ESS - Intrusion Security
System II 单线IP网络接警机
System II 单线IP网络接警机以备受信赖的Sur-Gard中心接警机系列为 基础研制而成，设计用于各类院校、住宅小区及监测帐户系统状态的银 行、各类企事业单位和政府设施等专有应用场合。
ESS - Intrusion Security
System II 特性
最多支持1024个网络帐户，其中512个可受监测 具有轮询功能，提高系统安全性 无需拨号和‘握手’，实现快速接警 支持本地和远程编程 可通过TCP/IP、USB或串口输出到接警管理软件 带背光的菜单驱动式40字符(2行；LCD显示屏，在手动模式下进行 编程 ? 采用128位AES加密等安全手段 ? 采用将内部通信与外部数据传输隔离的防黑客设计 ? 便于将来软件更新和提升的闪存和DSP ? ? ? ? ? ?
ESS - Intrusion Security
(原文件见 小区规划王涛 原文件见C/小区规划王涛 文件) 原文件见 小区规划王涛/CPP11r3b文件 文件
读完本文,要求读者能够掌握下面内容: 1,描述EET/TEMS小区规划工具,解释其特点及容量. 2,TEMS的功能及优势. 3,计论OSS的使用范围,小区的实现与重配置. 4,解释在OSS中的用于网络监测的统计汇报软件包. 5,解释OSS中的RNR如何用于网络诊断. ?Explain how RNO in OSS can be used for implementation help (FAS, NCS) and performance monitoring
(MRR) ?Identify the capabilities of the Cellular Network Analyzer ?Describe how
parameter settings affect network performance
11 System Tuning
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION„„123 ERICSSON ENGINEERING TOOL (EET) „„124
NETWORK DIMENSIONING„„ 124 FREQUENCY PLANNING „„ 124 PREDICTING„„ 124 TOOLS„„ 125
TEMS CELLPLANNER„„127 TEST MOBILE SYSTEM (TEMS) „„129 TEMS TRANSMITTER„„130 TEMS RECEIVER „„131 HOT SPOT FINDER„„132 OPERATIONS SUPPORT SYSTEM (OSS)„„133
INTRODUCTION „„ 133 CELLULAR NETWORK ADMINISTRATION (CNA) „„ 133 CELLULAR NETWORK ADMINISTRATION INTERFACE (CNAI)„„ 134 CELLULAR NETWORK MEASUREMENTS AND
CELLULAR NETWORK ANALYZER (CeNA) „„141
CELL PARAMETER ADJUSTMENT„„144
CELL PARAMETERS „„ 144
基本的小区计划完成后,接下来是进行网络设备的安装,为了节省测量的时间, After an
initial cell plan has been compiled and approved, it is time to begin the installation of the network equipment. As a time-saving measure, we can begin to optimize the performance of the radio network as it is being built up. This chapter broadly covers some of the tools that Ericsson recommends for diagnosing a network. The major benefit of using these tools comes not only from their initial use but through their continued use to monitor and improve network performance. At the end of this chapter, radio network tuning by means of parameter adjustment is discussed.
ERICSSON ENGINEERING TOOL (EET)
During the initial phases of the network design process, a reliable radio wave propagation tool is necessary. This need continues to exist even for the most mature radio networks. One of the primary responsibilities of an RF engineer is to improve the radio network when required to do so. This could be the result of growth or decreased performance. Ericsson Engineering Tool (EET) is based on experience and continual development adapted to a rapidly changing technology. EET is based on Planet by Mobile Systems International Ltd. (MSI). It is a UNIX open-windows-based software package designed to simplify the process of planning and optimizing a cellular network. Some of the more important features of EET are discussed in the following sections.
In the software , it is easy to create new sites or move old ones. All information about the sites is stored in the site database. It is possible to make changes to one site, a group of sites, or all sites. A height path profile can be displayed between any two points on the map. This is very useful for microwave link planning.
EET allows the allocation of channels or frequency groups to a cell. It is possible to do this manually or automatically. The frequency assignments are stored in the carrier database. The frequencies can be displayed by labeling the cell with the Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN), the group name, or by color coding the coverage areas according to the frequency groups.
