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System-SoftwareI

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System-SoftwareI

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     System Software (1) Basker George

     System Software

     System Software(ϵÍ?Èí?þ)

     Operating systems (?Ù×?ϵÍ? : programs that ?Ù×?ϵÍ?) coordinate computer resources, provide an interface between users and the computer, and run applications. Utilities: also known as service programs, perform specific tasks related to managing computer resources.

     System Software

     Device drivers (Éè??Çý???ÌÐò : specialized Éè??Çý???ÌÐò) programs designed to allow particular input or output devices to communicate with the rest of the computer system. Language translators: (?àÒëÆ? and?âÊÍ?ÌÐò) convert the programming instructions written by programmers into a language that computers understand and process.

     Operating Systems

     Performs three basic functions: managing resources, providing a user interface and running applications. Resources: including keyboard, mouse, printer, monitor, storage devices, and memory , CPU and other I/O devices.

     Operating Systems

     User interface: User interact with application programs and computer hardware through a user interface. GUI: graphical user interface. Applications: load and run applications. Multitasking (?à(ÖØ)ÈÎÎñ??Àí : the ability to ÈÎÎñ??Àí) ÖØ ÈÎÎñ??Àí run more than one application at a time.

     Categories of Operating System

     Embedded operating systems: are used for handheld computers and smaller devices like PDAs. They are completely stored within the device in its ROM memory.

     Windows CE Palm OS Symbian OS Embedded Linux

     Categories of Operating System

     Network operating systems (NOS): are used to control and coordinate computers that are linked together. Typically located on one of the connected computers?? hard disks. Called the network server.

     Novell NetWare Windows NT Server UNIX Solaris OS (SPARK & x86 platform)

     Categories of Operating System

     Stand-alone operating systems: also called desktop operating systems, control a single desktop or notebook computer. Is also referred to as the client operating system.

     MS-DOS Windows Mac OS Linux

     MS-DOS

     MS-DOS (short for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system commercialized by Microsoft. MS-DOS was originally released in 1981 and had eight major versions released before Microsoft stopped development in 2000. It was the key product in Microsoft's growth from a programming languages company to a diverse software development firm, providing the company with essential revenue and marketing resources. It also provided the platform on which early versions of Windows ran.

     History of MS-DOS

     MS-DOS began as QDOS (for Quick and Dirty Operating System), written by Tim Paterson for computer manufacturer Seattle Computer Products (SCP) in 1980. It was marketed by SCP as 86-DOS because it was designed to run on the Intel 8086 processor. Microsoft negotiated a license for 86-DOS from SCP in December 1980 for $25,000, then re-licensed 86-DOS to IBM. Microsoft then acquired all rights to 86-DOS for only $50,000 from SCP in July, 1981, shortly before the PC's release.

     History of MS-DOS

     IBM and Microsoft both released versions of DOS; the IBM version was supplied with the IBM PC and known as PC-DOS. Originally, IBM only validated and packaged Microsoft developments, and thus IBM's versions tended to be released shortly after Microsoft's. Microsoft released its versions under the name "MS-DOS", while IBM released its versions under the name "PC-DOS".

     MS-DOS advertisement in 1981

     MS-DOS Versions

     PC DOS 2.1 - October 1983 MS-DOS 3.0 - August 1984. 1.2 MB floppy disks and hard disk partitions of up to 32MB MS-DOS 4.0 - June 1988, from IBM's codebase MS-DOS 5.0 - June 1991, QBasic support MS-DOS 6.22 - June 1994 - last official stand-alone version. MS-DOS 7.0- MS-DOS 2000. Shipped with Windows

     Features

     MS-DOS employs a command line interface and a batch scripting facility via its command interpreter, COMMAND.COM. MS-DOS was designed so users could easily substitute a different command line interpreter. Beginning with version 4.0, MS-DOS included DOS Shell, a file manager program with a quasi-graphical text user interface (TUI) that featured menus, split windows, color themes, mouse support and program shortcuts using character mode graphics.

     DOS Shell

     End of MS-DOS

     MS-DOS has effectively ceased to exist as a platform for desktop computing. Since the releases of Windows 9x, it was integrated as a full product mostly used for bootstrapping, and no longer officially

    released as a standalone DOS. It was still available, but became increasingly irrelevant as development shifted to the Windows API. Windows XP contained a copy of the core MS-DOS 8 files, accessible only by formatting a floppy as an "MSDOS startup disk".

