接触不同的文化有望优化我们的知识结构。

     Children‘s extensive access to various refined works promises to enhance their

    taste for life.

    让孩子们广泛接触各类高雅作品有望提升他们的生活品位。

    2) a matter of debate/discussion. Still, there is little dispute/doubt that…

    ??????, ?????? How children should obtain education is often a matter of debate. Still, there is

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    little dispute that advanced knowledge can lend wings to their rise in life.

    孩子们应如何接受教育是人们经常争论的一个问题。然而,毋庸争辩的是,

    先进的知识将给他们的腾飞插上翅膀。

     Which is important, knowledge or ethics, is open to question. Still, there is little

    doubt that a good combination of both will make you into a person who is of value

    to the people.

    知识重要还是道德重要是值得商榷的。然而,毋庸置疑的是,二者的有机

    结合会使你成为一个有益于人民的人。

    3) For sb., nowhere is business better than in… doing sth. there is like doing

    sth. else.

     , ??????

    ??????

     For students eager to be useful to society, nowhere is education better than in

    college ---studying there is like bathing yourself in the oceans of knowledge.

    对于渴望成才的学子而言,没有任何地方的教育比大学里的更好了 在那

    里学习就像是置身于知识的海洋里一样。

     For people like eating, nowhere is food more delicious than in China having

    delicious food there is like enjoying a wonderful life.

    对于贪吃的人来说,没有任何地方的美食比中国餐更诱人了在中国品尝美

    味就像在享受人生一样。

2. Writing skill----- Writing a short composition of comparisons

    In the passage, the author uses many different writing techniques to develop the main ideas.

    One of the writing techniques employed is making comparisons. For example, if we have a look

    at Paragraphs 4 to 6, we would find that the 3 paragraphs are skillfully organized by

    comparisons.

     No dispute about communications being a key factor separating the winners from the losers.

     loses.

     Russia.. China. Backwardness

Russia development was held up by its China takes

    national phone system

     Russia plans China plans to pour some $100 billion in

     telecommunications equipment

    Russian economy is.. China has the money invested. Russia. A loser China. A winner 10

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