When the sites are created it is time to initiate a prediction. It is possible to predict one site, a group of sites, or all sites. The result of the prediction is the pathloss from the sites. After predicting, arrays for coverage and interferences (C/I and C/A) can be created. The signal strength and interference levels are calculated for each pixel. The advantage of having both
prediction and array steps in this procedure is that it speeds up the calculations. If the user would like to change, e.g. the output power at one site, there is no need for a new prediction because the change does not affect the pathloss. The user only has to create a new array. Creating arrays is just a matter of adding dB, so it is not very time-consuming. On the other hand, predictions are more complicated. The basic propagation model in EET is Ericsson抯 Algorithm 9999. Out of the topographical
database, the profile between the transmitter and receiver is extracted. The pathloss is calculated based on terrain variations in height along the profile (including contributions due to knife-edge diffraction), the earth抯 curvature, the land usage,
and empirical corrections. The corrections are a result of Ericsson抯 unique
experience of wave propagation and numerous measurements all over the world. In addition to Algorithm 9999, EET includes the Okumura-Hata, the Cost 231, and the Walfish-Ikegami models.
Using EET, the user can spread traffic on the map to plan for capacity. The traffic can be displayed with different colors for different amounts of Erlangs/km
or the user can highlight the cells that do not meet the specified GoS. It is possible to import data from a test mobile and display the
information on the map. EET can import radio survey files which can be used to tune the prediction model for the area where the network is to be planned. Data can be imported and exported to OSS.
TEMS CellPlanner is Ericsson抯 powerful and user friendly PC based tool for
planning, engineering and optimisation of mobile radio networks. The tool is specifically designed for Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows NT 4.0 platforms and the tool incorporates a choice of SQL Relation Database management Systems (RDBMS). Figure 11-2 TEMS CellPlanner can display data, maps and Photos
下面是 TEMPS 示意图:
TEMS CellPlanner incorporates the following major features: ?SQR RDBMS for all Switch, Base station Controller, Site, Cell, Repeater and Radio link and Equipment information. ?Powerful Geographical Information System (GIS). Terrain height profile and fresnel zone calculations and graphical display for microwave point to point links. ?Propagation prediction modelling and calculation of signal coverage and interference. ?Underlay/Overlay and Multiple Reuse Patterns. ?Open interface to a variety of continuous wave measurement systems allowing comparison between measured and predicted signal strengths. The comparison provides direct feedback to the propagation models thus improving system performance. ?Neighbour cell relation planning and handover analysis. ?Automatic frequency planning. ?Traffic analysis and planning. ?Network transmission and microwave point to point planning. ?User and password security. ?True multi-user network capability. TEMS CellPlanner is a multiple technology package, which can be used for the design of GSM 900, GSM 1800 and GSM 1900 networks. Future releases will also support other cellular
standards, including but not limited to AMPS, D-AMPS, PDC, TACS, NMT450 and NMT900. 图:
TEST MOBILE SYSTEM (TEMS)
在GSM系统中TEMS用于读取与控制基站与移动台之的无线接口的参数. 也可以 用 于
无 线 覆 盖 的 测 量 , 甚 至 , TEMS 也 可 用 于 field measurements and post
processing.它由一台带有特殊软件的移动台,手提电脑,GPS接收机(可选)构 成. (图11-3)
The mobile can be used both in active state and idle mode, additionally, it can be use in any GSM network, depending on the SIM card. Both layer two and layer three messages can be monitored and recorded. The MS can simulate GSM 900 power class 2 to 4. It is possible to lock on a single frequency. The MS can test each time slot on a selected frequency to verify that all TCHs are available and functioning. The PC is used for presentation, control, and storage of the measurements. For the serving cell, it is possible to display, e.g. RxLev, Rxqual, TX power, TA, Base Station Identity Code (BSIC), and ARFCN. For the six strongest neighboring cells, it is possible to display RxLev, BSIC, and ARFCN. The information can be displayed in real-time or recorded and replayed.
The GPS receiver gives the position of the measurements. When the satellite signals are shadowed by obstacles, the GPS system may be used for dead reckoning. The TEMS measurements can be imported to e.g. EET with the use of File and Information Converting System (FICS). This means that the measurements can be displayed on the map so that, e.g. the measured handovers can be compared with the predicted cell boundaries. FICS can also convert to EXCEL and word processing packages. Figure 11-4 TEMS graphical user interface
For the generation of test signals, it is suitable (however not mandatory) to use one or several TEMS Transmitters. The TEMS Transmitter is a small unit that transmits in the GSM downlink band. The output power is adjustable between 17 and 27 dBm. A complete editable BCCH is transmitted while the other 7 time slots contain an unmodulated carrier. In absence of TEMS Transmitters, a Test TransMitter (TTM) can also be used. This is a narrow band Continuous Wave (CW) transmitter with a maximum output power of 43 dBm. Additionally, the regular transmitter can be used for this function.