     End of MS-DOS

     With Windows Vista the files on the startup disk are dated 18th April 2005 but are otherwise unchanged, including the string "MS-DOS Version 8 (C) Copyright 1981-1999 Microsoft Corp" inside COMMAND.COM. Today, DOS is still used in embedded x86 systems due to its simple architecture, and minimal memory and processor requirements. The command line interpreter of Windows NT, cmd.exe maintains most of the same commands and some compatibility with DOS.

     Microsoft Windows

     Microsoft Windows

     Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of software operating systems by Microsoft. Microsoft first introduced an operating environment named Windows in November 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). The current client version of Windows are the editions of Windows Vista. The current server versions of Windows are the editions of Windows Server 2003, but Windows Server 2008 is already in Beta.

     Microsoft Windows

     Windows OS Market Share for August 2007[3] All versions - 92.62% Windows XP - 80.48% Windows Vista - 6.26% Windows 2000 - 3.66% Windows 98 - 0.98% Windows NT - 0.66% Windows ME - 0.53% Windows CE - 0.05%

     History of Microsoft Windows

     the first version Microsoft released to the public.

     History of Microsoft Windows

     Microsoft has taken two parallel routes in operating systems. One route has been the home user and the other has been the professional IT user. The dual route has generally led to the home versions with greater multimedia support and less functionality in networking and security, and professional versions with inferior multimedia support and better networking and security. Windows 1.0 did not provide a complete operating system; rather, it extended MS-DOS. It achieved little popularity, and was to compete with Apple's own operating system.

     History of Microsoft Windows

     Microsoft Windows version 3.0, released in 1990, was the first Microsoft Windows version to achieve broad commercial success, selling 2 million copies in the first six months. It featured improvements to the user interface and to multitasking capabilities. In July 1993, Microsoft released Windows NT based on a new kernel. NT was considered to be the professional OS and was the first Windows version to utilize preemptive multitasking. Windows NT and the Windows DOS/9x based line

would later be fused together to create Windows XP.

     A Windows 3.1 desktop

     History of Microsoft Windows

     In August 1995, Microsoft released Windows 95, which made further changes to the user interface, and also used preemptive multitasking. The next in line was Microsoft Windows 98 released in June 1998. It was substantially criticized for its slowness and for its unreliability compared with Windows 95. As part of its "professional" line, Microsoft released Windows 2000 in February 2000.

     History of Microsoft Windows

     The consumer version following Windows 98 was Windows Me. Released in September 2000, Windows Me attempted to implement a number of new technologies for Microsoft: most notably publicized was "Universal Plug and Play." However, the OS was heavily criticized for its lack of compatibility and stability and it was even rated by PC World as the fourth worst product of all time .

     History of Microsoft Windows

     In October 2001, Microsoft released Windows XP, a version built on the Windows NT kernel that also retained the consumer-oriented usability of Windows 95 and its successors. In April 2003, Windows Server 2003 was introduced with a particular focus on security features.

     .

     On January 30, 2007 Microsoft released Windows Vista,

     Security Problem

     Security has been a hot topic with Windows for many years, and even Microsoft itself has been the victim of security breaches. Consumer versions of Windows were originally designed for ease-of-use on a single-user PC without a network connection, and did not have security features built in from the outset. Windows NT and its successors are designed for security (including on a network) and multi-user PCs, but are not designed with Internet security in mind as much since, when it was first developed in the early 1990s, Internet use was less prevalent.

     Security Problem

     These design issues combined with flawed code (such as buffer overflows) and the popularity of Windows means that it is a frequent target of worm and virus writers. In June 2005, Bruce Schneier's Counterpane Internet Security reported that it had seen over 1,000 new viruses and worms in the previous six months .

     Security Problem

     A study conducted by Kevin Mitnick in 2004 found that an unprotected and unpatched Windows XP system with Service Pack 1 lasted only 4 minutes on the Internet before it was compromised, and an unprotected and also unpatched Windows Server 2003 system was compromised after being

    connected to the internet for 8 hours . The AOL National Cyber Security Alliance Online Safety Study of October 2004 determined that 80% of Windows users were infected by at least one spyware/adware product .

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