The recommended receiver is TEMS Light equipment. This is a TEMS mobile station connected to a small Fujitsu PC operated with a pen. The TEMS Light program is a reduced version of normal TEMS but with the possibility to log fixpoints by marking them with the pen on a scanned map. The information in the log files is displayed on the scanned map as color marks associated with a window containing more information about each mark. If TEMS Light is not available, the standard TEMS equipment or a Test Measurement Receiver (TMR) can be used. An even faster coverage verification can be made by using TEMS Pocket. This is a test mobile station with some TEMS functions available on the mobile display. TEMS Pocket cannot be operated from a computer. Areas where the signal may be weak are checked by locking TEMS Pocket to the used Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN) and Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) and reading the signal from the display. There is also an audible warning to indicate a low signal.
HOT SPOT FINDER
It is important to deploy microcells where the heaviest traffic is located (also known as 揾ot spots?. One way to find suitable locations for microcells is Ericsson
抯 Hot Spot Finder. The Hot Spot Finder is a GH388 mobile modified to transmit a
BCCH/BSIC combination signal. Basically, it acts as a dummy cell. The mobiles in the surrounding cells will treat the Finder as a neighbor and include BCCH/BSIC combination signals in the measurement reports. Different locations and antenna types and positions can be tested prior to the implementation of the microcell. The potential traffic is estimated by looking at the measurement reports for the mobiles in the surrounding cells.
OPERATIONS SUPPORT SYSTEM (OSS)
The GSM Operations Support System (OSS) is a UNIX based tool that enables the supervision, planning, and engineering of a network from one central location. The capabilities of the OSS that concern RF Engineers are discussed in this chapter (Figure 11-5). Figure 11-5 OSS Main menu
CELLULAR NETWORK ADMINISTRATION (CNA)
One of the most important aspects of managing a cellular radio network is that of managing the individual cells. The cells represent the infrastructure from which the mobile subscriber accesses the network. Hence, a poorly managed infrastructure will most likely be reflected by dissatisfied customers and a subsequent loss of revenue. The purpose of the Cellular Network Administration (CNA) feature is to provide a user-friendly interface from which a user can manage the cells in an efficient and controlled manner. Normally, there is a multitude of radio related parameters that need to be set in several different network elements in a consistent manner in order to achieve a well-balanced, properly functioning radio network. Default parameters are used when the operator does not enter a parameter value. Parameters can be copied from one cell and pasted into another. It is also possible to create profile areas collecting all cell parameters commonly used for different types of cells. Cell parameters are validated at the time of the entry. This particular feature helps to reduce the possibility of incorrect cell parameters and increases the efficiency of personnel as the number of cells in the network
increases (Figure 11-6). Figure 11-6 Part of OSS CNA menu
CELLULAR NETWORK ADMINISTRATION INTERFACE (CNAI)
The Cellular Network Administration Interface (CNAI) is an external interface to Cellular Network Administration. The CNAI allows for an external cell planning tool, e.g. EET, to exchange information with the CNA database. The data is exchanged between the two via ASCII coded text files. The essence of this interface is to provide simplified data import and export capabilities to CNA for ease of user handling of the data transfer mechanism. Cell planning data can be used as an example. The OSS interacts with the Ericsson Engineering Tool (EET). Such external systems can retrieve data from the actual radio network, re-engineer the new cell data, and transfer back the new cell data in a simple manner (Figure 11-7). This avoids time-consuming manual entry.
CELLULAR NETWORK MEASUREMENTS AND RECORDINGS
Cellular network measurements are a way for the telecom company to supervise the quality of the services provided by the network. The measurements are used for early
detection of faults and for planning future extensions. For the measurements to be of any use, however, they must be presented in a way that clearly shows the conditions or trends that are of interest.
These performance measurements present statistics collected in Operation & Maintenance Subsystem (OMS) and Statistics and Traffic measurement Subsystem (STS). They provide a picture of how the network is working. This requires a certain amount of subscribers generating traffic in the network. ?Data from OMS measures traffic on routes, traffic types, and traffic dispersion on different routes. All recordings relate to one piece of AXE equipment. ?Data from STS collects data regarding statistics within the radio environment.
Statistical Report Packages (SRP)
The Statistical Reports Package (SRP) is a new set of reports which focuses on collecting and presenting data used for managing, planning, and engineering a cellular network. The
reports are divided into three categories: ?Management reports ?Planning and Engineering reports ?Operation reports This provides different target group reports specially designed for specific needs. The SRP reports are primarily based on the statistical information from the AXE subsystems STS and OMS, (i.e. from the performance measurements described earlier) and is part of the performance measurement functions in OSS. This data is complemented with configuration data retrieved from the CNA database and printouts obtained from interrogation of the network elements.
The Management Report and its subreports are customized to provide comprehensive information about the cellular network in both tabular (alphanumeric) and graphical form. This enables management to increase the control of the network size and behavior. The following subreports are included in the tabular part of the Management Report: ?Subscriber Data ?Call Processing ?Infrastructure Data ?System Performance ?Cell Performance The following reports are included in the graphical trends part of the Management Report: ?HLR Subscribers Distribution Trend ?Network Subscriber Distribution Trend ?Traffic per Subscriber Trend ?System Calling Minutes and Traffic Trend ?Switch Peak Hour and Peak Processor Load Trend ?Restart Statistics Trend ?Availability Trend ?Radio Network Performance Trend
Planning and Engineering Reports
The Planning Reports are specifically designed to identify those areas in the radio network and the switching system where future network expansions are needed. The reports assist in focusing network improvements on critical problem areas and support the operator in prioritizing the planned network expansions. These are a set of reports intended to be used by planning and engineering personnel and consist of the reports
listed below: ?Planning Report Summary The Planning Report Summary provides an overview of the network size and performance in both tabular and graphical form. Information presented in tabular form is: Call processing per node: ?System
Performance (switched network, radio network, and traffic channel
availability) ?Cell Performance (total dropouts, top and bottom 10 on traffic, top and bottom 10 on congestion and utilization) ?Handover Performance The graphical trend reports in the Planning Report Summary are: ?Switch Peak Hour and Peak Processor Load ?System Calling Minutes Trend ?Restart Statistics Trend ?Availability Trend ?Radio Network Performance Trend ?SDCCH Performance Trend ?Radio System Performance ?Cell Traffic reports ?Neighboring Cell Analysis Performance report ?Route Traffic report ?Traffic Dispersion report ?Traffic Profile ?Subscriber Activity Profile
Operation Reports include reports for both the radio network and the switching network. The reports are used to quickly detect cells and routes with unacceptable performance enabling the operator to take immediate action to preserve the quality of the network. In particular, the exception reports combined with SRPs scheduling function provide an invaluable tool for identifying and analyzing vital performance situations. The reports listed below are generated only if the thresholds set by the operator are passed. ?Radio Exception report ?Detailed Radio Statistics report ?Handover Matrix report ?Route Exception report ?Call Rejection Exception report
The traffic recording part of Radio Network Recording (RNR) serves as a compliment to regular statistics collection as well as to so-called test mobile systems, e.g. TEMS. RNR monitors the behavior of the mobile from the network side and from the mobile telephone side as well as the result of the chosen channel allocation strategy. This is enabled by three recording facilities in the BSC: ?Mobile Traffic Recording (MTR) ?Cell Traffic Recording (CTR) ?Channel Event Recording (CER)
Mobile Traffic Recording (MTR)
The mobile-related recordings trace practically everything happening to a mobile, specified by International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) number, by recording events and measurements. Example of events are Layer 3 messages, assignment, handover, and disconnection. Measurements include, e.g. signal strength on uplink and downlink, signal quality on uplink and downlink, signal strengths for neighboring cells, and timing advance. The recorded material is sent from the BSC to OSS where the mobile-related recording data can be analyzed and presented in tables or graphs (Figure 11-8). The results can be used for tuning cell parameters for better system performance, forecast, cell planning, and verifying poor mobile stations. Figure 11-8 MTR
Cell Traffic Recording (CTR)
The Cell Traffic Recordings (CTRs) record the same type of information as MTR but for a number of connections originating in a specific cell. The recording (which can last minutes or hours) is actually a collection of short recordings, each up to 30 seconds. Up to 16 different MSs can be recorded simultaneously. The recordings are triggered on an event, e.g. handover and record an equal amount of time, e.g. five seconds before and after the event.
Channel Event Recording (CER)
The Channel Event Recording (CER) is a BSC feature that can be initiated from OSS. It assists in monitoring the following BSC functions: ?Channel Administration ?Differential Channel Allocation ?Idle Channel Measurements Among other thingsCER classifies TCHs and SDCCHs into
different interference levels based on measurements.
Radio Network Optimization
OSS also supports three RNO (Radio Network Optimization) applications: )$6 (Frequency Allocation Support) FAS measures the uplink interference for possible interferers in order to find suitable frequencies to define in cells. FAS supplies the operator with suggestions about frequencies at expansions or reallocations. 1&6 (Neighbouring Cell Support) NSC is a tool meant as support for the operator when removing or adding neighbour cell relations. It is based on the measurement reports sent to the system by the mobile station during calls. The tool is useful when introducing micro cells and hierarchical cell structures. 055 (Measurement Result Recording) MRR collects information from the measurement reports sent by the BTSs to the BSC. Information such as RXLEV, RXQUAL etc. is included. The tool is used either for routine supervision or for checking specific cells.
CELLULAR NETWORK ANALYZER (CeNA)
The Cellular Network Analyzer (CeNA) is a cellular quality information system that enables optimization of a digital network抯 performance. The system is
comprised of several features that assist the network operator in achieving maximum performance from the equipment (Figure 11-9). The CeNA system is able to carry out a number of measurements. The basic measurements used include: ?Received signal level (Figure 11-10 and Figure 11-11) ?Signal quality ?Timing advance ?Transmission power ?Call events (drop, block, connection, and handover) ?Protocol signaling (Layers 1 and 3) Using CeNA, it is easy to generate reports, present measured results from a conversation (Figure 11-10), or present statistics (Figure 11-11). All measurement activities, result collection, result storing, and result transition are based on unattended operation. Mobile units (MTUs) are mounted in vehicles and are assigned subscriber
numbers in the cellular network (Figure 11-9). A subscriber number in the public network is assigned to a fixed unit (FTU). In accordance with a measurement order, MTUs regularly call FTU, execute measurements, and transfer the results to a data base for storage and transition (DBMS). All measurement-order setups, result presentations, and report generations are executed from an operator terminal (PS, RG). All measurement results are stored in an open database system, allowing easy access to and sharing of information throughout the organization via LAN or WAN. The open database system architecture also enables the operator to access and use information in the operator抯 own application and in conjunction with information from the same or other database systems. Figure 11-10 Conversation route presented by CeNA in map, table, and graph form (symbol key not shown)
CELL PARAMETER ADJUSTMENT
When all measurements have been analyzed, the user may determine that there is
an inconsistency in the parameter setting. The user can then tune hysteresis and offset parameters to improve the network quality. OSS provides a graphical user interface for changing parameters. Using OSS also limits the possibility for human errors by performing validation and consistency checks on the parameter settings. This means that the user can run checks on the parameter settings before updating the network. OSS also provides a storage and fallback area that can be loaded if errors occur during network update. After the changes are made, the user can continue monitoring the network performance in their STS-based reports in order to follow up on the changes in network performance.
When a new system is built or when new cells are added or changed in an existing system, the cell planner provides the operator with a document for each cell containing data for insertion of the cell in the radio network. This document is called Cell Design Data (CDD). The data from all such documents is then converted into Data transcript Tape (DT) and loaded into the corresponding BSC. A DT tape contains not only CDD information but also other data needed for the complete configuration of the BSC. The reason for having so many parameters is so the operator can
adjust and tune the network to fit their specific requirements. All parameters are permitted to be set within a certain range and usually have a default value. The default values provide a good basis to start with. Parameters can be changed later if, e.g. measurements indicate that adjustments are necessary. Several parameters should not be changed at the same time because it is more complicated to know which parameter setting change effected the system. Some of the parameters are system specific and some are set per site, cell, or subcell.
An offset is used to make a cell appear better (or worse) than it really is by increasing/decreasing measured signal strength. The offset is a cell-to-cell relation and is always unsymmetrical.
A hysteresis is used to prevent the ping-pong effect, meaning several consecutive handovers between two cells. The ping-pong effect can be caused by fading, the MS zigzagging between the cells, or by non-linearities in the receiver. The hysteresis is a cell-to-cell relation and is always symmetrical.
Control of Radio Network Features
Other parameters are used to control radio network features like Discontinuous Transmission (DTX), frequency hopping, and power control.
Timers and Filters
There are some timers and filters which can be set by parameters. Depending on the timer settings or length of filters, the system responds faster or slower to the change. A fast system is less stable than a slower system. A fast system is necessary if micro cells are used because handovers are frequent in this case.
Parameters used to identify, for example, a cell or a location area in the network.
The penalties are used to punish a cell in the locating algorithm. When a cell is punished, it appears worse then it really is. This is to avoid handback in case of an urgent handover or to avoid
several repeated handover attempts in case of signaling failure. Refer to Chapter 13 揜adio Network Features?for detailed information on penalties.